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BIGELOW,    BROWN   &   CO.,   Inc. 


BOSTON,    MASS.,   U.S.A. 




The   Sacrilege   of   Antiochus Frontispiece 

The  Angel  Destroying  the  Assj'rian  Camp 72 

Esther  Accusing   Haman 18-t 

Heroism  of   Eleazar        .        . 272 







Concerning  Jehoshaphat  again;  how  he  constituted 
judges,  and  by  God's  assistance,  overcame  his 

1.  When  Jehoshaphat  the  king  was  come  to 
Jerusalem,  from  the  assistance  he  had  afforded  Ahab, 
the  king  of  Israel,  when  he  fought  with  Benhadad, 
king  of  Syria,  the  prophet  Jehu  met  him,  and  accused 
him  for  assisting  Ahab,  a  man  both  impious  and 
wicked;  and  said  to  him,  That  "God  was  displeased 
with  him  for  so  doing,  but  that  he  delivered  him  from 
the  enemy,  notwithstanding  he  had  sinned,  because 
of  his  own  proper  disposition,  which  was  good." 
Whereupon  the  king  betook  himself  to  thanksgivings 
and  sacrifices  to  God:  after  which  he  presently  went 
over  all  that  country  which  he  ruled  round  about; 
and  taught  the  people,  as  well  the  laws  which  God 
gave  them  by  Moses,  as  that  religious  worship  that 
was  due  to  him.  He  also  constituted  judges  in  every 
one  of  the  cities  of  his  kingdom;  and  charged  them 




"  to  have  regard  to  nothing  so  much  in  judging  the 
multitude  as  to  do  justice,  and  not  to  he  moved  by 
bribes,  nor  by  the  dignity  of  men  eminent  for  either 
their  riches  or  their  high  birth,  but  to  distribute 
justice  equally  to  all,  as  knowing  that  God  is  con- 
scious of  every  secret  action  of  theirs."  When  he 
had  himself  instructed  them  thus,  and  gone  over 
every  city  of  the  two  tribes,  he  returned  to  Jerusalem. 
He  there  also  constituted  judges  out  of  the  priests 
and  the  Levites,  and  principal  persons  of  the  multi- 
tude, and  admonished  them  to  pass  all  their  sentences 
with  care  and  justice.  And  tliat  if  any  of  the  people 
of  his  country  had  differences  of  great  consequence, 
they  should  send  them  out  of  the  other  cities  to 
these  judges,  who  would  be  obliged  to  give  righteous 
sentences  concerning  such  causes;  and  this  with  the 
greater  care,  because  it  is  proper  that  the  sentences 
which  are  given  in  that  city  wherein  the  temple  of 
God  is,  and  wherein  the  king  dwells,  be  given  with 
great  care,  and  the  utmost  justice.  Xow  he  set 
over  them  Amariah  the  j)i'iest,  and  Zebadiah,  [both] 
of  the  tribe  of  Judah:  and  after  this  manner  it  was 
that  the  king  ordered  these  affairs. 

2.  About  the  same  time  the  Moabites  and  Am- 
monites made  an  exj^edition  against  Jehoshaphat,  and 
took  with  them  a  great  body  of  Arabians,  and  pitched 
their  camp  at  Engedi,  a  city  that  is  situate  at  the  lake 
Asphaltitis,  and  distant  three  hundred  furlongs  from 
Jerusalem.  In  tliat  place  grows  the  best  kind  of 
palm-trees,  and  the  ^  opobalsanmm.  Now  Jehosha- 
phat heard  tliat  the  enemies  had  passed  over  the 
lake,  and  had  made  an  irruption  into  that  country 
whicli  belonged  to  his  kingdom;  at  which  news  he  was 
affrighted,   and   called  the  people  of  Jerusalem   to   a 

*  C()iicTriiiii>r  lliis  ])rc'ci()iis  balsam,  .soc  llic  udIc  uii  Anli(|.  B.  \'III.  di. 
vi.  sect.  (i. 

Chap.  I.  OF  THE  JEWS.  '         3 

congregation  in  the  temple,  and  standing  over  against 
the  temple  itself,  he  called  upon  God,  "To  afford  him 
power  and  strength,  so  as  to  inflict  punishment  on 
those  that  made  this  expedition  against  them,  (for 
that  those  who  built  this  his  temple  had  prayed,  that 
he  would  protect  that  city,  and  take  vengeance  on 
those  that  were  so  bold  as  to  come  against  it),  for 
they  are  come  to  take  from  us  that  land  which  thou 
hast  given  us  for  a  j^ossession."  When  he  had  prayed 
thus,  he  fell  into  tears;  and  the  whole  multitude, 
together  with  their  wives  and  children,  made  their 
supplications  also:  Upon  which  a  certain  prophet, 
Jahaziel  by  name,  came  into  the  midst  of  the  assem- 
bly, and  cried  out,  and  spake  both  to  the  multitude 
and  to  the  king,  that  God  heard  their  prayers,  and 
promised  to  fight  against  their  enemies.  He  also 
gave  order  that  the  king  should  draw  his  forces  out 
the  next  day,  for  that  he  should  find  them  between 
Jerusalem,  and  the  ascent  of  Engedi,  at  a  place 
called  the  Eminence,  and  that  he  should  not  fight 
against  them,  but  only  stand  still,  and  see  how  God 
would  fight  against  them.  When  the  prophet  had 
said  this,  both  the  king  and  the  multitude  fell  upon 
their  faces,  and  gave  thanks  to  God,  and  worshipped 
him;  and  the  Levites  continued  singing  hymns  to 
God  with  their  instruments  of  music. 

3.  As  soon  as  it  was  day,  and  the  king  was  come 
into  that  wilderness  which  is  under  the  city  of  Tekoa, 
he  said  to  the  multitude.  That  "they  ought  to  give 
credit  to  what  the  prophet  had  said,  and  not  to 
set  themselves  in  array  for  fighting,  but  to  set  the 
priests  with  their  trumpets,  and  the  Levites,  with  the 
singers  of  hymns,  to  give  thanks  to  God,  as  having 
already  delivered  our  country  from  our  enemies." 
This  opinion  of  the  king  pleased  [the  people],  and 
they  did  what  he  advised  them  to  do.     So  God  caused 

4  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 

a  terror  and  a  commotion  to  arise  among  the  Am- 
monites, who  thought  one  another  to  be  enemies,  and 
slew  one  another,  insomuch  that  not  one  man  out  of 
so  great  an  army  escaped:  and  when  Jehoshaphat 
looked  upon  that  valley  wherein  their  enemies  had 
been  encamped,  and  saw  it  full  of  dead  men;  he 
rejoiced  at  so  surprising  an  event,  as  was  this  as- 
sistance of  God,  while  he  himself  by  his  own  power, 
and  without  their  labour,  had  given  them  the  victory. 
He  also  gave  his  army  leave  to  take  the  prey  of  the 
enemies'  camp,  and  to  spoil  their  dead  bodies;  and 
indeed  so  they  did  for  three  days  together,  till  they 
were  weary,  so  great  was  the  number  of  the  slain; 
and  on  the  fourth  day,  all  the  people  were  gathered 
together,  unto  a  certain  hollow  place  or  valley,  and 
blessed  God  for  his  power  and  assistance,  from  whicli 
the  place  had  this  name  given  it,  the  valley  of  [Bcr- 
achah,  or]  blessing. 

4.  And  Avhen  the  king  had  brought  his  army  back 
to  Jerusalem,  he  betook  himself  to  celebrate  festivals, 
and  offer  sacrifices,  and  this  for  many  days.  And, 
indeed,  after  this  destruction  of  their  enemies,  and 
when  it  came  to  the  ears  of  the  foreign  nations  they 
were  all  greatly  affrighted,  as  supposing  that  God 
would  openly  fight  for  him  hereafter.  So  Jehoshaphat 
from  that  time  lived  in  great  glory  and  splendour, 
on  account  of  his  righteousness  and  his  piety  towards 
God.  He  was  also  in  friendship  with  Ahab's  son, 
who  was  king  of  Israel:  and  he  joined  with  him  in 
the  building  of   ships   that   were  to   sail  to   ^  Pontus, 

'  What  are  here  Pontus  and  Thrace,  as  the  places  whither  Jehosha- 
phat's  fleet  sailed,  are  in  our  other  copies  Ophir  and  Tarshish,  and  the 
place  whence  it  sailed  is  in  them  Eziaiificher.  which  lay  on  the  Red  Sea, 
whence  it  was  impossible  for  any  shi])S  to  sail  to  Pontus  or  Thrace;  so 
that  Josephus'  copy  differed  from  our  other  cojiies,  as  is  farther  plain 
from  his  own  words,  which  render  what  we  read,  that  the  ships  were 
broken  of  Ezionaeher,  from  their  unwieldy  r/reafness.  But  so  far  we 
may  conclude,  that  Josephus   thought   one   Ophir  to  be  somewhere   in   the 

Chap.  iL  OF  THE  JEWS.  5 

and  the  traffic  cities  of  Thrace;  but  he  failed  of  his 
gains,  for  the  ships  were  destroyed  by  being  so  great 
[and  unwieldy]  ;  on  which  account  he  was  no  longer 
concerned  about  shipping.  And  this  is  the  history 
of  Jehoshaphat  the  king  of  Jerusalem. 


Concerning  Ahaziah,   the   king   of   Israel,  and  again 
concerning  the  prophet  Elijah. 

1.  AxD  now  Ahaziah,  the  son  of  Ahab,  reigned 
over  Israel,  and  made  his  abode  in  Samaria.  He  was 
a  wicked  man,  and,  in  all  respects,  like  to  both  his 
parents,  and  to  Jeroboam,  who  first  of  all  transgressed, 
and  began  to  deceive  the  people.  On  the  second  year 
of  his  reign,  the  king  of  Moab  fell  off  from  his 
obedience,  and  left  off  paying  those  tributes  which  he 
before  paid  to  his  father  Ahab.  iVow  it  happened 
that  Ahaziah,  as  he  was  coming  down  from  the  top 
of  his  house,  fell  down  from  it,  and  in  his  sickness 
sent  to  the  ^  Fly,  which  was  the  god  of  Ekron,  for 
that  was  this  god's  name,  to  inquire  about  his  recovery: 
But  the  God  of  the  Hebrews  appeared  to  Elijah  the 
prophet,  and  commanded  him  to  go  and  meet  the 
messengers  that  were  sent,  and  to  ask  them,  "Whether 
the  people  of  Israel  had  not  a  God  of  their  own,  that 
the  king  sent  to  a  foreign  god  to  inquire  about  his 
recovery?  and  to  bid  them  return  and  tell  the  king, 
that  he  would  not   escape  this   disease."     And   when 

Mediterranean,  and  not  in  the  South  Sea,  though  perhaps  there  might 
be  another  Ophir  in  that  South  Sea  also,  and  that  fleets  might  then  sail 
both  from  Phenicia,  and  from  the  Red  Sea  to  fetcii  the  (jold  of  Ophir. 
*  This  (jod  of  flies  seems  to  have  l)een  so  called,  .-.s  was  the  like  god 
among  the  Greeks;  from  his  supposed  power  over  flies  in  driving  them 
away  from  the  flesh  of  their  sacrifices,  which  otherwise  would  have  been 
very   troublesome   to    them. 

6  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 

Elijah  had  performed  what  God  had  commanded 
him,  and  the  messengers  had  heard  what  he  said,  they 
returned  to  the  king  immediately:  and  when  the  king 
wondered  how  they  couJd  return  so  soon,  and  asked 
them  the  reason  of  it,  they  said,  that  a  "certain  man 
met  them,  and  forbade  them  to  go  on  any  farther; 
but  to  return  and  tell  thee,  from  the  command  of  the 
God  of  Israel,  that  this  disease  will  have  a  bad  end." 
And  when  the  king  bid  them  describe  the  man  that 
said  this  to  them,  they  replied,  "that  he  was  a  hairy 
man,  and  was  girt  about  with  a  girdle  of  leather." 
So  the  king  understood  by  this  that  the  man  who  was 
described  by  the  messengers  was  Elijah;  whereupon 
he  sent  a  captain  to  him,  with  fifty  soldiers,  and  com- 
manded them  to  bring  Elijah  to  him;  and  when  the 
captain  that  was  sent  found  Elijah  sitting  upon  the 
top  of  a  hill,  he  commanded  him  to  come  down,  and 
to  come  to  the  king,  for  so  had  he  enjoined,  but  that 
in  case  he  refused,  they  would  carry  him  by  force. 
Elijah  said  to  him,  "That  you  may  have  a  trial 
whether  I  be  a  true  prophet,  I  will  pray  that  ^  fire 
may  fall  from  heaven,  and  destroy  both  the  soldiers 

^  It  is  commonly  esteemed  a  very  cruel  action  of  Elijah's,  when  he 
called  for  a  fire  from  heaven,  and  consumed  no  fewer  than  two  captains 
and  a  hundred  soldiers,  and  this  for  no  other  crime  than  obeying  the 
orders  of  their  king,  in  attempting  to  seize  him.  But  then  we  must  con- 
sider that  it  is  not  unlikely  that  these  captairis  and  soldiers  believed 
that  they  were  sent  to  fetch  the  pro])het,  that  he  might  be  put  to  death 
for  foretelling  the  death  of  the  king,  and  this  while  they  knew  him  to 
be  the  prophet  of  the  true  God,  the  supreme  King  of  Israel  (for  they 
were  still  under  the  theocracy),  which  was  no  less  than  impiety,  re- 
l)ellion,  and  treason,  in  the  highest  degree:  Xor  woidd  the  command  of 
a  subaltern,  or  inferior  captain,  contradicting  the  commands  of  the 
general,  when  the  captain  and  the  soldiers  both  knew  it  to  be  so,  as  I 
suppose,  justify  or  excuse  such  gross  rebellion  and  disobedience  in  soldiers 
at  this  day.  Accordingly,  when  Said  conmianded  his  guards  to  slay 
Ahimelech,  and  the  priests  at  Xob,  the\-  knew  it  to  be  an  unlawful  com- 
mand, and  would  not  obey  it,  1  Ham.  xxii.  17.  From  which  cases  both 
officers  and  soldiers  may  learn,  that  the  commands  of  their  leaders  or 
kings  cannot  justify  or  excuse  them  in  doing  what  is  wicked  in  the 
sight  of  God,  or  in  fighting  in  an  unjust  cause,  when  they  know  it  so  to  be. 

Chap.  IT.  OF  THE  JEWS.  7 

and  yourself."  So  he  prayed,  and  a  whirlwind  of 
fire  [fell  from  heaven]  and  destroyed  the  captain, 
and  those  that  were  with  him.  And  when  the  king 
was  informed  of  the  destruction  of  these  men,  he  was 
very  angry  and  sent  another  captain  with  the  like 
number  of  armed  men  that  were  sent  before.  And 
when  this  caj^tain  also  threatened  the  prophet,  that 
unless  he  came  down  of  his  own  accord,  he  would 
take  him  and  carry  him  away;  upon  his  prayer  against 
him,  the  fire  [from  heaven]  slew  this  captain  as  well 
as  the  other.  And  when  upon  inquiry,  the  king  was 
informed  of  what  happened  to  him,  he  sent  out  a 
third  captain.  But  when  this  captain,  who  was  a 
wise  man,  and  of  a  mild  disposition,  came  to  the  place 
where  Elijah  happened  to  be,  and  spake  civilly  to 
him;  and  said.  That  "he  knew  that  it  was  without 
his  own  consent,  and  only  in  submission  to  the  king's 
command  that  he  came  unto  him;  and  that  those 
that  came  before  did  not  come  willingly,  but  on  the 
same  account:  He  therefore  desired  him  to  have  pity 
on  those  armed  men  that  were  with  him;  and  that 
he  would  come  down  and  follow  him  to  the  king." 
So  Elijah  accepted  of  his  discreet  words  and  courteous 
behaviour,  and  came  down  and  follov/ed  him.  And 
when  he  came  to  the  king,  he  prophesied  to  him,  and 
told  him,  that  "God  said.  Since  thou  hast  despised 
him  as  not  being  God,  and  so  unable  to  foretell  the 
truth  about  thy  distemper,  but  hast  sent  to  the  god  of 
Ekron  to  inquire  of  him  what  will  be  the  end  of  this 
thy  distemper,   know   this,   that  thou   shalt   die." 

2.  Accordingly  the  king  in  a  very  little  time  died, 
as  Elijah  had  foretold;  but  Jehoram  his  brother 
succeeded  him  in  the  kingdom,  for  he  died  without 
children:  but  for  this  Jehoram.  he  was  like  his  father 
Ahab  in  wickedness,  and  reigned  twelve  years,  in- 
dulging himself  in  all  sorts  of  wickedness,  and  impiety 

8  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 

towards  God,  for  leaving  off  his  worship,  he  wor- 
shipped foreign  gods:  but  in  other  respects  he  was 
an  active  man.  Now  at  this  time  it  was  that  Ehjah 
disappeared  from  among  men,  and  no  one  knows  of 
his  death  to  this  very  day;  but  he  left  behind  him 
his  disciple  Elisha  as  we  have  formerly  declared. 
And  indeed,  as  to  Elijah,  and  as  to  Enoch,  who  was 
before  the  deluge,  it  is  written  in  the  sacred  books 
that  they  disappeared,  but  so  that  nobody  knew 
that  they  died. 


How  J  Oram  and  Jehoshapliat  made  an  expedition 
agaifjst  the  Moahites:  As  also  concerning  the 
wonders  of  Elisha;  and  the  death  of  Jehoshapliat.. 

1.  When  Joram  had  taken  upon  him  the  king- 
dom, he  determined  to  make  an  expedition  against 
the  king  of  Moab,  whose  name  was  Mcsha;  for, 
as  we  told  you  before,  he  was  departed  from  his 
obedience  to  his  brother  [Ahaziah],  while  he  paid  to 
his  father  Ahab  two  hundred  thousand  sheep,  with 
their  fleeces  of  wool.  When  therefore  he  had  gathered 
his  own  army  together,  he  sent  also  to  Jehoshapliat, 
and  entreated  him,  that  since  he  had  from  the  begin- 
ning been  a  friend  to  his  father,  he  would  assist  him 
in  the  war  that  he  was  entering  into  against  the 
Moahites,  who  had  departed  from  their  obedience, 
who  not  only  himself  promised  to  assist  him,  but 
would  also  oblige  the  king  of  Edom,  who  was  under 
his  authority,  to  make  the  same  expedition  also. 
When  Joram  had  received  these  assurances  of  assist- 
ance from  Jehoshaphat,  he  took  his  army  with  him, 
and    came    to    Jerusalem;    and    when    he    had    been 

Chap.  III.  OF  THE  JEWS.  § 

sumptuously  entertained  by  the  king  of  Jerusalem, 
it  was  resolved  upon  by  them  to  take  their  march 
against  their  enemies  through  the  wilderness  of  Edom; 
And  when  they  had  taken  a  compass  of  seven  days 
journey,  they  were  in  distress  for  want  of  water  for 
the  cattle,  and  for  the  army,  from  the  mistake  of 
their  roads  by  the  guides  that  conducted  them,  in- 
somuch that  they  were  all  in  an  agony,  especially 
Joram;  and  cried  to  God,  by  reason  of  their  sorrow, 
and  [desired  to  know]  what  wickedness  had  been 
committed  by  them  that  induced  him  to  deliver  three 
kings  together,  without  fighting,  unto  the  king  of 
Moab.  But  Jehoshaphat,  who  was  a  righteous  man, 
encouraged  him,  and  bid  him  send  to  the  camp,  and 
know  whether  any  prophet  of  God  was  come  along 
with  them,  that  we  might  by  him  learn  from  God 
what  we  should  do.  And  when  one  of  the  servants 
of  Joram  said,  that  he  had  seen  there  Elisha,  the  son 
of  Shaphat,  the  disciple  of  Elijah,  the  three  kings 
went  to  him  at  the  entreaty  of  Jehoshaphat;  and 
when  they  were  come  at  the  prophet's  tent,  which 
tent  was  pitched  out  of  the  camp,  they  asked  him, 
"What  would  become  of  the  army?"  and  Joram  was 
particularly  very  pressing  Avith  him  about  it.  And 
when  he  replied  to  him.  That  "he  should  not  trouble 
him,  but  go  to  his  father's  and  mother's  prophets, 
for  they  [to  be  sure]  were  true  prophets,"  he  still 
desired  him  to  prophesy,  and  to  save  them.  So  he 
swore  by  God,  that  he  would  not  answer  him  unless 
it  were  on  account  of  Jehoshaphat,  who  was  an  holy 
and  righteous  man,  and  when,  at  his  desire,  they 
brought  him  a  man  that  could  play  on  the  psaltery, 
the  Divine  Spirit  came  upon  him  as  the  nuisic  played, 
and  he  commanded  them  to  dig  many  trenches  in 
the  valley;  for,  said  he,  "Though  there  appear  neither 
cloud,  nor  wind,  nor  storm  of  rain,  ye  shall  see  this 

10  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 

valley  full  of  water,  till  the  army  and  the  cattle  be 
saved  for  you  by  drinking  of  it:  Nor  will  this  be  all 
the  favour  that  you  shall  receive  from  God,  but  you 
shall  also  overcome  your  enemies,  and  take  the  best 
and  strongest  cities  of  the  Moabites,  and  you  shall 
^  cut  down  their  fruit  trees,  and  lay  waste  their  coun- 
try, and  stop  up  their  fountains  and  rivers." 

2.  When  the  prophet  had  said  this,  the  next  day, 
before  the  sun  rising,  a  great  torrent  ran  strongly; 
for  God  had  caused  it  to  rain  very  plentifully  at 
the  distance  of  three  days'  journey  into  Edom;  so 
that  the  army  and  the  cattle  found  water  to  drink 
in  abundance.  But  when  the  Moabites  heard  that 
tlie  three  kings  were  coming  upon  them,  and  made 
their  approach  through  the  wilderness,  the  king  of 
Moab  gathered  his  army  together  presently,  and 
commanded  them  to  pitch  their  camp  upon  the 
mountains,  that  when  the  enemies  should  attempt  to 
enter  their  country,  they  might  not  be  concealed 
from  them.  But  when  at  the  rising  of  the  sun  they 
saw  the  water  in  the  torrent,  for  it  was  not  far  from 
the  land  of  Moab,  and  that  it  was  of  the  colour  of 
blood,  for  at  such  a  time  the  water  especially  looks 
red,  by  the  shining  of  the  sun  upon  it,  they  formed 
a  false  notion  of  the  state  of  their  enemies,  as  if 
they  had  slain  one  another  for  thirst;  and  that  the 
river  ran  with  their  blood.  However,  supposing  that 
this  was  the  case,  they  desired  their  king  would  send 
them  out  to  spoil  their  enemies;  whereupon  they  all 

^  This  practice  of  cutting  (lo\sn,  or  ]ilucking  up  by  the  roots,  the 
fruit  trees,  was  forbidtlcn,  even  in  ordinary  Avars,  by  the  law  of  Moses, 
Dent.  XX.  19,  -20,  and  only  allowed  by  God  in  this  particular  case,  when 
the  Moabites  were  to  l)e  punished  ancl  cut  off  in  an  extraordinary  manner 
for  their  wickedness.  wSce  Jer.  xlviii.  11,  1;?,  K5,  and  many  the  like 
prophecies  against  them.  Nothing  could  therefore  Justify  this  practice 
l)ut  a  particular  commission  from  (Jod  by  his  pro])het,  as  in  the  present 
case,  which  was  ever  a  sufficient  warrant  for  breaking  any  such  ritual 
or  ceremonial  law  whatsoever. 

Chap.  III.  OF  THE  JEWS.  11 

went  in  haste,  as  to  an  advantage  already  gained, 
and  came  to  the  enemies'  camp,  as  supposing  them 
destroyed  ah'eady.  But  their  hope  deceived  them, 
for  as  their  enemies  stood  round  aljout  them,  some 
of  them  were  cut  to  pieces,  and  others  of  them  were 
dispersed,  and  fled  to  their  own  country.  And  when 
the  kings  fell  into  the  land  of  Moab,  they  overthrew 
the  cities  that  were  in  it,  and  spoiled  their  fields,  and 
marred  them,  filling  them  with  stones  out  of  the 
brooks,  and  cut  down  the  best  of  their  trees,  and 
stopped  up  their  fountains  of  water,  and  overthrew 
their  walls  to  their  foundations.  But  the  king  of 
Moab,  when  he  was  pursued,  endured  a  siege,  and 
seeing  his  city  in  danger  of  being  overthrown  by 
force,  made  a  sally,  and  went  out  with  seven  hundred 
men,  in  order  to  break  through  the  enemie3'  camp 
with  his  horsemen,  on  that  side  where  the  watch 
seemed  to  be  kept  most  negligently:  and  when,  upon 
trial,  he  could  not  get  away,  for  he  light  ujDon  a 
place  that  was  carefully  watched,  he  returned  into 
the  city,  and  did  a  thing  that  showed  despair  and 
the  utmost  distress;  for  he  took  his  eldest  son,  who 
was  to  reign  after  him,  and  lifting  him  up  upon 
the  wall,  tliat  he  might  be  visible  to  all  the  enemies, 
he  offered  him  as  a  whole  burnt-offering  to  God, 
whom,  when  the  kings  saw,  they  commiserated  the 
distress  that  was  the  occasion  of  it,  and  were  so 
affected,  in  way  of  humanity  and  pity,  that  they 
raised  the  siege,  and  every  one  returned  to  his  own 
house.  So  Jehoshaphat  came  to  Jerusalem,  and  con- 
tinued in  peace  there,  and  out-lived  this  expedition 
l)ut  a  little  time,  and  then  died,  having  lived  in  all 
sixty  years,  and  of  them  reigned  twenty-five.  He 
was  buried  in  a  magnificent  manner  in  Jerusalem,  for 
he  had  imitated  the  actions  of  David, 

12  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 


J  eh  Oram  succeeds  Jehoshaphat:  hotc  Joram,  Jus  name- 
sake, king  of  Israel,  fought  with  the  Syrians;  and 
what  wonders  were  done  hy  the  prophet  Elisha. 

1.  Jehoshaphat  had  a  good  number  of  children; 
but  he  appointed  his  eldest  son  Jehoram,  to  be  his 
successor,  who  had  the  same  name  with  his  mother's 
brother,  that  was  king  of  Israel,  and  the  son  of 
Ahab.  Now  when  the  king  of  Israel  was  come  out  of 
the  land  of  Moab  to  Samaria,  he  had  with  him  Ehsha 
the  prophet,  whose  acts  I  have  a  mind  to  go  over  par- 
ticularly, for  they  were  illustrious  and  worthy  to  be 
related,'  as  we  have  set  them  down  in  the  sacred  books. 

2.  For  they  say  that  the  ^  widow  of  Obadiah, 
Allah's  steward,  came  to  him;  and  said.  That  "he 
was  not  ignorant  how  her  husband  liad  preserved  the 
prophets  that  were  to  be  slain  by  Jezebel,  the  wife 
of  Ahab:  for  she  said  that  he  hid  a  hundred  of 
them,  and  had  borrowed  money  for  their  maintenance; 
that  after  her  husband's  death,  she  and  her  children 
were  carried  away  to  be  made  slaves  by  the  creditors; 
and  she  desired  of  him  to  have  mercy  upon  her  on 
account  of  what  her  husband  did,  and  afford  her 
some  assistance."     And  when  he  asked  her  what  she 

^  That  this  woman  who  cried  to  Elisha,  and  who  in  the  Bible  is 
styled  the  mfe  of  one  of  the  sons  of  the  prophets,  2  Kings  iv.  1,  was 
no  other  than  tlie  widow  of  Obadiah,  the  good  steward  of  Aliab,  is  con- 
firmed by  the  Chaldee  paraphrast,  and  by  the  Rabbins  and  others.  Nor 
is  that  unlikely  which  Josephus  here  adds,  that  these  debts  were  con- 
tracted l)y  her"  husband  for  the  support  of  tliose  hundred  of  the  Lord's 
prophets,'  ichom  he  maintained  hi/  fifty  in  a  cave,  in  the  daj's  of  Ahab 
and  Jezebel,  1  Kings  xviii.  4,  which  circumstance  rendered  it  highly  fit 
that  the  prophet  Elisha  should  provide  her  a  remedy,  and  enable  her 
to  redeem  herself  and  her  sons  from  the  fear  of  that  slavery  which  in- 
solvent debtors  were  liable  to  by  the  law  of  Moses,  Lev.  xxv.  39,  .Matt, 
xviii.  25,  which  he  did  accordingly,  with  God's  help,  at  the  expense  of 
a  miracle. 

Chap.  IV.  OF  THE  JEWS.  13 

had  in  the  house,  she  said,  Nothing  but  a  very  small 
quantity  of  oil  in  a  cruse.  So  the  prophet  bid  her 
go  away,  and  borrow  a  great  many  empty  vessels 
of  her  neighbours,  and  when  she  had  shut  her  chamber 
door,  to  pour  the  oil  into  them  all;  for  God  would 
fill  them  full.  And  when  the  woman  had  done  what 
she  was  commanded  to  do,  and  bade  her  children 
bring  every  one  of  the  vessels,  and  all  were  filled, 
and  not  one  left  empty,  she  came  to  the  proj^het, 
and  told  him  that  they  were  all  full:  Upon  which 
he  advised  her  to  go  away,  and  sell  the  oil,  and  pay 
the  creditors  what  was  owing  to  them,  for  that  there 
would  be  some  surplus  of  the  price  of  the  oil,  which 
she  might  make  use  of  for  the  maintenance  of  her 
children.  And  thus  did  Elisha  discharge  the  woman's 
debts,  and  free  her  from  the  vexation  of  her  creditors. 
3.     ^  Elisha  also   sent  an  hasty  message  to  Joram 

*  Dr.'  Hudson  with  very  good  reason,  suspects  that  there  is  no  small 
defect  in  our  present  copies  of  Josephus;  just  before  the  beginning  of 
this  section,  and  that  chiefly,  as  to  that  distinct  account  which  he  had 
given  us  reason  to  expect  in  the  first  section,  and  to  which  he  seems  to 
refer,  ch.  viii.  sect.  6,  concerning  the  glorious  miracles  which  Elislia 
wrought,  which  indeed  are  not  a  few,  2  Kings  iv.-ix.  but  of  which  we 
have  several  omitted  in  Josephus'  present  copies.  One  of  these  histories, 
smitted  at  present,  was  evidently  in  his  Bible,  I  mean  that  of  the  curing 
Df  Naaman's  leprosy,  2  Kings  v.  for  he  plainly  alludes  to  it,  B.  III.  cb. 
si.  sect.  4,  where  he  observes.  That  "there  were  lepers  in  many  nations 
who  yet  have  been  in  honour,  and  not  only  free  from  reproach  and 
avoidance,  but  who  have  been  great  captains  of  armies,  and  been  in- 
trusted with  high  offices  in  the  commonwealth,  and  have  had  the  priv- 
ilege of  entering  into  holy  places  and  temples."  But  what  makes  me 
most  regret  the  want  of  that  history  in  our  present  copies  of  Josephus, 
is  this,  that  we  have  here,  as  it  is  commonly  understood,  one  of  the 
greatest  difficulties  in  all  the  Bible,  that  in  2  Kings  v.  18,  19,  where 
Naaman,  after  be  had  been  miraculously  cured  by  a  prophet  of  the 
true  God,  and  had  thereupon  promised,  ver.  17,  that  "he  would  hence- 
forth oifer  neither  burnt-offering  nor  sacrifice  unto  other  gods,  but 
unto  the  Lord,  adds,  In  this  thing  the  Lord  pardon  thy  servant,  that 
when  my  master  goeth  into  the  house  of  Hinimon  to  worship  there,  and 
he  leaneth  on  my  hands,  and  I  bow  myself  in  the  house  of  Rinunon; 
when  I  bow  down  myself  in  the  house  of  Himmon,  the  Lord  jiardon  thy 
servant  in  this  thing.  And  Elisha  said.  Go  in  peace."  This  looks  like 
a  prophet's  permission  for  being  partaker  in  idolatry  itself,  out  of 
compliance  with  an  idolatrous   court. 

14  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 

and  exhorted  him  to  take  care  of  that  place,  for  that 
therein  were  some  Syrians  lying  in  ambush  to  kill 
him.  So  the  king  did  as  the  prophet  exhorted  him, 
and  avoided  his  going  a  hunting.  And  when  Ben- 
hadad  missed  of  the  success  of  his  lying  in  ambush, 
he  was  wroth  with  his  own  servants,  as  if  they  had 
betrayed  his  ambushment  to  Joram,  and  sent  for 
them,  and  said  they  were  the  betrayers  of  his  secret 
counsels;  and  he  threatened  that  he  would  put  them 
to  death,  since  such  their  practice  was  evident,  be- 
cause he  had  intrusted  this  secret  to  none  but  them, 
and  yet  it  was  made  known  to  his  enemy.  And 
when  one  that  was  present  said,  that  "he  should  not 
mistake  himself;  nor  suspect  that  they  had  discovered 
to  his  enemy  his  sending  men  to  kill  him,  but  that 
he  ought  to  know  that  it  was  Elisha  the  prophet  who 
discovered  all  to  him,  and  laid  open  all  his  counsels," 
he  gave  order  that  they  should  send  some  to  learn 
in  what  city  Elisha  dwelt.  Accordingly  those  that 
were  sent  brought  word,  that  he  was  in  Dothan: 
wherefore  Benhadad  sent  to  that  city  a  great  army, 
with  horses  and  chariots,  to  take  Elisha;  so  they 
encompassed  the  city  round  about  by  night,  and 
kept  him  therein  confined:  but  when  the  prophet's 
servant  in  the  morning  perceived  this,  and  that  his 
enemies  sought  to  take  Elisha,  he  came  running  and 
crying  out  after  a  disordered  manner  to  him,  and 
told  him  of  it;  but  he  encouraged  him,  and  bid  him 
not  be  afraid,  and  to  despise  the  enemy,  and  trust 
in  the  assistance  of  God,  and  was  himself  without 
fear;  and  he  besought  God  to  make  manifest  to  his 
servant  his  power  and  presence,  so  far  as  was  pos- 
sible, in  order  to  the  ins])iring  him  with  hope  and 
courage.  Accordingly  God  heard  the  prayer  of  the 
prophet,  and  made  the  servant  see  a  multitude  of 
chariots  and  horses  encompassing  Elisha,  till  he  laid 

Chap.  IV.  OF  THE  JEWS.  15 

aside  his  fear,  and  his  courage  revi\'ed  at  the  sight 
of  what  he  supposed  was  come  to  their  assistance. 
After  this  Ehsha  did  farther  entreat  God,  that  he 
would  dim  the  eyes  of  their  enemies,  and  cast  a  mist 
before  them,  whereby  they  might  not  discern  him. 
When  this  was  done,  he  went  into  the  midst  of  his 
enemies,  and  asked  them  who  it  was  that  they  came 
to  seek?  and  when  they  rephed,  the  prophet  Ehsha, 
he  promised  he  woukl  deliver  him  to  them,  if  they 
would  follow  him  to  the  city  where  he  was.  So  these 
men  were  so  darkened  by  God  in  their  sight  and  in 
their  mind,  that  they  followed  him  very  diligently; 
and  when  Elisha  had  brought  them  to  Samaria,  he 
ordered  Joram  the  king  to  shut  the  gates,  and  to 
place  his  own  army  round  about  them;  and  prayed 
to  God  to  clear  the  eyes  of  tliese  their  enemies,  and 
take  the  mist  from  before  them.  Accordingly  when 
they  were  freed  from  the  obscurity  they  had  been 
in;  they  saw  themselves  in  the  midst  of  their  enemies; 
and  as  the  Syrians  were  strangely  amazed  and  dis- 
tressed, as  was  but  reasonable,  at  an  action  so  divine 
and  surprising;  and  as  king  Joram  asked  the  prophet, 
if  he  would  give  him  leave  to  shoot  at  them:  Elisha 
forbade  him  so  to  do;  and  said,  that  "it  is  just  to 
kill  those  that  are  taken  in  battle,  but  that  these  men 
had  done  the  country  no  harm,  but  without  knowing 
it,  were  come  thither  by  the  divine  power."  So  that 
his  counsel  was  to  treat  them  in  a  hosj)itable  manner 
at  his  table,  and  then  send  them  away  without  hiu-t- 
ing  them.^  Wherefore  Joram  obeyed  the  prophet; 
and  when  he  had  feasted  the   Syrians   in  a   splendid 

*  Upon  occasion  of  this  stratagem  of  Elisha's  in  Josephus,  we  may 
take  notice  that  although  Josephus  was  one  of  the  greatest  lovers  of 
trutii  in  the  world,  yet  in  a  just  war  he  seems  to  have  had  no  manner 
of  scruple  upon  him  hy  all  such  stratagems  possible  to  deceive  public 
enemies.  See  also  Josephus'  account  of  Jeremiah's  imposition  on  the 
great  men  of  the  Jews  in  somewhat  a  like  case.  Antiq.  B.  X.  ch.  vii. 
sect.  6,  and  2  Sam.   xvi.    KJ,  etc. 

16  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 

and  magnificent  manner,  he  let  them  go  to  Benhadad 
their  king. 

4.  Now  when  these  men  were  come  back,  and 
had  showed  Benhadad  how  strange  an  accident  had 
befallen  them,  and  what  an  appearance  and  power 
they  had  experienced  of  the  God  of  Israel,  he  won- 
dered at  it,  as  also  at  that  prophet  with  whom  God 
was  so  evidently  present:  so  he  determined  to  make 
no  more  secret  attempts  upon  the  king  of  Israel, 
out  of  fear  of  Elisha,  but  resolved  to  make  open 
war  with  them,  as  supposing  he  could  be  too  hard 
for  his  enemies  by  the  multitude  of  his  army  and 
power.  So  he  made  an  expedition  with  a  great 
army,  against  Joram,  who,  not  thinking  himself  a 
match  for  him,  shut  himself  up  in  Samaria,  and 
depended  on  the  strength  of  its  walls;  but  Benhadad 
supposed  he  should  take  the  city,  if  not  by  his  en- 
gines of  war,  yet  that  he  should  overcome  the  Samari- 
tans by  famine,  and  the  want  of  necessaries,  and 
brought  his  army  upon  them,  and  besieged  the  city: 
and  the  plenty  of  necessaries  was  brought  so  low 
with  Joram,  and  from  the  extremity  of  want  an 
ass's  head  was  sold  in  Samaria,  for  fourscore  pieces 
of  silver,  and  the  Hebrews  bought  a  sextary  of  dove's 
dung,  instead  of  salt,  for  five  pieces  of  silver.  Now 
Joram  was  in  fear  lest  somebody  should  betray  the 
city  to  the  enemy,  by  reason  of  the  famine,  and 
went  every  day  round  the  walls  and  the  guards,  to 
see  whether  any  such  were  concealed  among  them; 
and  by  being  thus  seen,  and  taking  such  care,  he 
deprived  them  of  the  opportunity  of  contriving  any 
such  thing,  and  if  they  had  a  mind  to  do  it,  he,  by 
this  means,  prevented  them;  but  upon  a  certain 
woman's  crying  out,  "Have  pity  on  me,  my  lord," 
while  he  thought  that  she  was  about  to  ask  for  some- 
what   to   eat,   he    imprecated    God's    curse    upon   her, 

Chap.  IV.  or  THE  JEWS.  17 

and  said,  "he  had  neither  threshing-floor,  nor  wine- 
press, whence  he  might  give  her  any  thing  at  her 
petition."  Upon  which  she  said,  "She  did  not  desire 
his  aid  in  any  such  thing,  nor  trouble  him  about 
food,  but  desired  that  he  would  do  her  justice  as 
to  another  woman."  And  when  he  bade  her  say  on, 
and  let  him  know  what  she  desired,  she  said,  "She 
had  made  an  agreement  with  the  other  woman,  who 
was  her  neighbour  and  her  friend,  that  because  the 
famine  and  w\ant  was  intolerable,  they  should  kill 
their  children,  each  of  them  having  a  son  of  their 
own,  and  we  will  live  upon  them  ourselves  for  two 
days,  the  one  day  upon  one  son,  and  the  other  day 
upon  the  other:  and,  said  she,  I  have  killed  my  son 
the  first  day,  and  we  lived  upon  my  son  yesterday, 
but  this  other  woman  will  not  do  the  same  thing, 
but  hath  broken  her  agreement,  and  hath  hid  her 
son."  This  story  mightily  grieved  Joram  when  he 
heard  it;  so  he  rent  his  garment,  and  cried  out  with 
a  loud  voice,  and  conceived  great  wrath  against 
Elisha  the  prophet,  and  set  himself  eagerly  to  have 
him  slain,  because  he  did  not  pray  to  God  to  provide 
them  some  exit  and  way  of  escape  out  of  the  miseries 
with  which  they  were  surrounded,  and  sent  one  away 
immediately  to  cut  off  his  head,  who  made  haste  to 
kill  the  prophet;  but  EHsha  was  not  unacquainted 
with  the  wrath  of  the  king  against  him;  for  as  he 
sat  in  his  house  by  himself,  with  none  but  his  dis- 
ciples about  him,  he  told  them,  that  Joram,  ^  who 
was  the  son  of  a  murderer,  had  sent  one  to  take 
away  his  head;  but,   said  he,   "when  he  that  is  com- 

*  This  S071  of  a  murderer  was  Joram,  the  son  of  Ahab,  which  Ahab 
slew,  or  permitted  his  wife  Jezebel  to  slay  the  Lord's  prophets,  and 
Naboth,  1  Kings  xviii.  4,  xxi.  19,  and  he  is  here  called  by  this  name, 
I  suppose,  because  he  had  now  also  himself  sent  an  officer  to  murder 
him;  yet  is  Josephus'  account  of  Joram's  coming  himself  at  last,  as 
repenting  of  his  intended  cruelty,  much  more  probable  than  that  in  our 
copies,  3   Kings   vi.  33,  which  rather  implies  the  contrary. 

18  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 

manded  to  do  this  comes,  take  care  that  ye  do  not 
let  him  come  in,  but  press  the  door  against  him,  and 
hokl  him  fast  there,  for  the  king  himself  will  follow 
him,  and  come  to  me  having  altered  his  mind."  Ac- 
cordingly, they  did  as  they  were  bidden,  when  he 
that  was  sent  by  the  king  to  kill  Elisha  came;  but 
Joram  repented  of  his  wrath  against  the  prophet, 
and  for  fear  he  that  was  commanded  to  kill  him 
should  have  done  it  before  he  came,  he  made  haste 
to  hinder  his  slaughter,  and  to  save  the  prophet: 
and  when  he  came  to  him,  he  accused  him  that  he 
did  not  pray  to  God  for  their  deliverance  from  the 
miseries  they  lay  now  under,  but  saw  them  so  sadly 
destroyed  by  them.  Hereupon  Elisha  promised,  that 
the  very  next  day,  at  the  very  same  hour  in  which 
the  king  came  to  him,  they  should  have  great 
plenty  of  food,  and  that  two  seah  of  barley  should 
be  sold  in  the  market  for  a  shekel,  and  a  seah  of 
fine  flour  should  be  sold  for  a  sliekel.  This  predic- 
tion made  Joram,  and  those  that  were  present,  very 
joyful,  for  they  did  not  scruple  believing  what  the 
prophet  said,  on  account  of  the  experience  they  had 
of  the  truth  of  his  former  predictions;  and  the  ex- 
pectation of  plenty  made  the  want  they  were  in 
that  day,  with  the  uneasiness  that  accompanied  it, 
appear  a  light  thing  to  them:  but  the  captain  of  the 
third  band,  who  was  a  friend  of  the  king's,  and  on 
whose  hand  the  king  leaned,  said,  "Thou  talkest  of 
incredible  things,  O  prophet!  for  as  it  is  impossible 
for  God  to  pour  down  torrents  of  barley,  or  fine 
flour,  out  of  heaven,  so  is  it  impossible  that  what 
thou  sayest  should  come  to  pass."  To  which  the 
prophet  made  this  reply,  "Thou  shalt  see  these  things 
come  to  pass,  but  thou  shalt  not  be  in  the  least  a 
partaker  of  them." 

0,     Xow  what  Elisha  had  thus  foretold,  came  to 

Chap.  IV.  OF  THE  JEWS.  19 

pass  in  the  manner  following:  There  was  a  ^  law 
at  Samaria,  that  those  that  had  the  leprosy,  and 
whose  bodies  were  not  cleansed  from  it,  should  abide 
without  the  city;  and  there  were  four  men  that  on 
this  account  abode  before  the  gates,  while  nobody 
gave  them  any  food,  by  reason  of  the  extremity  of 
the  famine:  and  as  they  were  j^i'ohibited  from  enter- 
ing into  the  city  by  the  law,  and  they  considered 
that  if  they  were  permitted  to  enter,  they  should 
miserably  perish  by  the  famine,  as  also,  that  if  they 
stayed  where  they  were,  they  should  suffer  in  the 
same  manner,  they  resolved  to  deliver  themselves 
up  to  the  enemy,  that  in  case  they  should  spare  them, 
they  should  hve,  but  if  they  should  be  killed,  that 
would  be  an  easy  death.  So  when  they  had  con- 
firmed this  their  resolution,  they  came  by  night  to 
the  enemies'  camp.  Xow  God  had  begun  to  affright 
and  disturb  the  Syrians,  and  to  bring  the  noise  of 
chariots  and  armour  to  their  ears,  as  though  an  army 
were  coming  upon  them,  and  had  made  them  suspect 
that  it  w^as  coming  nearer  and  nearer  to  them.  In 
short,  they  were  in  such  a  dread  of  this  army,  that 
they  left  their  tents,  and  ran  together  to  Benhadad, 
and  said,  That  "Joram  the  king  of  Israel  had  hired 
for  auxiliaries,  both  the  king  of  Egypt  and  the  king 
of  the  islands,  and  led  them  against  them,  for  they 
heard  the  noise  of  them  as  they  were  coming."  And 
Benhadad  believed  what  they  said  (for  there  came 
the  same  noise  to  his  ears  as  well  as  it  did  to  theirs), 
so  they  fell  into  a  mighty  disorder  and  tumult,  and 
left  their  horses  and  beasts  in  their  camp,  with  im- 
mense riches  also,  and  betook  themselves  to  flight. 
And   those   lepers   who  had   departed   from    Samaria, 

Tliis  law  of  the  Jews,  for  the  exclusion  of  lejiers  out  of  the  camp 
in  the  wilderness,  and  out  of  the  cities  in  Judea,  is  a  well  known  one, 
Lev.  xiii.  4j,  and  Num.  v.   1-4. 

20  AXTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 

and  were  gone  to  the  camp  of  the  Syrians,  of  whom 
we  made  mention  a  little  before,  when  they  were 
in  the  camp,  saw  nothing  but  great  quietness  and 
silence:  accordingly  they  entered  into  it,  and  went 
hastily  into  one  of  their  tents,  and  when  they  saw 
nobody  there  they  eat  and  drank,  and  carried  gar- 
ments and  a  great  quantity  of  gold,  and  hid  it  out 
of  the  camp;  after  which  they  went  into  another 
tent,  and  carried  off  what  was  in  it,  as  they  did 
at  the  former,  and  this  did  they  for  several  times, 
without  the  least  interruption  from  any  body.  So 
they  gathered  thereby  that  the  enemies  were  de- 
parted; whereupon  they  reproached  themselves  that 
they  did  not  inform  Joram  and  the  citizens  of  it. 
So  they  came  to  the  walls  of  Samaria,  and  called 
aloud  to  the  watchmen,  and  told  them  in  what  state 
the  enemies  were,  as  did  these  tell  tlie  king's  guards, 
by  whose  means  Joram  came  to  know  of  it;  win 
then  sent  for  his  friends,  and  the  captains  of  his 
host,  and  said  to  them.  That  "he  suspected  that  this 
departure  of  the  king  of  Syria  was  by  way  of  am- 
bush and  treachery,  and  that  out  of  despair  of  ruin- 
ing you  by  famine,  when  you  imagine  them  to  be 
fled  away,  you  may  come  out  of  the  city  to  spoil 
their  camp,  and  he  may  then  fall  upon  you  on  a 
sudden,  and  may  ])oth  kill  you,  and  take  the  city 
without  fighting;  whence  it  is  tliat  I  exhort  you 
to  guard  the  city  carefully,  and  by  no  means  to  go 
out  of  it,  or  proudly  to  despise  your  enemies,  as 
though  they  were  really  gone  away."  And  when 
a  certain  person  said.  That  "he  did  very  well  and 
wisely  to  admit  sucli  a  suspicion,  but  that  he  still 
advised  him  to  send  a  couple  of  horsemen  to  search 
all  the  country,  as  far  as  Jordan,  that  if  they  were 
seized  by  an  ambush  of  the  enemy,  they  might  be 
a  security  to  your  army,  that  they  may  not  go  out 

Chap.  IV.  OF  THE  JEWS.  21 

as  if  they  suspected  nothing,  nor  undergo  the  hke 
misfortune;  and,  (said  he),  those  horsemen  may  be 
numbered  among  those  that  have  died  by  the  famine, 
supposing  they  be  caught  and  destroyed  by  the 
enemy."  So  the  king  was  pleased  with  this  opinion 
and  sent  such  as  might  search  out  the  truth,  who 
performed  their  journey  over  a  road  that  was  with- 
out any  enemies,  but  found  it  full  of  provisions,  and 
of  weapons,  that  they  had  therefore  thrown  away, 
and  left  behind  them,  in  order  to  their  being  light 
and  expeditious  in  their  flight.  When  the  king  heard 
this,  he  sent  out  the  multitude  to  take  the  spoils  of 
the  cam23;  M'hich  gains  of  theirs  were  not  of  things 
of  small  value,  but  they  took  a  great  quantity  of 
gold,  and  a  great  quantity  of  silver,  and  flocks  of 
all  kinds  of  cattle.  They  also  possessed  themselves 
of  [so  many]  ten  thousand  measures  of  wheat  and 
barley,  as  they  never  in  the  least  dreamed  of;  and 
were  not  only  freed  from  their  former  miseries,  but 
had  such  plenty,  that  two  sealis  of  barley  were  bought 
for  a  shekel,  and  a  seah  of  fine  flour  for  a  shekel, 
according  to  the  prophecy  of  Elisha.  Xow  a  seah 
is  equal  to  an  Italian  modius  and  a  half.  The  cap- 
tain of  the  third  band  was  the  only  man  that  received 
no  benefit  by  this  plenty;  for  as  he  was  appointed 
by  the  king  to  oversee  the  gate,  that  he  might  prevent 
the  too  great  a  crowd  of  the  multitude,  that  they 
might  not  endanger  one  another  and  perish,  by  tread- 
ing on  one  another  in  the  press,  he  suffered  himself 
in  that  very  way,  and  died  in  that  very  manner,  as 
Elisha  had  foretold  such  his  death,  when  he  alone 
of  them  all  disbelieved  what  he  said  concerning  that 
plenty  of  provisions  which  they  should   soon  have. 

6.  Hereupon,  when  Benhadad,  the  king  of  Syria, 
had  escaped  to  Damascus,  and  understood  that  it 
was  God  himself  that  cast  all  his  army  into  this  fear 

22  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 

and  disorder,  and  that  it  did  not  arise  from  the  in- 
vasion of  enemies,  he  was  mightily  cast  down  at  his 
having  God  so  greatly  for  his  enemy,  and  fell  into 
a  distemper.  Now  it  happened  that  Elisha  the 
prophet,  at  that  time,  was  gone  out  of  his  own  coun- 
try to  Damascus,  of  which  Benhadad  was  informed; 
he  sent  Hazael,  the  most  faithful  of  all  his  servants, 
to  meet  him,  and  to  carry  him  presents,  and  bade 
him  inquire  of  him  about  his  distemper,  and  whether 
he  should  escape  the  danger  that  it  threatened.  So 
Hazael  came  to  Elisha  with  forty  camels,  that  carried 
the  best  and  most  precious  fruits  that  the  country 
of  Damascus  afforded,  as  well  as  those  which  the 
king's  palace  supplied.  He  saluted  him  kindly,  and 
said.  That  "he  was  sent  to  him  by  king  Benhadad, 
and  brought  presents  with  him,  in  order  to  inquire 
concerning  his  distemper,  whether  he  should  recover 
from  it  or  not?"  Whereupon  the  prophet  bid  him 
tell  the  king  no  melancholy  news,  but  still  he  said 
he  would  die.  So,  the  king's  servant  was  troubled 
to  hear  it;  and  Elisha  wept  also,  and  his  tears  ran 
down  plenteously  at  his  foresight  of  what  miseries 
his  people  would  undergo  after  the  death  of  Ben- 
hadad. And  when  Hazael  asked,  what  was  the  oc- 
casion of  this  confusion  he  was  in?  he  said.  That  "he 
wept  out  of  his  commiseration  for  the  multitude  of 
the  Israelites,  and  what  terrible  miseries  they  will 
suffer  by  thee;  for  thou  wilt  slay  the  strongest  of 
them,  and  will  burn  their  strongest  cities,  and  will 
destroy  their  children,  and  dash  them  against  the 
stones,  and  will  rip  up  their  women  with  child."  And 
when  Hazael  said,  "Plow  can  it  be  tliat  I  should  ha^e 
power  enough  to  do  such  tilings?"  the  prophet  replied, 
"That  God  had  informed  him  that  he  should  l)e  kin;^- 
of  Syria."  So  when  Hazael  was  come  to  Benhadad, 
he    told    him    good    news    concerning    his    distemper; 

Chap.  IV.  Ol^  THE  JEWS.  23 

^  but  on  the  next  day  he  spread  a  wet  cloth,  in  the 
nature  of  a  net  over  him,  and  strangled  liim,  and 
took  his  dominion.  He  was  an  active  man,  and  had 
the  good-will  of  the  Syrians,  and  of  the  people  of 
Damascus  to  a  great  degree;  by  whom  both  Ben- 
hadad  himself,  and  Hazael,  who  ruled  after  him,  are 
honoured  to  this  day  as  gods  by  reason  of  their  bene- 
factions, and  their  building  them  temples,  by  which 
they  adorned  the  city  of  the  Damascenes.  They  also 
every  day  do  with  great  pomp  pay  their  worship 
"  to  these  kings,  and  value  themselves  upon  their  an- 
tiquity; nor  do  they  know  that  these  kings  are  much 
later  than  they  imagine,  and  that  they  are  not  yet 
eleven  hundred  years  old.  Now  when  Joram,  the 
king  of  Israel,  heard  that  Benhadad  was  dead,  he 
recovered  out  of  the  terror  and  dread  he  had  been 
in  on  his  account,  and  was  very  glad  to  live  in  peace. 

*  Since  Elijah  did  not  live  to  anoint  Hazael  king  of  Syria  liiniself, 
as  he  was  empowered  to  do,  1  Kings  xix.  1,5,  it  was  most  probably  now 
done,  in  his  name,  by  his  servant  and  successor  Elisha:  Xor  does  it 
seem  to  me  otherwise,  but  that  Benhadad  immediately  recovered  of  his 
disease,  as  the  i)ro])het  foretold;  and  that  Hazael,  upon  his  being  anointed 
to  succeed  him,  though  he  ought  to  have  stayed  till  he  died  by  the  course 
of  nature,  or  some  other  way  of  divine  jiunishment,  as  did  David  for 
many  years  in  the  like  case,  was  too  impatient,  and  the  very  next  day, 
smothered   or   strangled  him,  in   order  to   come   directly   to  the  succession. 

^  What  .Mr.  Le  Clerc  pretends  here,  that  it  is  more  probable  that 
Hazael  and  his  son  were  worshijijied  by  the  Syrians,  and  people  of 
Damascus,  till  the  days  of  Josephus,  than  Benhadad  and  Hazael,  because 
under  Benhadad  they  had  greatly  suffered,  and  because  it  is  almost 
incredible,  that  both  a  king,  and  that  king's  murderer  should  be  wor- 
sliipped  by  the  same  Syrians,  is  of  little  force  against  those  records 
out  of  which  Jose]ihus  drew  his  history,  especially  when  it  is  likely  that 
they  thought  lienhadad  died  of  the  distemper  he  laboured  under,  and 
not  by  Hazael's  treachery.  Besides,  the  reason  that  Josephus  gives  for 
this  adoration,  and  that  these  two  kings  had  been  great  benefactors  to 
the  inhabitants  of  Damascus,  and  had  budt  them  temples,  is  too  re- 
mote from  the  political  suspicions  of  Le  Clerc;  nor  ought  such  weak 
suspicions  to  be  deemed  of  any  force  against  authentic  testimonies  of 

24  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 


Concerning  the  wickedness  of  Jehoram  king  of  Jeru- 
salem.    His  defeat  and  death. 

1.  Now  Jehoram  the  king  of  Jerusalem,  for  we 
have  said  before  that  he  had  the  same  name  with 
the  king  of  Israel,  as  soon  as  he  had  taken  the  gov- 
ernment upon  him,  betook  himself  to  the  slaughter 
of  his  brethren,  and  his  father's  friends,  who  were 
governors  under  him,  and  thence  made  a  beginning, 
and  a  demonstration  of  his  wickedness;  nor  was  he 
at  all  better  than  those  kings  of  Israel  who  at  first 
transgressed  against  the  laws  of  their  country,  and 
of  the  Hebrews,  and  against  God's  worship.  And 
it  M'as  Athaliah,  the  daughter  of  Ahab,  whom  he 
had  married,  who  taught  him  to  be  a  bad  man  in 
other  respects,  and  also  to  worship  foreign  gods. 
Now  God  would  not  quite  root  out  this  family,  be- 
cause of  the  promise  he  had  made  to  David.  How- 
ever, Jehoram  did  not  leave  off  the  introduction  of 
new  sorts  of  customs,  to  the  propagation  of  impiety, 
and  to  the  ruin  of  the  customs  of  his  own  country. 
And  when  the  Edomites  about  that  time  had  re- 
volted from  him,  and  slain  their  former  king,  who 
was  in  subjection  to  his  father,  and  had  set  up  one 
of  their  own  choosing,  Jehoram  fell  upon  the  land 
of  Edom,  with  the  horsemen  that  were  about  him, 
and  the  chariots,  by  night,  and  destroyed  those  that 
lay  near  to  his  own  kingdom,  but  did  not  proceed 
farther.  However,  this  expedition  did  him  no  service, 
for  they  all  revolted  from  him,  with  those  that  dwelt 
in  the  country  of  Libnah.  He  was  indeed  so  mad, 
as  to  compel  tlie  people  to  go  up  to  the  high  places 
of  the  mountains,  and  worship  foreign  gods. 

Chap.  V.  OF  THE  JEWS.  25 

2.  And  as  he  was  doing  this,  and  had  entirely 
cast  his  own  country  laws  out  of  his  mind,  there 
was  brought  him  an  ^  epistle  from  Elijah  the  prophet, 
which  declared  that  "God  would  execute  great  judg- 
ments upon  him,  because  he  had  not  imitated  his 
own  fathers,  but  had  followed  the  wicked  courses 
of  the  kings  of  Israel;  and  had  compelled  the  tribe 
of  Judah,  and  the  citizens  of  Jerusalem,  to  leave 
the  holy  worship  of  their  own  God,  and  to  worship 
idols,  as  Ahab  had  compelled  the  Israelites  to  do, 
and  because  he  had  slain  his  brethren,  and  the  men 
that  were  good  and  righteous."  And  the  prophet 
gave  him  notice  in  this  epistle,  what  punishment  he 
should  undergo  for  these  crimes,  namely,  "the  de- 
struction of  his  people,  with  the  corruption  of  the 
king's  own  wives  and  children,  and  that  he  should 
himself  die  of  a  distemper  in  his  bowels,  with  long  tor- 
ments, those  his  bowels  falling  out  by  the  violence  of  the 
inward  rottenness  of  the  parts,  insomuch,  that  though 
he  see  his  own  misery,  he  shall  not  be  able  at  all  to 
help  himself,  but  shall  die  in  that  manner."  Thus  it 
was  which  Elijah  denounced  to  him  in  that  epistle. 

3.  It  was  not  long  after  this  that  an  army  of 
those  Arabians  that  lived  near  to  Ethiopia,  and  of 
the  Philistines,  fell  upon  the  kingdom  of  Jehoram, 
and  spoiled  the  country  and  the  king's  house:  ^lore- 
over,  they  slew  his  sons  and  his  wives:  one  only  of 
his  sons  was  left  him,  who  escaped  the  enemy;  his 
name  was  Ahaziah:  After  which  calamity,  he  him- 
self fell  into  that  disease  which  was  foretold  by  the 
prophet,  and  lasted  a  great  while    (for  God  inflicted 

*  This  epistle,  in  some  copies  of  Josephus,  is  said  to  come  to  Joram 
from  Elijah,  with  this  addition,  for  he  watt  yet  upon  earth,  which  could 
not  be  true  of  Elijah,  who,  as  all  agree,  was  gone  from  the  earth  about 
four  years  before,  and  could  only  be  true  of  Elisha:  nor,  perhaps,  is 
there  any  more  mystery  here,  than  that  the  name  of  Elijah  has  very 
anciently  crept  into  the  text  instead  of  Elisha,  by  the  copiers,  there 
being  nothing  in  any  copy  of  that  epistle  peculiar  to  Elijah. 

26  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 

this  punishment  upon  him  in  his  belly,  out  of  his 
wrath  against  him),  and  so  he  died  miserably,  and 
saw  his  own  bowels  fall  out.  The  people  also  abused 
his  dead  body:  I  suppose  it  was  because  they  thought 
that  such  his  death  came  uj^on  him  by  the  wrath 
of  God,  and  that  therefore  he  was  not  worthy  to 
partake  of  such  a  funeral  as  became  kings.  Accord- 
ingly, they  neither  buried  him  in  the  sepulchres  of 
his  fathers,  nor  vouchsafed  him  any  honours,  but 
buried  him  like  a  private  man,  and  this  when  he 
had  lived  forty  years,  and  reigned  eight:  And  the 
people  of  Jerusalem  delivered  the  government  to  his 
son  Ahaziah. 


How  Jehu  was  anointed  king  and  dew  both  Joram 
and  Ahaziah;  as  also  what  he  did  for  the  imnish- 
ment  of  the  wicked. 

I.  Now  Joram  the  king  of  Israel,  after  the  death 
of  Benhadad,  hoped  that  he  might  now  take  Ramoth, 
a  city  of  Gilead,  from  the  Syrians.  Accordingly  he 
made  an  expedition  against  it,  with  a  great  army: 
but  as  he  was  besieging  it,  an  arrow  was  shot  at 
him  by  one  of  the  Syrians,  but  the  woimd  was  not 
mortal:  So  he  returned  to  have  his  wound  healed 
in  Jezreel,  but  left  his  whole  army  in  Ramoth,  and 
Jehu  the  son  of  Nimshi  for  their  general,  for  he 
had  already  taken  the  city  by  force;  and  he  pro- 
posed, after  he  was  healed,  to  make  war  with  the 
Syrians;  but  Elisha  the  prophet  sent  one  of  his 
disciples  to  Ramoth,  and  gave  him  holy  oil  to  anoint 
Jehu,  and  to  tell  him,  that  God  had  chosen  him  to 
be  their  king.     He  also  sent  him  to  say  other  things 

Chap.  VI.  OF  THE  JEWS.  27 

to  him,  and  bid  him  to  take  his  journey  as  if  he 
fled,  that  when  he  came  away  he  might  escape  the 
knowledge  of  all  men.  So  when  he  was  come  to 
the  city,  he  found  Jehu  sitting  in  the  midst  of  the 
captains  of  the  army,  as  Elisha  had  foretold  he  should 
find  him.  So  he  came  up  to  him,  and  said,  that  he 
desired  to  sj^eak  with  him  about  certain  matters; 
and  when  he  was  arisen,  and  had  followed  him  into 
an  inward  chamber,  the  young  man  took  the  oil,  and 
])oured  it  on  his  head,  and  said,  that  "God  ordained 
him  to  be  king,  in  order  to  his  destroying  the  house 
of  Ahab,  and  that  he  miglit  revenge  the  blood  of 
the  proj)hets,  that  were  im justly  slain  by  Jezebel, 
that  so  their  house  miglit  utterly  perish,  as  those  of 
Jeroboam  the  son  of  Xebat,  and  of  Baasha,  had 
perished  for  their  wickedness,  and  no  seed  might 
remain  of  Ahab's  family."  So  when  he  had  said 
this,  he  went  away  hastily  out  of  the  chamber,  and 
endeavoured  not  to  be  seen  bj^  any  of  the  army. 

2.  But  Jehu  came  out,  and  went  to  the  place 
where  he  before  sat  with  the  captains:  and  when 
they  asked  him,  and  desired  him  to  tell  them,  where- 
fore it  was  that  this  young  man  came  to  him?  and 
added  withal  that  he  was  mad:  he  replied,  you  guess 
right,  for  the  words  he  spake  were  the  words  of 
a  madman:  and  when  they  were  eager  about  the 
matter,  and  desired  he  would  tell  them,  he  answered, 
that  God  had  said,  he  had  chosen  him  to  be  king 
"over  the  multitude."  AVhen  he  had  said  this,  every 
one  of  them  ^  put  off  his  garment,  and  strewed  it 
under  him,  and  blew  with  trumpets,  and  gave  notice, 
t^at  Jehu  was  king.  So  when  he  had  gotten  the 
army  together,  he  was  preparing  to  set  out  immedi- 

'  Spanheim  here  notes  that  this  putting  off  men's  garments  and 
strewing  them  under  a  king,  was  an  eastern  custom,  which  he  elsewhere 

28  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 

ately  against  Joram,  at  the  city  Jezreel,  in  which 
city,  as  we  said  before,  he  was  heahng  of  the  wound 
which  he  had  received  in  the  siege  of  Ramoth.  It 
happened  also  that  Ahaziah,  king  of  Jerusalem,  was 
now  come  to  Joram,  for  he  was  his  sister's  son,  as 
we  have  said  already,  to  see  how  he  did  after  his 
wound,  and  this  upon  account  of  their  kindred;  but 
as  Jehu  was  desirous  to  fall  upon  Joram  and  those 
with  him  on  the  sudden,  he  desired  that  none  of  the 
soldiers  might  run  away  and  tell  to  Joram  what  had 
happened,  for  that  this  would  be  an  evident  demon- 
stration of  their  kindness  to  him,  and  would  show 
that  their  real  inclinations  were  to  make  him  king. 

3.  So  they  were  pleased  with  what  he  did,  and 
guarded  the  roads,  lest  somebody  should  privately 
tell  the  thing  to  those  that  were  at  Jezreel.  Now 
Jehu  took  his  choice  horsemen,  and  sat  upon  his 
chariot,  and  went  on  for  Jezreel,  and  when  he  was 
come  near,  the  watchman  whom  Joram  had  sent 
there  to  spy  out  such  as  came  to  the  city,  saw  Jehu 
marching  on,  and  told  Joram  that  lie  saw  a  troop 
of  horsemen  marching  on.  Upon  which  he  immedi- 
ately gave  orders,  that  one  of  his  horsemen  should 
be  sent  out  to  meet  them,  and  to  know  who  it  was 
that  was  coming.  So  when  the  horseman  came  up 
to  Jehu,  he  asked  him,  in  what  condition  the  army 
was?  for  that  the  king  wanted  to  know  it;  but  Jehu 
bid  him  not  at  all  to  meddle  with  such  matters,  but 
to  follow  him.  When  the  watchman  saw  this,  he 
told  Joram  that  the  horseman  had  mingled  himself 
among  the  company,  and  came  along  with  them. 
And  when  the  king  had  sent  a  second  messenger, 
Jehu  commanded  him  to  do  as  the  former  did;  as 
soon  as  the  watchman  told  this  also  to  Joram,  he 
at  last  got  upon  his  chariot  himself,  together  with 
Ahaziah,    the    king    of    Jerusalem;    for,    as    we    said 

Chap.  VI.  OF  THE  JEWS.  29 

before,  he  was  there  to  see  how  Joram  did,  after  he 
had  been  wounded,  as  being  his  relation.  So  he 
went  out  to  meet  Jehu,  who  marched  ^  slowly,  and 
in  good  order;  and  when  Joram  met  him  in  the  field 
of  Xaboth,  he  asked  him,  if  all  things  were  well  in 
the  camp  ?  but  Jehu  reproached  him  bitterly,  and 
ventured  to  call  his  mother  a  witch,  and  an  harlot. 
Upon  this  the  king  fearing  what  he  intended,  and 
suspecting  he  had  no  good  meaning,  he  turned  his 
chariot  about  as  soon  as  he  could,  and  said  to  Ahaziah, 
we  are  fought  against  by  deceit  and  treachery:  But 
Jehu  drew  his  bow,  and  smote  him,  the  arrow  going 
through  his  heart:  so  Joram  fell  down  immediately 
on  his  knee,  and  gave  up  the  ghost.  Jehu  also  gave 
orders  to  Bidkar,  the  captain  of  the  third  part  of 
his  army,  to  cast  the  dead  body  of  Joram  into  the 
field  of  Xaboth,  putting  hnn  in  mind  of  the  prophecy 
which  Elijah  prophesied  to  Ahab  his  father,  when 
he  had  slain  Naboth,  that  both  he  and  his  family 
should  perish  in  that  place,  for  that  as  tliey  sat 
behind  Ahab's  chariot,  they  heard  the  prophet  say 
so,  and  that  it  was  now  come  to  pass  according  to 
his  prophecy.  Upon  the  fall  of  Joram,  Ahaziah  was 
afraid  of  his  own  life,  and  turned  his  chariot  into 
another  road,  supposing  he  should  not  be  seen  by 
Jehu;  but  he  followed  after  him,  and  overtook  him 
at  a  certain  acclivity,  and  drcAv  his  bow,  and  wounded 
him,  so  he  left  his  chariot,  and  got  upon  his  horse, 
and  fled  from  Jehu  to  IVIegiddo,  and  though  he  was 

^  Our  copies  say,  that  this  "driving  of  the  chariots  was  like  the 
driving  of  Jehu  the  son  of  Ximshi,  for  he  driveth  furiously,"  2  Kings 
ix.  20,  whereas  Josephus'  copy,  as  he  understood  it,  was  this,  that,  on 
the  contrary,  Jehu  marched  slowly  and  in  good  order.  Nor  can  it  be 
denied,  that  since  there  was  interval  enough  for  king  Joram,  to  send 
out  two  horsemen,  one  after  another,  to  Jehu,  and  at  length  to  go  out 
with  king  Ahaziah  to  meet  him,  and  all  this  after  he  was  come  within 
sight  of  the  watchman,  and  before  he  was  come  to  Jezreel,  the  proba- 
bility is  greatly  on  the  side  of  Josephus'  copy  or  interpretation. 

30  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 

under  cure,  in  a  little  time  lie  died  of  that  wound, 
and  was  carried  to  Jerusalem,  and  buried  there,  after 
he  had  reigned  one  year,  and  had  proved  a  wicked 
man,  and  worse  than  his  father. 

4.  Now  when  Jehu  was  come  to  Jezreel,  Jezebel 
adorned  herself  and  stood  upon  a  tower,  and  said, 
"he  was  a  fine  servant  that  had  killed  his  master." 
And  when  he  looked  up  to  her,  he  asked  who  she 
was?  and  commanded  her  to  come  down  to  him. 
At  last  he  ordered  the  eunuchs  to  throw  her  down 
from  the  tower,  and  being  thrown  down,  she  be- 
sj3rinkled  the  wall  with  her  blood,  and  was  trodden 
upon  by  the  horses,  and  so  died.  When  this  was 
done,  Jehu  came  to  the  palace  with  his  friends,  and 
took  some  refreshment  after  his  journey,  both  with 
other  things,  and  by  eating  a  meal.  He  also  bid 
his  servants  to  take  up  Jezebel  and  bury  her,  because 
of  the  nobility  of  her  blood,  for  she  was  descended 
from  kings;  but  those  that  were  appointed  to  burj^ 
her  found  nothing  else  remaining  but  the  extreme 
parts  of  her  body,  for  all  the  rest  were  eaten  by  dogs. 
When  Jehu  heard  this,  he  admired  the  prophecy  of 
Elijah,  for  he  foretold  that  she  should  perish  in  this 
manner  at  Jezreel. 

5.  Now  Ahab  had  seventy  sons  brought  up  in 
Samaria.  So  Jehu  sent  two  epistles,  the  one  to 
them  that  brought  uj)  the  children,  the  other  to  the 
rulers  of  Samaria,  which  said.  That  "they  should 
set  up  the  most  valiant  of  Ahab's  sons  for  king,  for 
that  they  had  abundance  of  chariots,  and  horses, 
and  armour,  and  a  great  army,  and  fenced  cities, 
and  that  by  so  doing  they  might  avenge  the  murder 
of  Ahab."  This  he  wrote  to  try  the  intentions  of 
those  of  Samaria.  Now  when  the  rulers,  and  those 
that  had  brought  up  the  children,  had  read  the  letter, 
they    were    afraid,    and    considering    that    they    were 

Chap.  VI.  01'  THE  JEWS.  31 

not  at  all  able  to  oppose  him,  and  that  he  had  al- 
ready subdued  two  very  great  kings,  they  returned 
him  this  answer.  That  "they  owned  him  for  their 
lord,  and  would  do  whatsoever  he  bade  them."  So 
he  wrote  back  to  them,  such  a  reply  as  enjoined  them 
to  obey  what  he  gave  order  for,  and  to  cut  off  the 
heads  of  Ahabvs  sons,  and  send  them  to  him.  Ac- 
cordingly, the  rulers  sent  for  those  that  brought  up 
the  sons  of  Ahab,  and  commanded  them  to  slay  them, 
to  cut  off  their  heads,  and  send  them  to  Jehu.  So 
they  did  whatsoever  they  were  commanded,  without 
omitting  any  thing  at  all,  and  put  them  up  in  wicker 
baskets,  and  sent  them  to  Jezreel.  And  when  Jehu, 
as  he  was  at  supper  witli  his  friends,  was  informed 
that  the  heads  of  Ahai)'s  sons  were  brought,  he  or- 
dered them  to  make  two  heaps  of  them,  one  before 
each  of  the  gates,  and  in  the  morning  he  Mxnt  out 
to  take  a  view  of  them,  and  when  he  sa%v  them,  he 
began  to  say  to  the  people  that  were  present,  That 
"he  did  himself  make  an  expedition  against  his  master 
[Joram],  and  slew  him,  but  that  it  was  not  he  that 
slew  all  these:  and  he  desired  them  to  take  notice, 
that  as  to  Ahab's  family,  all  things  had  come  to 
pass  according  to  God's  prophecy,  and  his  house 
was  perished,  according  as  Elijah  had  foretold," 
And  when  he  had  farther  destroyed  all  the  kindred 
of  Ahab  that  were  found  in  Jezreel,  he  went  to 
Samaria;  and  as  he  was  upon  the  road,  he  met  the 
relations  of  Ahaziah  king  of  Jerusalem,  and  asked 
them,  whither  they  were  going?  they  replied,  that  they 
came  to  salute  Joram,  and  their  own  king  Ahaziah, 
for  they  knew  not  that  he  had  slain  them  both:  So 
Jehu  gave  orders  that  they  should  catch  these,  and 
kill  them,  being  in  number  forty-two  persons. 

6.     After  these,  there  met  him  a  good  and  a  right- 
eous man,  whose  name  was  Jchonadahj  and  who  had 

32  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 

been  his  friend  of  old.  He  saluted  Jehu,  and  began 
to  commend  him,  because  he  had  done  every  thing 
according  to  the  will  of  God,  in  extirpating  the  house 
of  Ahab.  So  Jehu  desired  him  to  come  up  into 
his  chariot,  and  make  his  entry  with  him  into  Samaria; 
and  told  him,  That  "he  would  not  spare  one  wicked 
man,  but  would  punish  the  false  prophets,  and  false 
priests,  and  those  that  deceived  the  multitude,  and 
persuaded  them  to  leave  the  worship  of  God  Al- 
mighty, and  to  worshij)  foreign  gods;  and  that  it 
was  a  most  excellent  and  most  pleasing  sight  to 
a  good  and  a  righteous  man  to  see  the  wicked  pun- 
ished." So  Jehonadab  was  persuaded  by  these  argu- 
ments and  came  up  into  Jehu's  chariot,  and  came 
to  Samaria.  And  Jehu  sought  out  for  all  Ahab's 
kindred,  and  slew  them.  And  being  desirous  that 
none  of  the  false  prophets  nor  the  priests  of  Ahab's 
god,  might  escape  punishment,  he  caught  them 
deceitfully  by  this  wile:  for  he  gathered  all  the  people 
together,  and  said.  That  "he  would  worship  twice 
as  many  gods  as  Ahab  worshipped,  and  desired  that 
his  priests,  and  prophets,  and  servants  might  be 
present  because  he  would  offer  costly  and  great 
sacrifices  to  Ahab's  god,  and  that  if  any  of  his 
priests  were  wanting,  they  should  be  punished  with 
death."  Now  Ahab's  god  was  called  Baal.  And 
when  he  had  ajjpointed  a  day  on  which  he  would 
offer  those  sacrifices,  he  sent  messengers  through  all 
the  country  of  the  Israehtes,  that  they  might  bring 
the  priests  of  Baal  to  him.  So  Jehu  commanded 
to  give  all  the  priests  vestments;  and  when  they  had 
received  tliem,  he  went  into  the  house  [of  Baal,] 
with  his  friend  Jehonadab,  and  gave  orders  to  make 
search  whether  there  were  not  any  foreigner  or 
stranger  among  them,  for  he  would  have  no  one  of 
a  different  religion  to  mix  among  their  sacred  offices. 

Chap.  VII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  33 

And  when  they  said  that  there  was  no  stranger  there, 
and  they  were  beginning  their  sacrifices.,  he  set  four- 
score men  without,  they  being  such  of  his  soldiers 
as  he  knew  to  be  most  faithful  to  him,  and  bid  them 
slay  the  prophets,  and  now  vindicate  the  laws  of 
their  country,  which  had  been  a  long  time  in  dis- 
esteem.  He  also  threatened,  that  if  any  one  of 
them  escaped,  their  own  lives  should  go  for  them. 
So  they  slew  them  all  with  the  sword,  and  burnt  the 
house  of  Baal;  and  by  that  means  purged  Samaria 
of  foreign  customs,  [idolatrous  worship.]  Now  this 
Baal  was  the  god  of  the  Tyrians;  and  Ahab,  in 
order  to  gratify  his  father-in-law,  Ethbaal,  who  was 
the  king  of  Tyre  and  Sidon,  built  a  temple  for  him 
in  Samaria,  and  appointed  him  prophets,  and  wor- 
shipped him  with  all  sorts  of  w^orship,  although,  when 
this  god  was  demolished,  Jehu  permitted  the  Israel- 
ites to  worship  the  golden  heifers.  However,  be- 
cause he  had  done  thus,  and  taken  care  to  punish 
the  wicked,  God  foretold  by  his  prophet,  that  his 
sons  should  reign  over  Israel  for  four  generations: 
And  in  this  condition  was  Jehu  at  this  time. 


How  Athaliah  reigned  over  Jerusalem  for  five  [six] 
years,  when  Jehoiada  the  high  priest  slew  her,  and 
made  Jehoash  the  son  of  Ahaziah  king. 

1.  Now  when  Athaliah,  the  daughter  of  Ahab, 
heard  of  the  death  of  her  brother  Joram,  and  of 
her  son  Ahaziah,  and  of  the  royal  family,  she  en- 
deavoured that  none  of  the  house  of  David  nught 
be   left   alive,    but    that    the    whole    family    might    be 

34  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 

exterminated,  that  no  king  might  arise  out  of  it 
afterward;  and,  as  she  thought,  she  had  actually 
done  it;  but  one  of  Ahaziah's  sons  was  preserved, 
who  escaped  death  after  the  manner  following: 
Ahaziah  had  a  sister  by  the  same  father,  whose  name 
was  Jeliosheha,  and  she  was  married  to  the  high 
priest  Jehoiada.  She  went  into  the  king's  palace, 
and  found  Jehoash,  for  that  was  the  little  child's 
name,  who  was  not  above  a  year  old,  among  those 
that  were  slain,  but  concealed  with  his  nurse;  so  she 
took  him  with  her  into  a  secret  })ed-chamber,  and 
shut  him  up  there,  and  she  and  her  husband  Jehoiada 
l)rought  him  up  privately  in  the  temple  six  years, 
during  which  time  Athaliah  reigned  over  Jerusalem 
and  the  two  tribes. 

2.  Now  on  the  seventh  year,  Jehoiada  communi- 
cated the  matter  to  certain  of  the  captains  of  hun- 
dreds, five  in  number,  and  persuaded  them  to  be 
assisting  to  what  attempts  he  was  making  against 
Athaliah,  and  to  join  with  him  in  asserting  the  king- 
dom to  the  child.  He  also  received  such  oaths  from 
them  as  are  proper  to  secure  those  that  assist  one 
another  from  the  fear  of  discovery;  and  he  was  then 
of  good  hope  that  they  should  depose  Athaliah.  Now 
those  men  whom  Jehoiada  tlie  priest  had  taken  to 
be  his  partners,  went  into  all  the  coimtry,  and  gath- 
ered together  the  priests  and  the  Levites,  and  the 
heads  of  the  tribes  out  of  it,  and  came  and  brought 
them  to  Jerusalem  to  the  high  priest.  So  he  de- 
manded the  security  of  an  oath  of  them,  to  keep 
private  whatsoever  he  should  discover  to  them,  which 
required  both  their  silence  and  their  assistance.  So 
when  they  had  taken  the  oath,  and  had  thereby  made 
it  safe  for  him  to  speak,  lie  produced  the  child  that 
he  had  brought  up  of  the  family  of  David,  and 
said  to  them,  "This  is  your  king,  of  that  house  which 

Chap.  VII.  OF  TIIK  JEW'S.  35 

you  know  God  hath  foretold  should  reign  over  you 
for  all  time  to  come:  I  exhort  you  therefore  that 
one  third  part  of  you  guard  him  in  the  temple,  and 
that  a  fourth  part  keep  watch  at  all  the  gates  of 
the  temple,  and  that  the  next  part  of  you  keep 
guard  at  the  gate  which  opens  and  leads  to  the 
king's  palace,  and  let  the  rest  of  the  multitude  be 
unarmed  in  the  temple,  and  let  no  armed  person 
go  into  the  temple,  but  the  priest  only.  He  also 
gave  them  this  order  besides,  that  a  part  of  the 
priests  and  the  Levites  should  be  about  the  king 
himself,  and  be  a  guard  to  him,  with  their  drawn 
swords,  and  to  kill  that  man  immediately,  whoever 
he  be,  that  should  be  so  bold  as  to  enter  armed  into 
the  temple;  and  bid  them  be  afraid  of  nobody,  but 
persevere  in  guarding  the  king."  So  these  men 
obeyed  what  the  high  priest  advised  them  to,  and 
declared  the  reality  of  their  resolution  ])y  their  ac- 
tions. Jehoiada  also  opened  that  armoury  which 
David  had  made  in  the  temple,  and  distributed  to 
the  captains  of  hundreds,  as  also  to  the  priests  and 
Levites,  all  the  spears  and  quivers,  and  what  kind 
of  weapons  soever  it  contained,  and  set  them  armed 
in  a  circle  round  about  the  temple;  so  as  to  touch 
one  another's  hands,  and  by  that  means  excluding 
those  from  entering  that  ought  not  to  enter.  So 
they  brought  the  child  into  the  midst  of  them,  and 
put  on  him  the  royal  crown,  and  Jehoiada  anointed 
him  with  the  oil,  and  made  him  king;  and  the  multi- 
tude rejoiced;  and  made  a  noise,  and  cried,  "God 
save  the  king." 

3.  When  Athaliah  unexpectedly  heard  the  tumult 
and  the  acclamations,  she  was  greatly  disturbed  in 
her  mind,  and  suddenly  issued  out  of  the  royal  palace 
with  her  own  army;  and  when  she  was  come  to  the 
temple,    the    priests    received    her,    but    as    for    those 

36  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 

that  stood  round  about  the  temple,  as  they  were 
ordered  by  the  high  priest  to  do,  they  hindered  the 
armed  men  that  followed  her  from  going  in.  But 
when  Athaliah  saw  the  child  standing  upon  a  pillar, 
with  the  roj^al  crown  upon  his  head,  she  rent  her 
clothes,  and  cried  out  vehemently,  and  commanded 
[her  guards]  to  kill  him  that  had  laid  snares  for 
her,  and  endeavoured  to  deprive  her  of  the  govern- 
ment: But  Jehoiada  called  for  the  captains  of  hun- 
dreds, and  commanded  them  to  bring  Athaliah  to 
the  valley  of  Cedron,  and  slay  her  there,  for  he 
would  not  have  the  temple  defiled  with  the  punish- 
ment of  this  pernicious  woman;  and  he  gave  order, 
that  if  any  one  came  near  to  help  her,  he  should 
be  slain  also:  wherefore  those  that  had  the  charge 
of  her  slaughter,  took  hold  of  her,  and  led  her  to 
the  gate  of  the  kings'  mules,  and  slew  her  there. 

4.  Now  as  soon  as  what  concerned  Athaliah  was 
by  this  stratagem,  after  this  manner  despatched, 
Jehoiada  called  together  the  people  and  the  armed 
men  into  the  temple,  and  made  them  take  an  oath 
that  they  would  be  obedient  to  the  king,  and  take 
care  of  his  safety,  and  of  the  safety  of  his  govern- 
ment; after  which  he  obliged  the  king  to  give  se- 
curity [upon  oath]  that  he  would  worship  God,  and 
not  transgress  the  laws  of  ]Moses.  They  then  ran 
to  the  house  of  Baal,  which  Athaliah  and  her  hus- 
band Jehoram  had  built,  to  the  dishonour  of  the 
God  of  their  fathers,  and  to  the  honour  of  Ahab, 
and  demolished  it,  and  slew  JNIatan,  that  had  his 
priesthood.  But  Jehoiada  entrusted  the  care  and 
custody  of  the  temple  to  the  priests  and  Levites, 
according  to  the  appointment  of  king  David,  and 
enjoined  them  to  bring  their  regular  burnt-offerings 
twice  a-day,  and  to  offer  incense  according  to  the 
law.     He   also    ordained    some    of    the    Levites,    with 

Chap.  VIII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  37 

the   porters,   to   be   a   guard   to   the   temple,   that   no 
one  that  was  defiled  might  come  there. 

5.  And  when  Jehoiada  had  set  these  things  in 
order,  he,  with  the  captains  of  hundreds,  and  the 
rulers,  and  all  the  people,  took  Jehoash,  out  of  the 
temple  into  the  king's  palace,  and  when  he  had  set 
him  into  the  king's  throne,  the  people  shouted  for 
joy,  and  betook  themselves  to  feasting,  and  kept 
a  festival  for  many  days;  but  the  city  was  quiet  upon 
the  death  of  Athaliah.  Xow  Jehoash  was  seven  years 
old  when  he  took  the  kingdom:  His  mother's  name 
was  Zibiah,  of  the  city  Beersheba.  And  all  the 
time  that  Jehoiada  lived,  Jehoash  was  carefu]  that 
the  laws  should  be  kept,  and  very  zealous  in  the 
worship  of  God;  and  when  he  was  of  age,  he  married 
two  wives,  who  were  given  to  him  by  the  high  priest, 
by  whom  were  born  to  him  both  sons  and  daughters. 
And  thus  much  shall  suffice  to  have  related  con- 
cerning king  Jehoash,  how  he  escaped  the  treachery 
of  Athaliah,  and  how  he  received  the  kingdom. 


Hazael  makes  an  expedition  against  the  people  of 
Israel,  and  the  inhabitants  of  Jerusalem.  Jehu 
dies,  and  JehoaJiaz  succeeds  in  the  government. 
Jehoash,  the  king  of  Jerusalem,  at  first  is  careful 
about  the  worship  of  God,  but  afterivards  becomes 
impious,  and  commands  Zachariah  to  be  stoned. 
When  Jehoash  [king  of  Judah]  tvas  dead,  Amaziah 
succeeds  him   in  the  kingdom. 

1.     Xow    Hazael,    king    of    Syria,    fought    against 
the  Israelites   and  their  king   Jehu,   and   spoiled   the 

38  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 

eastern  parts  of  the  country  beyond  Jordan,  which 
belonged  to  the  Reubenites  and  Gadites,  and  to  [the 
half  tribe  of]  Manassites;  as  also  Gilead  and  Bashan, 
burning  and  spoiling,  and  offering  violence  to  all 
that  he  laid  his  hands  on;  and  this  without  im- 
peachment from  Jehu,  who  made  no  haste  to  defend 
the  country  when  it  was  under  this  distress:  nay, 
he  was  become  a  contemner  of  religion,  and  a  despiser 
of  holiness,  and  of  the  laws;  and  died  when  he  had 
reigned  over  the  Israelites  twenty-seven  years.  He 
was  buried  in  Samaria:  and  left  Jehoahaz  his  son 
his  successor  in  the  government. 

2.  Now  Jehoash,  king  of  Jerusalem,  had  an  in- 
clination to  repair  the  temple  of  God;  so  he  called 
Jehoiada,  and  bid  him  send  the  Levites  and  priests 
through  all  the  country,  to  require  half  a  shekel  of 
silver  for  every  head,  towards  the  rebuilding  and 
repairing  of  the  temple,  which  was  brought  to  decay 
by  Jehoram,  and  Athaliah,  and  her  sons.  But  the 
high  priest  did  not  do  this,  as  concluding  that  no 
one  would  willingly  pay  the  money;  but  on  the 
twenty-third  year  of  .Jehoash's  reign,  when  the  king 
sent  for  him  and  the  Levites,  and  complained  that 
they  had  not  obeyed  what  he  enjoined  them,  and 
still  conmianded  them  to  take  care  of  the  rebuilding 
the  temple,  he  used  this  stratagem  for  collecting  the 
money,  with  which  the  multitude  was  pleased.  He 
made  a  wooden  chest,  and  closed  it  up  fast  on  all 
sides,  but  opened  one  hole  in  it;  he  then  set  it  in  the 
temple  beside  the  altar,  and  desired  every  one  to 
cast  into  it,  through  the  hole,  what  he  pleased,  for 
the  repair  of  the  temple.  This  contrivance  was  ac- 
ceptable to  the  peo])le,  and  tliey  strove  one  with 
another,  and  brought  in  jointly  large  quantities  of 
silver  and  gold:  and  when  the  scribe  and  the  priest 
that  were  over  the  treasuries  had  emptied  the  chest. 

Chap.  VIII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  .39 

and  counted  the  money  in  tlie  king's  presence,  they 
then  set  it  in  its  former  place,  and  thus  did  they 
every  day.  But  when  the  multitude  appeared  to 
have  cast  in  as  much  as  was  wanted,  the  high  priest 
Jehoiada,  and  king  Jehoash,  sent  to  hire  masons  and 
carpenters,  and  to  buy  large  pieces  of  timber,  and 
of  the  most  curious  sort,  and  when  they  had  repaired 
the  temple,  they  made  use  of  the  remaining  gold 
and  silver,  which  was  not  a  little,  for  bowls,  and 
basons,  and  cups,  and  other  vessels,  and  they  went 
on  to  make  the  altar  every  day  fat  M^ith  sacrifices 
of  gi-eat  value.  And  these  things  were  taken  suit- 
able care  of,   as  long  as  Jehoiada  lived. 

3.  But  as  soon  as  he  was  dead,  which  was  when 
he  had  lived  one  hundred  and  thirty  years,  having 
been  a  righteous,  and  in  every  respect,  a  very  good 
man,  he  was  buried  in  the  king's  sepulchre  at  Jeru- 
salem, (because  he  had  recovered  the  kingdom  to 
the  family  of  David),  king  Jehoash  betrayed  his 
[want  of]  care  about  God.  The  principal  men  of 
the  people  were  corrupted  also  together  with  him, 
and  offended  against  their  duty,  and  what  their 
constitution  determined  to  be  most  for  their  good. 
Hereupon  God  was  displeased  with  the  change  that 
was  made  on  the  king,  and  on  the  rest  of  the  people; 
and  sent  prophets  to  testify  to  them  what  their 
actions  were,  and  to  bring  them  to  leave  off  their 
wickedness:  but  they  had  gotten  such  a  strong  affec- 
tion, and  so  violent  an  inclination  to  it,  that  neither 
could  the  examples  of  those  that  had  offered  affronts 
to  the  laws,  and  had  been  so  severely  punished,  they 
and  their  entire  families,  nor  could  the  fear  of  what 
the  prophets  now  foretold,  bring  them  to  repentance, 
and  turn  them  back  from  their  course  of  trans- 
gression, to  their  former  duty.  But  the  king  com- 
manded that  Zachariah,  the  son  of  the  high  priest 

40  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 

Jehoiada,  should  be  stoned  to  death  in  the  temple, 
and  forgot  the  kindnesses  he  had  received  from  his 
father;  for  when  God  had  appointed  him  to  prophesy, 
he  stood  in  the  midst  of  the  multitude,  and  gave 
this  counsel  to  them  and  to  the  king,  that  they 
should  act  righteously,  and  foretold  to  them,  that 
if  they  would  not  hearken  to  his  admonitions,  they 
should  suffer  a  heavy  punishment:  But  as  Zachariah 
was  ready  to  die,  he  appealed  to  God,  as  a  witness 
of  what  he  suffered,  for  the  good  counsel  he  had 
given  them,  and  how  he  perished  after  a  most  severe 
and  violent  manner  for  the  good  deeds  his  father  had 
done  to  Jehoash. 

4,  However,  it  was  not  long  before  the  king 
suffered  punishment  for  his  transgression;  for  when 
Hazael,  king  of  Syria,  made  an  irruption  into  his 
country,  and  when  he  had  overthrown  Gath,  and 
spoiled  it,  he  made  an  expedition  against  Jerusalem: 
upon  which  Jehoash  was  afraid,  and  emptied  all  the 
treasures  of  God,  and  of  the  kings  [before  him], 
and  took  down  the  gifts  that  had  been  dedicated, 
[in  the  temple],  and  sent  them  to  the  king  of  Syria, 
and  procured  so  much  by  them,  that  he  was  not  be- 
sieged, nor  his  kingdom  quite  endangered,  but  Hazael 
was  induced  by  the  greatness  of  the  sum  of  money 
not  to  bring  his  army  against  Jerusalem:  yet  Jehoash 
fell  into  a  severe  distemper,  and  was  set  upon  by 
his  friends,  in  order  to  revenge  the  death  of  Zachariah 
the  son  of  Jehoiada.  These  laid  snares  for  the  king 
and  slew  him.  He  was  indeed  buried  in  Jerusalem, 
but  not  in  the  royal  sepulchres  of  his  forefathers, 
because  of  his  impiety.  He  lived  forty-seven  years, 
and  Amaziah  his  son  succeeded  him  in  the  kingdom. 

5.  In  the  one  and  twentieth  year  of  the  reign 
of  Jehoash,  Jchoahaz,  the  son  of  Jehu,  took  the  gov- 
ernment  of   the   Israehtes   in    Samaria,    and   held   it 

Chap.  VIII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  41 

seventeen  years.  He  did  not  [properly]  imitate  his 
father,  but  was  guilty  of  as  wicked  practices  as 
those  that  first  had  God  in  contempt:  but  the  king 
of  S}Tia  brought  him  low,  and  by  an  expedition 
against  him  did  so  greatly  reduce  his  forces,  that 
there  remained  no  more  of  so  great  an  army  than 
ten  thousand  armed  men,  and  fifty  horsemen.  He 
also  took  aM^ay  from  him  his  great  cities,  and  many 
of  them  also,  and  destroyed  his  army.  And  these 
were  the  things  that  the  people  of  Israel  suffered, 
according  to  the  prophecy  of  Elisha,  when  he  fore- 
told that  Hazael  would  kill  his  master,  and  reign 
over  the  Sp'ians  and  Damascenes.  But  when  Je- 
hoahaz  was  under  such  unavoidable  miseries,  he  had 
recourse  to  prayer  and  supplication  to  God,  and 
besought  him  to  deliver  him  out  of  the  hands  of 
Hazael,  and  not  overlook  him,  and  give  him  up 
into  his  hands.  Accordingly,  God  accepted  of  his 
repentance  instead  of  virtue,  and  being  desirous 
rather  to  admonish  those  that  might  repent,  and  not 
to  determine  that  they  should  be  utterly  destroyed, 
he  granted  him  dehverance  from  wars  and  dangers. 
So  the  country  having  obtained  peace,  returned  again 
to  its  former  condition,  and  flourished  as  before. 

6.  Xow  after  the  death  of  Jehoaliaz,  his  son  Joash 
took  the  kingdom,  in  the  thirty-seventh  year  of 
Jehoash,  the  king  of  the  tribe  of  Judah.  This  Joash 
then  took  the  kingdom  of  Israel  in  Samaria,  for  he 
had  the  same  name  with  the  king  of  Jerusalem,  and 
he  retained  the  kingdom  sixteen  years.  He  was  a 
^  good    man    and    in    his    disposition    was    not    at    all 

*  This  character  of  Joash,  the  son  of  Jehoahaz,  that  he  was  a  good 
man,  "and  in  his  disposition  not  at  all  like  to  his  father,"  seems  a  direct 
contradiction  to  our  ordinary  copies,  which  say,  2  Kings  xiii.  11,  that 
"he  did  evil  in  the  sight  of 'the  Lord;  and  that  he  departed  not  from 
all  the  sins  of  Jerohoam,  the  son  of  Xehat,  who  made  Israel  to  sin,  he 
walked  therein."  Which  copies  are  here  the  truest,  it  is  hard  positively 
to  determine.     If  Josephus'  be  true,  this  Joash  is  the  single  instance  of 

42  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 

like  his  father.  Now  at  this  time  it  was,  that  when 
EHsha  the  prophet,  who  was  akeady  very  old,  and 
was  now  fallen  into  a  disease,  the  king  of  Israel 
came  to  visit  him;  and  when  he  found  him  very  near 
death  he  began  to  weep  in  his  sight,  and  lament, 
"to  call  him  his  father,  and  his  weapons,  because  it 
was  by  liis  means  that  he  never  made  use  of  his 
weapons  against  his  enemies,  but  that  he  overcame 
his  own  adversaries  by  his  prophecies,  without  fight- 
ing; and  that  he  was  now  departing  this  life,  and 
leaving  him  to  tlie  Syrians,  that  were  already  armed, 
and  to  other  enemies  of  his  that  were  under  their 
power:  so  he  said  it  was  not  safe  for  him  to  live 
any  longer,  but  that  it  woidd  ])e  well  for  him  to 
hasten  to  his  end,  and  depart  out  of  this  life  with 
him."  As  the  king  was  thus  bemoaning  himself, 
Elisha  comforted  him,  and  bitl  the  king  bend  a  bow 
that  was  brought  him;  and  when  the  king  had  fitted 
the  bow  for  shooting,  Elisha  took  hokl  of  his  hands 
and  bid  him  shoot;  and  when  he  had  shot  three  arrows, 
and  then  left  off,  Elisha  said,  "If  thou  hadst  shot 
more  arrows  thou  hadst  cut  the  kingdom  of  Syria 
up  by  the  roots,  but  since  thou  hast  been  satisfied 
with  shooting  three  times  only,  thou  slialt  fight  and 
l)eat  the  Syrians  no  more  times  tliaii  three,  that  thou 
mayest  recover  that  country  which  they  cut  off  from 
thy  kingdom  in  the  reign  of  thy   father."     So  when 

a  good  king  o\'er  the  ten  tribes:  If  tlie  other  be  true,  we  have  not  one 
such  example.  Tlie  account  that  follows  in  all  copies,  of  Elisha  the 
i)r()])het's  concern  for  him,  and  his  concern  for  Elisha,  greatly  favour 
,Josej)hus'  cojiies,  and  suppose  this  king  to  have  been  then  a  good  man, 
and  no  idolater,  with  whom  God's  ])ro})hets  used  not  to  be  so  familiar. 
l'))on  the  whole,  since  it  ajipears  even  by  Josejihus'  own  account,  that 
Aiuaziah  the  good  king  of  Judah,  while  he  was  a  good  king,  was  for- 
i)idden  to  make  use  of  the  100,000  auxiliaries,  he  had  of  tliis  Joash 
the  king  of  Israel,  as  if  lie  and  they  wer<;  then  idohitcrs,  2  C'hron.  xxv. 
(i-i).  It  is  most  likely  that  these  different  cli;ir;ictcrs  of  Joash  suited 
the  different  parts  of  his  reign,  and  that  according  lo  onr  couunou 
coy)ies,  he  was  at  first  a  wicked  king,  and  afterwards  was  reclaimed,  and 
became   a  good  one,   according  to  Josephus. 

Chap.  VIII.  or  THE  JEWS.  43 

the  king  had  heard  that,  he  departed;  and  a  little 
while  after,  the  prophet  died.  He  was  a  man  cele- 
brated for  righteousness;  and  in  eminent  favour  witli 
God.  He  also  performed  wonderful  and  surprising 
works  by  prophecy,  and  such  as  were  gloriously  pre- 
served in  memory  by  the  Hebrews.  He  also  ob- 
tained a  magnificent  funeral,  such  a  one  indeed  as 
it  was  fit  a  person  so  beloved  of  God  should  have. 
It  also  happened,  that  at  that  time  certain  robbers 
cast  a  man  whom  they  had  slain  into  Elisha's  grave, 
and  upon  his  dead  body,  coming  close  to  Elisha's 
body  it  revived  again.  And  thus  far  have  we  en- 
larged about  the  actions  of  Elisha  the  prophet,  both 
such  as  he  did  while  he  was  alive,  and  how  he  had 
a  divine  power  after  his  death  also. 

7.  Now  upon  the  death  of  Hazael,  the  king  of 
Syria,  that  kingdom  came  to  Adad  his  son,  witli 
whom  Joash  king  of  Israel  made  war,  and  when  he 
had  beaten  him  in  three  battles,  he  took  from  him 
all  that  country,  and  all  those  cities  and  villages 
which  his  father  Hazael  liad  taken  from  the  kingdom 
of  Israel,  which  came  to  pass  however  according  to 
the  prophecy  of  Elisha.  But  when  Joash  happened 
to  die,  he  was  buried  in  Samaria,  and  the  govern- 
ment devolved  on  his  son  Jeroboam. 

44  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 


How  Amaziah  made  an  cwpedition  against  the  E d om- 
it es  and  Amalehites,  and  conquered  them;  hut  when 
he  afterwards  made  xvar  against  Joash,  he  was 
beaten,  and  not  long  after  was  slain,  and  Uzziah 
succeeded  hi  the  government, 

1.  Now  in  the  second  year  of  the  reign  of  Joash 
over  Israel,  Amaziah  reigned  over  tlie  tribe  of  Judah 
at  Jerusalem.  His  mother's  name  was  Jehohaddan, 
who  was  born  at  Jerusalem.  He  was  exceeding  care- 
ful in  doing  what  was  right,  and  this  when  he  was 
very  young;  but  when  he  came  to  the  management  of 
affairs,  and  to  the  government,  he  resolved  that  he 
ought  first  of  all  to  avenge  his  father  Jehoash,  and 
to  punish  those  his  friends  that  had  laid  violent  hands 
upon  him;  so  he  seized  upon  them  all,  and  put  them 
to  death,  yet  did  he  execute  no  severity  on  their 
children,  but  acted  therein  according  to  the  laws  of 
Closes,  who  did  not  think  it  just  to  punish  children 
for  the  sins  of  their  fathers.  After  this  he  chose  him 
an  army  out  of  the  tribe  of  Judah  and  Benjamin  of 
such  as  were  in  the  flower  of  their  age,  and  about 
twenty  years  old;  and  when  he  had  collected  about 
three  hundred  thousand  of  them  together,  he  set 
captains  of  hundreds  over  them.  Pie  also  sent  to 
the  king  of  Israel,  and  hired  an  hundred  thousand  of 
his  soldiers  for  an  hundred  talents  of  silver,  for  he 
had  resolved  to  make  an  expedition  against  the  na- 
tions of  the  Amalekites,  and  Edomites,  and  Gebalites: 
But  as  he  was  preparing  for  his  expedition,  and  ready 
to  go  out  to  the  war,  a  prophet  gave  him  counsel  to 
dismiss  the  army  of  the  Israelites,  because  they  were 

Chap.  IX.  OF  THE  JEWS.  45 

bad  men,  and  because  God  foretold  that  he  should 
be  beaten,  if  he  made  use  of  them  as  auxiliaries;  but 
that  he  should  overcome  his  enemies,  though  he  had 
but  a  few  soldiers,  when  it  so  pleased  God.  And 
when  the  king  grudged  at  his  having  already  paid 
the  hire  of  the  Israelites,  the  prophet  exhorted  him 
to  do  what  God  would  have  him,  because  he  should 
thereby  obtain  much  wealth  from  God.  So  he  dis- 
missed them,  and  said,  that  he  still  freely  gave  them 
their  pay,  and  w^nt  himself  with  his  own  army,  and 
made  war  with  the  nations  before  mentioned;  and 
when  he  had  beaten  them  in  battle,  he  slew  of  them 
ten  thousand,  and  took  as  many  prisoners  alive;  whom 
he  brought  to  the  great  rock  which  is  in  Arabia,  and 
threw  them  down  from  it  headlong.  He  also  brought 
away  a  great  deal  of  prey,  and  vast  riches,  from  those 
nations.  But  while  Amaziah  was  engaged  in  this 
expedition,  those  Israelites  whom  he  had  hired,  and 
then  dismissed,  were  very  uneasy  at  it,  and  taking 
their  dismission  for  an  affront,  as  supposing  that  this 
would  not  have  been  done  to  them  but  out  of  con- 
tempt, they  fell  upon  his  kingdom,  and  proceeded  to 
spoil  the  country  as  far  as  Beth-horon,  and  took  much 
cattle,  and  slew  three  thousand  men. 

2.  Now  upon  the  victory  which  Amaziah  had  got- 
ten, and  the  great  acts  he  had  done,  he  was  puffed 
up,  and  began  to  overlook  God,  who  had  given  him 
the  victory,  and  proceeded  to  worship  the  gods  he  had 
brought  out  of  the  country  of  the  Amalekites.  So  a 
prophet  came  to  him  and  said,  That  "he  wondered 
how  he  could  esteem  these  to  be  gods,  who  had  been 
of  no  advantage  to  their  own  people,  who  paid  them 
honours;  nor  had  delivered  them  from  his  hand,  ])ut 
had  overlooked  the  destruction  of  many  of  them,  and 
had  suffered  themselves  to  be  carried  captive;  for 
that  thev  had  been  carried  to  Jerusalem,  in  the  same 

46  AXTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 

manner  as  any  one  might  have  taken  some  of  the 
enemy  ahve,  and  led  them  thither."  This  reproof 
provoked  the  king  to  anger,  and  he  commanded  the 
prophet  to  hold  his  peace,  and  threatened  to  punish 
him  if  he  meddled  with  his  conduct.  So  he  replied, 
"That  he  should  indeed  hold  his  peace;  but  foretold 
withal,  that  God  would  not  overlook  his  attempts 
for  innovation."  But  Amaziah  was  not  able  to  con- 
tain himself  under  that  prosperity  which  God  had 
given  him,  although  he  had  affronted  God  thereupon; 
hut  in  a  vein  of  insolence  he  wrote  to  Joash,  the 
king  of  Israel,  and  "commanded  that  he  and  all  his 
people  should  be  obedient  to  him,  as  they  had  for- 
merly been  obedient  to  his  progenitors,  David  and 
Solomon;  and  he  let  him  know,  that  if  he  would 
not  be  so  wise  as  to  do  what  he  commanded  him,  he 
must  fight  for  his  dominion."  To  which  message 
Joash  returned  this  answer  in  writing:  "King  Joash 
to  king  Amaziah.  There  was  a  vastly  tall  cypress 
tree  in  mount  Lebanon,  as  also  a  thistle:  this  thistle 
sent  to  the  cypress  tree  to  give  the  cypress  tree's 
daughter  in  marriage  to  the  thistle's  son;  but  as  the 
thistle  was  saying  this,  there  came  a  wild  beast,  and 
trode  down  the  thistle:  And  this  may  be  a  lesson 
to  thee,  not  to  be  so  ambitious,  and  to  have  a  care, 
lest  upon  thy  good  success  in  the  fight  against  the 
Amalekites,  thou  growest  so  j^i'oi^id,  as  to  bring 
dangers  upon  thyself  and  upon  thy  kingdom." 

3.  When  Amaziah  had  read  tliis  letter,  he  was 
more  eager  upon  this  expedition,  which,  I  suppose, 
was  by  the  impulse  of  God,  that  he  might  be  pun- 
ished for  his  offence  against  him.  But  as  soon  as 
he  led  out  his  army  against  Joash,  and  they  were 
going  to  join  battle  witli  him,  there  came  such  a 
fear  and  consternation  u])()n  tlie  army  of  Amaziah, 
as  God  when  he  is  displeased,  sends  upon  men,  and 

Chap.  IX.  OF  THE  JEWS.  47 

discomfited  them,  even  before  they  came  to  a  close 
fight.  Now  it  happened,  that  as  they  were  scattered 
about  by  the  terror  that  was  upon  them,  Amaziali 
was  left  alone,  and  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  enemy; 
whereupon  Joash  threatened  to  kill  him,  unless  he 
would  persuade  the  people  of  Jerusalem  to  oj^en 
their  gates  to  him,  and  receive  him  and  his  army 
into  the  city.  Accordingly,  Amaziah  was  so  dis- 
tressed, and  in  such  fear  of  his  life,  that  he  made 
his  enemy  to  be  received  into  the  city.  So  Joash 
overthrew  a  part  of  the  wall,  of  the  length  of  four 
hundred  cubits,  and  drove  his  chariot  through  the 
breach  into  Jerusalem,  and  led  Amaziah  captive 
along  witli  him:  by  which  means  he  became  master 
of  Jerusalem,  and  took  away  the  treasures  of  God, 
and  carried  off  all  the  gold  and  silver  that  was  in 
the  king's  palace,  and  tlien  freed  the  king  from 
captivity,  and  returned  to  Samaria.  Now  these 
things  happened  to  the  people  of  Jerusalem  in  the 
fourteenth  year  of  the  reign  of  Amaziah,  who  after 
this  had  a  conspiracy  made  against  him  by  his  friends, 
and  fled  to  the  city  Lachish,  and  was  there  slain  by 
the  conspirators,  w^ho  sent  men  thither  to  kill  him. 
So  they  took  up  his  dead  body,  and  carried  it  to 
Jerusalem,  and  made  a  royal  funeral  for  him.  This 
was  the  end  of  the  life  of  Amaziah,  because  of  his 
innovations  in  religion,  and  his  contempt  of  God, 
when  he  had  lived  fifty-four  years,  and  had  reigned 
twenty-nine.  He  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  whose 
name  was  Uzziah. 

48  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 


Concerning  Jeroboam,  king  of  Israel,  and  Jonah  the 
prophet;  and  hotc,  after  the  death  of  Jeroboam, 
his  son  Zechariah  took  the  government.  How 
Uzziah,  king  of  Jerusalem,  subdued  the  nations, 
that  were  I'ound  about  him;  and  td^hat  befell  him 
when  he  attempted  to  offer  incense  to  God. 

1.  In  the  fifteenth  year  of  the  reign  of  Amaziah, 
Jeroboam,  the  son  of  Joash,  reigned  over  Israel  and 
Samaria,  forty  years.  The  king  was  guilty  of  ^  con- 
tumely against  God,  and  became  very  wicked  in 
worshipping  of  idols,  and  in  many  undertakings  that 
were  absurd  and  foreign.  He  was  also  the  cause  of 
ten  thousand  misfortunes  to  the  people  of  Israel. 
Now  one  Jonah,  a  prophet,  foretold  to  him,  that  he 
should  make  war  with  the  Syrians,  and  conquer  their 
army,  and  enlarge  the  bounds  of  his  kingdom  on 
the  northern  parts,  to  the  city  Hamath,  and  on  the 
southern,  to  the  lake  Asphaltitis,  for  the  bounds  of 
the  Canaanites  originally  were  these  as  Joshua  their 
general  had  determined  them.  So  Jeroboam  made 
an  expedition  against  the  Syrians  and  overran  all 
their  country,  as  Jonah  had  foretold. 

2.  Now  I  cannot  but  think  it  necessary  for  me, 

'  What  I  have  above  noted  concerning  Jehoash,  seems  to  nie  to 
have  been  true  also  concerning  his  son  Jeroboam  II.  viz.  that  although 
he  began  wickedly,  as  Josepluis  agrees  with  our  other  copies,  and,  as  he 
adds  "was  the  cause  of  a  vast  number  of  misfortunes  to  the  Israelites," 
in  those  his  first  years,  (the  particulars  of  which  are  unhappily  wanting 
both  in  Joscphus  and  in  all  our  copies),  so  does  it  seem  to  me  that  he 
was  afterwards  reclaimed,  and  became  a  good  king,  and  so  was  en- 
couraged by  the  proj)het  .Jonah,  and  had  great  successes  afterward,  when 
"God  had  saved  the  Israelites  by  the  hand  of  Jeroboam,  the  son  of 
Joash,"  2  Kings  xiv.  -2~i,  which  encouragement  by  Jonah,  and  great  suc- 
cesses  are  etjually   observable  in  Josejihus,   and  in   the  other   copief 

Chap.  X.  OF  THE  JEWS.  49 

who  have  promised  to  give  an  accurate  account  of 
our  affairs,  to  describe  the  actions  of  the  prophet,  so 
far  as  I  have  found  them  written  down  in  the  Hebrew 
books.  Jonah  had  been  commanded  bj"  God  to  go 
to  the  kingdom  of  Nineveh;  and  when  he  was  there, 
to  pubhsh  it  in  that  city,  how  it  should  lose  the  do- 
minion it  had  over  the  nations.  But  he  went  not, 
out  of  fear;  nay,  he  ran  away  from  God  to  the 
city  of  Joppa,  and  finding  a  ship  there,  he  went 
into  it,  and  sailed  to  ^  Tarsus  in  Cilicia,  and  upon 
the  rise  of  a  most  terrible  storm,  which  was  so  great 
that  the  ship  was  in  danger  of  sinking,  the  mariners, 
the  master,  and  the  pilot  himself,  made  prayers  and 
vows,  in  case  they  escaped  the  sea;  but  Jonah  lay 
still  and  covered  [in  the  ship],  without  imitating 
any  thing  that  the  others  did:  but  as  the  waves  grew 
greater,  and  the  sea  became  more  violent  by  the 
winds,  they  suspected,  as  is  usual  in  such  cases,  that 
some  one  of  the  persons  that  sailed  with  them,  was 
the  occasion  of  this  storm,  and  agreed  to  discover 
by  lot  which  of  them  it  was.     When  they  had  ^  cast 

'  When  Jonah  is  said  in  our  Bibles  to  have  gone  to  Tafshish,  Jonah 
i.  3,  Josephus  understood  it  that  he  went  to  Tarshish  in  Cilicia,  or  to 
the  Mediterranean  Sea,  upon  which  Tarsus  lay:  so  that  he  does  not 
appear  to  have  read  the  text,  1  Kings  xxii.  48,  as  our  copies  do,  that 
ships  of  Tarshish  could  lie  at  Ezion-Geber,  upon  the  Red  Sea.  But 
as  to  Josephus'  assertion  that  Jonah's  fish  was  carried  by  the  strength 
of  the  current,  upon  a  storm,  as  far  as  the  Euxine  Sea,  it  is  no  way 
impossible:  and  since  the  storm  might  have  driven  the  ship,  while  Jonah 
was  in  it,  near  to  the  Euxine  Sea,  and  since  in  three  more  days  while 
he  was  in  the  fish's  belly,  that  current  might  bring  him  to  the  Assyrian 
coast,  and  since  withal  that  coast  could  bring  him  nearer  to  Nineveh 
than  could  any  coast  of  the  Mediterranean,  it  is  by  no  means  an  im- 
probable determination   in   Josephus. 

^  This  ancient  piece  of  religion,  of  supposing  there  was  (/real  sin 
where  there  was  great  miscri/,  and  of  casting  lots  to  discover  great 
smners,  not  only  among  the  Israelites,  but  among  these  heathen  mariners, 
rrems  a  remarkable  remains  of  tl;e  ancient  tradition  which  prevailed  of 
old  over  all  mankind,  that  prnvidcnce  used  to  interpose  visibly  in  all 
human  affairs,  and  never  to  liring,  or  at  least  not  long  to  continue, 
i.otorious  judgments  but  f'^r  notorious  sins,  which  the  most  ancient 
book  of  Job  shows  to  liave  been  the  state  of  mankind  for  about  the 
former  3000  years  of  the  'vorld,  till  the  days  of  Job  and  Moses. 

50  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 

lots,  the  lot  fell  upon  the  prophet;  and  when  they 
asked  him,  Whence  he  came^'  and  what  he  had  done? 
he  replied.  That  he  was  an  Hebrew  by  nation,  and 
a  prophet  of  Almighty  God;  and  he  persuaded  them 
to  cast  him  into  the  sea,  if  they  would  escape  the 
danger  they  were  in,  for  that  he  was  the  occasion 
of  the  storm  which  was  upon  them.  Now  at  the 
first  they  durst  not  do  so,  as  esteeming  it  a  wicked 
thing  to  cast  a  man  who  -was  a  stranger,  and  who 
had  committed  his  life  to  them,  into  such  manifest 
perdition;  but  at  last,  when  their  misfortune  over- 
bore them,  and  the  ship  was  just  going  to  be  drowned, 
and  when  they  were  animated  to  do  it  by  the  prophet 
himself,  and  by  the  fear  concerning  their  own  safety, 
they  cast  him  into  the  sea ;  upon  which  the  sea  be- 
came calm.  It  is  also  related  that  Jonah  was  swal- 
lowed down  by  a  whale,  and  that  when  he  had  been 
there  three  days,  and  as  many  nights,  he  was  vomited 
out  upon  the  Euxine  Sea,  and  this  alive,  and  without 
any  hurt  upon  his  body;  and  there,  on  his  prayer 
to  God,  he  obtained  pardon  for  his  sins,  and  went 
to  the  city  Nineveh,  where  he  stood  so  as  to  be 
heard;  and  preached,  That  "in  a  very  little  time 
they  should  lose  the  dominion  of  Asia."  And  when 
he  had  published  this,  he  returned.  Now,  I  have 
given  the  account  about  him,  as  I  found  it  written 
[in  our  books]. 

3.  When  Jeroboam  the  king  had  passed  his  life 
in  great  happiness,  and  had  ruled  forty  years,  he 
died  and  was  buried  in  Samaria,  and  his  son  Zechariah 
took  the  kingdom.  After  the  same  manner  did 
Uzziah,  the  son  of  Amaziah,  begin  to  reign  over  the 
two  tribes  in  Jerusalem,  in  the  foiu'teenth  year  of 
the  reign  of  Jeroboam.  He  was  born  of  Jecoliah, 
his  mother,  who  was  a  citizen  of  Jerusalem.  He 
was    a    good    ipan,    and    by    nature    righteous    and 

Chap.  X.  OF  THE  JEWS.  51 

magnanimous,  and  very  laborious  in  taking  care  of 
the  affairs  of  his  kingdom.  He  made  an  expedition 
also  against  the  Philistines,  and  overcame  them  in 
battle,  and  took  the  cities  of  Gath  and  Jabneh,  and 
brake  down  their  walls:  after  which  expedition,  he 
assaulted  those  Arabs  that  adjoined  to  Egypt.  He 
also  built  a  city  upon  the  Red  Sea,  and  put  a  garri- 
son into  it.  He  after  this  overthrew  the  Ammonites, 
and  appointed  that  they  sliould  pay  tribute.  He 
also  overcame  all  the  countries  as  far  as  to  the 
bounds  of  Egy})t,  and  then  began  to  take  care  of 
Jerusalem  itself  for  the  rest  of  his  life,  for  he  re- 
l)uilt  and  repaired  all  those  parts  of  the  wall  which 
had  either  fallen  down  by  length  of  time,  or  by 
the  carelessness  of  the  kings,  his  predecessors,  as 
M'ell  as  all  that  part  which  had  been  thrown  down 
bv  the  king  of  Israel,  when  he  took  his  father 
Amaziah  prisoner,  and  entered  with  him  into  the 
city.  Moreover,  he  built  a  great  many  towers,  of 
one  hundred  and  fifty  cu])its  high,  and  built  walled 
tow^ns  in  desert  places,  and  put  garrisons  into  them, 
and  dug  many  channels  for  conveyance  of  water. 
He  had  also  many  beasts  for  labour,  and  an  immense 
number  of  cattle;  for  his  country  was  fit  for  pas- 
turage. He  was  also  given  to  husbandry,  and  took 
care  to  cultivate  the  ground,  and  planted  it  with 
all  sorts  of  plants,  and  sowed  it  with  all  sorts  of 
seeds.  He  had  also  about  liim  an  army  composed 
of  chosen  men,  in  number  three  hundred  and  seventy 
thousand,  who  were  governed  by  general  officers 
and  captains  of  thousands,  who  were  men  of  valour, 
and  of  unconquerable  strengtli,  in  number  two  thou- 
sand. He  also  divided  his  whole  army  into  bands, 
and  armed  tliem,  giving  every  one  a  sword,  witli 
brazen  bucklers  and  breast-plates,  with  bows  and 
slings;   and   besides   these,   he   made   for   them   many 

52  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 

engines  of  war,  for  besieging  of  cities,  such  as  cast 
stones  and  darts,  with  grapplers,  and  other  instru- 
ments of  that  sort. 

4.  While  Uzziah  was  in  this  state,  and  making 
preparation  [for  futurity],  he  was  corrupted  in  his 
mind  by  pride,  and  became  insolent,  and  this  on 
account  of  that  abundance  which  he  had  of  things 
that  will  soon  perish,  and  despised  that  power  which 
is  of  eternal  duration  (which  consisted  in  piety 
towards  God,  and  in  the  observation  of  his  laws), 
so  he  fell  by  occasion  of  the  good  success  of  his 
affairs,  and  was  carried  headlong  into  those  sins  of 
his  fathers  which  the  splendour  of  that  prosperity 
he  enjoyed,  and  the  glorious  actions  he  had  done, 
led  him  into,  while  he  was  not  able  to  govern  him- 
self well  about  them.  Accordingly,  when  a  remark- 
able day  was  come,  and  a  general  festival  was  to 
be  celebrated,  he  put  on  tlie  holy  garment,  and  went 
into  the  temple  to  offer  incense  to  God  upon  the 
golden  altar,  which  he  was  prohibited  to  do  by 
Azariah  the  high  priest,  who  had  fourscore  priests 
with  him,  and  who  told  him  that  it  was  not  lawful 
for  him  to  offer  sacrifice,  and  that  "none  besides  the 
posterity  of  Aaron  were  permitted  so  to  do."  And 
when  they  cried  out,  that  he  must  go  out  of  the 
temple,  and  not  transgress  ag;ii]ist  God,  he  was 
wroth  at  them,  and  threatened  to  kill  them,  unless 
they  would  hold  their  peace.  In  the  mean  time  a 
great    ^  earthquake    shook    the    ground,    and    a    rent 

'  This  account  of  an  earthquake  at  .lerusalem  at  the  very  same  time 
when  Uzziah  usurped  the  ])riest's  office,  and  went  into  the  sanctuary  to 
burn  incense,  and  of  the  consequences  of  that  earthquake,  is  entirely 
■wanting  in  our  other  copies,  though  it  be  exceeding  like  to  a  prophecy 
of  Jeremiah's  now  in  Zech.  xiv.  5,  in  which  prophecy,  mention  is  made 
of  "fleeing  from  that  earthquake,  as  they  fled  from  this  earthquake  in 
the  days  of  I'zziah  king  of  Judah;"  so  that  there  seems  to  have  lieen 
some  considerable  rcsemllanre  bc^''"ecn  these  historical  aiid  ])rophetical 

Chap.  X.  OF  THE  JEWS.  53 

was  made  in  the  temple,  and  the  bright  rays  of  the 
sun  shone  through  it,  and  fell  upon  the  king's  face, 
insomuch  that  the  leprosy  seized  upon  him  immedi- 
ately. And  before  the  city,  at  a  place  called  Eroye, 
half  the  mountain  broke  off  from  the  rest  on  the 
west,  and  rolled  itself  four  furlongs,  and  stood  still 
at  the  east  mountain,  till  the  roads,  as  well  as  the 
king's  gardens,  were  spoiled  by  the  obstruction. 
Now,  as  soon  as  the  priests  saw  that  the  king's  face 
was  infected  with  the  leprosy,  they  told  him  of  the 
calamity  he  was  under,  and  commanded  that  he 
should  go  out  of  the  city  as  a  polluted  person.  Here- 
upon he  was  so  confounded  at  the  sad  distemper, 
and  sensible  that  he  was  not  at  liberty  to  contradict, 
that  he  did  as  he  was  commanded,  and  underwent 
this  miserable  and  terrible  punishment  for  an  in- 
tention beyond  what  befitted  a  man  to  have,  and 
for  that  impiety  against  God  which  was  implied 
therein.  So  he  abode  out  of  the  city  for  some  time, 
and  lived  a  private  life,  while  his  son  Jotham  took 
the  government;  after  which  he  died  with  grief  and 
anxiety  at  what  had  happened  to  him,  when  he  had 
lived  sixty-eight  years,  and  reigned  of  them  fifty- 
two;  and  was  buried  by  himself  in  his  own  gardens. 

54  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix.- 


How  Zechanah,  ShaUum,  Menahem,  Pehahiah,  and 
Pekah  took  the  government  over  the  Israelites; 
and  how  Pul  and  Tiglath-Pileser  made  an  expedi- 
tion against  the  Israelites.  IIoic  Jotham,  the  son 
of  Uzziah,  reigned  over  the  tribe  of  Judah:  and 
what  things  Nahiwi  prophesied  against  the  As- 

1.  Now  when  Zechariah,  the  son  of  Jeroboam, 
had  reigned  six  months  over  Israel,  he  was  slain  by 
the  treachery  of  a  certain  friend  of  his,  whose  name 
was  ShaUum,  the  son  of  Jabesh,  who  took  the  king- 
dom afterward,  but  kept  it  no  longer  than  thirty 
days;  for  Menaliem,  the  general  of  his  army,  who 
was  at  that  time  in  the  city  Tirzah,  and  heard  of 
what  had  befallen  Zechariah,  removed  thereupon 
with  all  his  forces  to  Samaria,  and  joining  battle 
with  Shallum,  slew  him;  and  when  he  had  made 
himself  king,  he  went  thence,  and  came  to  the  city 
Tiphsah,  but  the  citizens  that  were  in  it,  shut  their 
gates,  and  barred  them  against  the  king,  and  would 
not  admit  him;  but  in  order  to  be  avenged  on  them, 
he  burnt  the  country  round  about  it  and  took  the 
city  by  force,  upon  a  siege;  and  ])eing  very  much 
displeased  at  what  the  inhabitants  of  Tiphsah  had 
done,  he  slew  them  all,  and  spared  not  so  nmch  as 
the  infants,  without  omitting  the  utmost  instances 
of  cruelty  and  barbarity;  for  he  used  such  severity 
upon  his  own  countrymen,  as  would  not  be  pardon- 
able with  regard  to  strangers,  who  had  been  con- 
quered by  him.     And  after  this  manner  it  was  that 

Chap.  XI.  OP^  THE  JEWS.  55 

this  Menahem  continued  to  reign  with  cruelty  and 
barbarity  for  ten  years:  But  when  Pul,  king  of  As- 
syria, had  made  an  expedition  against  him,  he  did 
not  meet  to  fight  or  engage  in  battle  with  the  As- 
syrians, but  he  persuaded  him  to  accept  of  a  thousand 
talents  of  silver,  and  to  go  away,  and  so  put  an 
end  to  the  war.  This  sum  the  multitude  collected 
for  Menahem,  by  ^  exacting  fifty  drachma^  as  poll 
money  for  every  head:  after  which  he  died,  and  was 
buried  in  Samaria,  and  left  his  son  Pekahiah  his 
successor  in  the  kingdom,  who  followed  the  barbarity 
of  his  father,  and  so  ruled  but  two  years  only,  after 
which  he  was  slain  with  his  friends  at  a  feast,  by 
the  treachery  of  one  Pckdh,  the  general  of  his  horse, 
and  the  son  of  Remaliah,  who  laid  snares  for  him. 
Now  this  Pekah  held  the  government  twenty  years, 
and  proved  a  wicked  man,  and  a  transgressor.  But 
the  king  of  Assyria,  whose  name  was  Tiglath-Pileser, 
when  he  had  made  an  expedition  against  the  Israel- 
ites, and  had  overrun  all  the  land  of  Gilead,  and 
the  region  beyond  Jordan,  and  the  adjoining  country, 
which  is  called  Galilee,  and  Kadesh  and  Hazor,  he 
made  the  inhabitants  prisoners,  and  transplanted 
them  into  his  own  kingdom.  And  so  much  shall 
suffice  to  have  related  here  concerning  the  king  of 

2.  Now  Jotham,  the  son  of  Uzziah,  reigned  over 
the    tribe    of    Judah    in    Jerusalem,    being    a    citizen 

^  Dr.  Wall  in  his  critical  notes  on  -2  Kings  xv.  iO,  observes,  "That 
when  this  Menahem  is  said  to  have  exacted  the  money  of  Israel  of 
all  the  mighty  men  of  wealth,  of  each  man  50  shekels  of  silver,  to  give 
Pul,  the  king  of  Assyria,  1000  talents,  this  is  the  first  public  money 
raised  by  any  [Israelite]  king  by  tax  on  the  people;  that  they  used 
before  to  raise  it  out  of  the  treasures  of  the  house  of  the  I,ord,  or  of 
their  own  house;  that  it  was  a  poll  money  on  the  rich  men  [and  them 
only]  to  raise  £353,000,  or  as  others  count'  a  talent  £4.00,000  at  the  rate 
of  £6  or  £T  per  head;  and  that  God  commanded,  l)y  Ezekiel,  ch.  xlv.  8, 
and  xlvi.  18,  that  no  such  thing  should  be  done  [at  the  Jews'  restoration,] 
but  the  king  should  have  land  of  his  own." 

56  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 

thereof  by  his  mother,  whose  name  was  Jerusha. 
This  king  was  not  defective  in  any  virtue,  but  was 
rehgious  towards  God,  and  righteous  towards  men, 
and  careful  of  the  good  of  the  city,  (for  what  parts 
soever  wanted  to  be  repaired  or  adorned,  he  magnifi- 
cently repaired  and  adorned  them.)  He  also  took 
care  of  the  foundations  of  the  cloisters  in  the  temple, 
and  repaired  the  walls  that  were  fallen  down,  and 
built  very  great  towers,  and  such  as  were  almost 
impregnable;  and  if  any  thing  else  in  his  kingdom 
had  been  neglected,  he  took  great  care  of  it.  He 
also  made  an  expedition  against  the  Ammonites, 
and  overcame  them  in  battle,  and  ordered  them  to 
pay  tribute  a  hundred  talents  and  ten  thousand  cori 
of  wheat,  and  as  many  of  barley,  every  year,  and 
so  augmented  his  kingdom,  that  his  enemies  could 
not  despise  it,  and  his  own  people  lived  happily. 

3.  Now  there  was  at  that  time  a  prophet,  whose 
name  was  Nahum,  who  spake  after  this  manner  con- 
cerning the  overthrow  of  the  Assyrians,  and  Nineveh: 
"^Nineveh  shall  be  a  pool  of  water  in  motion;  so 
shall  all  her  people  be  troubled,  and  tossed,  and 
go  away  by  flight,  while  they  say  one  to  another. 
Stand,  stand  still,  seize  their  gold  and  silver,  for 
there  shall  be  no  one  to  wish  them  well,  for  they  will 
rather  save  their  lives  than  their  money;  for  a  terrible 
contention  shall  possess  them  one  with  another,  and 
lamentation;  and  loosing  of  the  members,  and  their 
countenances  shall  be  perfectly  black  with  fear.  And 
there  will  be  the  den  of  the  lions,  and  the  mother 
of    the    young    lions!     God    says    to    thee,    Nineveh, 

'  This  passage  is  taken  out  of  the  prophet  Nahum,  ch.  ii.  8-13,  and 
is  the  principal,  or  rather  the  only  one  that  is  given  us  almost  verbatim, 
hut  a  little  abridged,  in  all  .losephus'  known  writings:  By  which  quota- 
tion, we  learn  that  he  himself  always  asserts,  viz.  that  he  made  use  of 
the  Hebrew  original,  [and  not  of  the  Greek  version];  as  also  we  learn, 
that   his    Hebrew   copy   considerably   differed   from   ours. 

Chap.  XII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  57 

that  they  shall  deface  thee,  and  the  lion  shall  no 
longer  go  out  from  thee  to  give  laws  to  the  world." 
And  indeed  this  prophet  prophesied  many  other 
things  besides  these  concerning  Nineveh,  which  I  do 
not  think  necessary  to  repeat,  and  I  here  omit  them 
that  I  may  not  appear  troublesome  to  my  readers; 
all  which  things  happened  about  Nineveh  a  hundred 
and  fifteen  years  afterwards;  so  this  may  suffice  to 
have  spoken  of  these  matters. 


How  upo7i  the  death  of  Jotham,  Ahaz  reigned  in  his 
stead;  against  whorn  Rezin,  king  of  Syria,  and 
Pehah,  king  of  Israel,  made  war;  and  how  Tiglath- 
Pileser,  king  of  Assyria,  came  to  the  assistance  of 
Ahaz,  and  laid  Syria  waste,  and  removing  the 
Damascenes  into  Media  placed  other  nations  in 
their  room. 

1.  Now  Jotham  died  when  he  had  lived  forty- 
one  years,  and  of  them  reigned  sixteen,  and  was 
buried  in  the  sepulchres  of  the  kings;  and  the  king- 
dom came  to  his  son  Ahaz,  who  proved  most  impious 
towards  God,  and  a  transgressor  of  the  laws  of  his 
country.  He  imitated  the  kings  of  Israel,  and 
reared  altars  in  Jerusalem,  and  offered  sacrifices  upon 
them  to  idols;  to  which  also  he  offered  his  own  son 
as  a  burnt-offering,  according  to  the  practices  of 
the  Canaanites.  His  other  actions  were  also  of  the 
same  sort.  Now  as  he  was  going  on  in  this  mad 
course,  Rezin,  the  king  of  Syria  and  Damascus,  and 
Pekah  the  king  of  Israel,  who  were  now  at  amity 
one   with   another,    made   war    with   him;    and    when 

58  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 

they  had  driven  him  into  Jerusalem,  tliey  besieged 
that  city  a  long  while,  making  Init  a  small  progress, 
on  account  of  the  strength  of  its  walls;  and  when 
the  king  of  Syria  had  taken  the  city  Rlath,  upon 
the  Red  Sea,  and  had  slain  the  inhabitants,  he  peopled 
it  with  Syrians,  and  when  he  had  slain  those  in  the 
[other]  garrisons,  and  the  Jews  in  their  neighbour- 
hood, and  had  driven  away  much  prey,  he  returned 
with  his  army  back  to  Damascus.  Now  when  the 
king  of  Jerusalem  knew  that  the  Syrians  were 
returned  home,  he  supposing  himself  a  match  for 
the  king  of  Israel,  drew  out  his  army  against  him, 
and  joining  battle  with  him  was  beaten;  and  this 
happened  because  God  was  angry  with  him,  on  ac- 
count of  his  many  and  great  enormities.  Accordingly, 
there  was  slain  by  the  Israelites  one  hundred  and 
twenty  thousand,  of  his  men  that  day,  whose  general, 
Amaziah  by  name,  slew  Zechariah  the  king's  son 
in  his  conflict  with  Ahaz,  as  well  as  the  governor 
of  the  kingdom,  whose  name  was  Azricam.  He  also 
carried  Elcanah,  the  general  of  the  troops  of  the 
tribe  of  Judah,  into  captivity.  They  also  carried  the 
women  and  children  of  the  tribe  of  Benjamin  cap- 
tives; and  when  they  had  gotten  a  great  deal  of 
prey,  they  returned  to  Samaria. 

2.  Now  there  was  one  Obed,  who  was  a  prophet 
at  that  time  in  Samaria,  he  met  the  army  before 
the  city  walls,  and  with  a  loud  voice  told  them,  "that 
they  had  gotten  the  victory  not  by  their  own  strength, 
but  by  reason  of  the  anger  God  had  against  king 
Ahaz.  And  he  complained,  that  they  were  not  satis- 
fied with  the  good  success  they  had  against  him,  but 
were  so  bold  as  to  make  captives  out  of  their  kinsmen 
the  tribe  of  Judah  and  Benjamin.  He  also  gave 
them  counsel  to  let  them  go  home  without  doing 
them  any  harm,  for  that  if  they  did  not  obev  God 

Chap.  XII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  59 

lierein,  they  should  be  punished."  So  the  people  of 
Israel  came  together  to  their  assembly,  and  con- 
sidered of  these  matters,  when  a  man  whose  name 
was  Berechiah,  and  who  was  one  of  chief  reputation 
in  the  government,  stood  up,  and  three  others  with 
him,  and  said,  "We  will  not  suffer  the  citizens  to 
bring  these  prisoners  into  the  city,  lest  we  all  })e 
destroyed  by  God:  we  have  sins  enough  of  our  own 
that  we  have  committed  against  liim,  as  the  j^i'ophets 
assure  us;  nor  ought  we  therefore  to  introduce  the 
practice  of  new  crimes."  When  the  soldiers  heard 
that,  they  permitted  them  to  do  what  they  thought 
best.  So  the  forenamed  man  took  the  captives  and 
let  them  go,  and  took  care  of  them,  and  gave  them 
provisions,  and  sent  them  to  their  own  country,  with- 
out doing  them  any  harm.  However,  these  four  went 
along  with  them,  and  conducted  them  as  far  as 
Jericho,  which  is  not  far  from  Jerusalem,  and  re- 
turned to  Samaria. 

3.  Hereupon  king  Ahaz  having  been  so  thor- 
oughly beaten  by  the  Israelites,  sent  to  Tiglath- 
Pileser,  king  of  the  Assyrians,  and  sued  for  assistance 
from  him  in  his  war  against  the  Israelites,  and 
Syrians,  and  Damascenes,  with  a  promise  to  send 
him  much  money;  he  sent  him  also  great  j^i'^sents 
at  the  same  time.  Now  this  king,  upon  the  reception 
of  those  ambassadors,  came  to  assist  Ahaz,  and  made 
war  upon  the  Syrians,  and  laid  their  country  waste, 
and  took  Damascus  by  force,  and  slew  Rezin  their 
king,  and  transplanted  the  people  of  Damascus  into 
tlie  upper  Media,  and  brought  a  colony  of  Assyrians, 
and  planted  them  in  Damascus.  He  also  afflicted 
the  land  of  Israel,  and  took  many  captives  out  of 
it.  While  he  was  doing  thus  witli  the  Syrians,  king 
Ahaz  took  all  the  gold  that  was  in  the  king's  treas- 
in-es,  and  the  silver,  and  what  was  in  the  temple  of 

60  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 

God,  and  what  precious  gifts  were  there,  and  he 
carried  them  with  him,  and  came  to  Damascus,  and 
gave  it  to  the  king  of  Assyria,  according  to  his  agree- 
ment. So  he  confessed  that  he  owed  him  thanks 
for  all  they  had  done  for  him,  and  returned  to  Jeru- 
salem. Now  this  king  was  so  sottish,  and  thoughtless 
of  what  was  for  his  own  good,  that  he  would  not 
leave  off  worshipping  the  Syrian  gods  when  he  was 
beaten  by  them,  but  he  went  on  in  worshipping  them, 
as  though  they  would  procure  him  the  victory:  and 
when  he  was  beaten  again  he  began  to  honour  the 
gods  of  the  Assyrians;  and  he  seemed  more  desirous 
to  honour  any  other  gods  than  his  own  paternal  and 
true  God,  whose  anger  was  the  cause  of  his  defeat; 
nay,  he  proceeded  to  such  a  degree  of  despite  and 
contempt  [of  God's  worship],  that  he  shut  up  the 
temple  entirely,  and  forbade  them  to  bring  in  their 
appointed  sacrifices,  and  took  away  the  gifts  that 
had  been  given  to  it.  And  when  he  had  offered 
these  indignities  to  God,  he  died,  having  lived  thirtj^- 
six  years,  and  of  them  reigned  sixteen;  and  he  left 
his  son  Hezekiah  for  his  successor. 


How  Pekah  died  hy  tJie  treachery  of  Hoshea,  who 
was  a  little  after  subdued  by  Shalmaneser :  And 
how  Hezekiah  reigned  instead  of  Ahaz;  and  what 
actions  of  piety  and  justice  he  did. 

1.  About  the  same  time,  Pekah,  the  king  of 
Israel,  died,  by  the  treachery  of  a  friend  of  his, 
whose  name  was  Hoshea,  who  retained  the  kingdom 
nine  years  time,   but   was   a  wicked  man,   and   a  de- 

Chap.  XIII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  61 

spiser  of  the  divine  worship.  And  Shahnaneser,  the 
king  of  Assyria,  made  an  expedition  against  him, 
and  overcame  him,  (which  must  have  been  because 
he  had  not  God  favourable  or  assistant  to  him),  and 
brought  him  to  submission,  and  ordered  him  to  pay 
an  appointed  tribute.  Now  in  tlie  fourth  year  of 
the  reign  of  Hoshea,  Hezekiah,  the  son  of  Ahaz, 
began  to  reign  in  Jerusalem;  and  his  mother's  name 
was  Abijah,  a  citizen  of  Jerusalem.  His  nature  was 
good,  and  righteous,  and  religious;  for  when  he 
came  to  the  kingdom,  he  thought  that  nothing  was 
prior,  or  more  necessary,  or  more  advantageous  to 
himself,  and  to  his  subjects,  than  to  worship  God. 
Accordingly,  he  called  the  people  together,  and  the 
priests  and  the  Levites,  and  made  a  speech  to  them, 
and  said,  "you  are  not  ignorant,  how  by  the  sins  of 
my  father,  who  transgressed  that  sacred  honour 
which  was  due  to  God,  you  have  had  experience  of 
many  and  great  miseries,  while  you  were  corrupted 
in  your  mind  by  him,  and  were  induced  to  worship 
those  which  he  supposed  to  be  gods:  I  exhort  you 
therefore,  who  have  learned  by  sad  experience  how 
dangerous  a  thing  impiety  is,  to  put  that  immediately 
out  of  your  memory,  and  to  purify  yourselves  from 
your  former  pollutions,  and  to  open  the  temple  to 
these  priests  and  Levites  who  are  here  convened, 
and  to  cleanse  it  with  the  accustomed  sacrifices,  and 
to  recover  all  to  the  ancient  honour  which  our  fathers 
paid  to  it;  for  by  this  means  we  may  render  God 
favourable,  and  he  Avill  remit  the  anger  he  hath  had 
to  us." 

2.  When  the  king  had  said  this,  the  priests  opened 
the  temple;  and  when  they  had  set  in  order  the  vessels 
of  God,  and  cast  out  what  was  impure,  they  laid  the 
accustomed  sacrifices  upon  the  altar.  The  king  also 
sent  to  the  country  that  was  under  him,  and  called 

62  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 

the  people  to  Jerusalem  to  celebrate  the  feast  of 
unleavened  bread,  for  it  had  been  intermitted  a  long 
time,  on  account  of  the  wickedness  of  the  foremen- 
tioned  kings.  He  also  sent  to  the  Israelites,  and 
exhorted  them  to  leave  off  their  present  way  of 
living,  and  return  to  their  ancient  practices,  and  to 
worship  God,  for  that  he  gave  them  leave  to  come 
to  Jerusalem,  and  to  celebrate,  all  in  one  body,  the 
feast  of  unleavened  bread;  and  this,  he  said,  was 
by  way  of  invitation  only,  and  to  be  done  of  their 
own  good-will,  and  for  their  own  advantage,  and 
not  out  of  obedience  to  him,  because  it  would  make 
them  happy.  But  the  Israelites,  upon  the  coming 
of  the  ambassadors,  and  upon  their  laying  before 
them  what  they  had  in  charge  from  their  own  king, 
were  so  far  from  complying  therewith,  that  they 
laughed  the  ambassadors  to  scorn,  and  mocked  them 
as  fools:  as  also  they  affronted  the  prophets  which 
gave  them  the  same  exhortations,  -and  foretold  ^vhat 
they  would  suffer  if  they  did  not  return  to  the  worship 
of  God,  insomuch  that  at  lengtli  they  caught  them, 
and  slew  them:  nor  did  this  degree  of  transgressing 
suffice  them,  but  they  had  more  wicked  contrivances 
than  what  have  been  described:  Nor  did  they  leave 
off,  before  God,  as  a  punishment  for  their  impiety, 
brought  them  under  their  enemies;  but  of  that  more 
hereafter.  However,  many  there  were  of  the  tribe 
of  Manasseh,  and  of  Zebulon,  and  of  Issachar,  who 
were  obedient  to  what  the  prophets  exhorted  them 
to  do,  and  returned  to  the  worship  of  God.  Now 
all  these  came  running  to  Jerusalem,  to  Hezekiah, 
that  they  might  worship  God  [there]. 

3.  When  these  men  were  come,  king  Hezekiah 
went  up  into  the  temple,  with  the  riders  and  all  the 
people,  and  offered  for  himself  seven  bulls,  and  as 
many    rams,    with    seven    laml)s,    and    as    many    kids 

Chap.  XIII.  or  THE  JEWS.  m 

of  the  goats.  The  king  also  himself,  and  the  rulers, 
laid  their  hands  on  the  heads  of  the  sacrifices,  and 
permitted  the  priests  to  complete  the  sacred  offices 
about  them.  So  they  both  slew  the  sacrifices,  and 
burnt  the  bin-nt-offerings,  while  the  Levites  stood 
round  al)out  them,  with  their  musical  instruments, 
and  sang  hymns  to  God,  and  played  on  their  psal- 
teries, as  they  were  instructed  by  David,  to  do,  and 
this  while  the  rest  of  the  priests  returned  the  music, 
and  sounded  the  trumpets  which  they  had  in  their 
liands:  and  when  this  was  done,  the  king  and  the 
multitude  threw  themselves  down  upon  their  face 
and  w()rshi])ped  God.  He  also  sacrificed  seventy 
bulls,  one  hundred  rams,  and  two  hundred  lambs. 
He  also  granted  the  iiiultitude  sacrifices  to  feast 
upon,  six  hundred  oxen,  and  three  thousand  other 
cattle;  and  the  priests  performed  all  things  according 
to  the  law.  Now  the  king  was  so  pleased  herewith, 
that  he  feasted  with  the  people,  and  returned  thanks 
to  God:  But  as  the  feast  of  unleavened  bread  was 
now  come,  when  they  had  offered  that  sacrifice  which 
is  called  the  Passover,  they  after  that  offered  other 
sacrifices  for  seven  days:  When  the  king  had  be- 
stowed on  the  multitude,  besides  what  they  sanctified 
of  themselves,  two  thousand  ])ulls,  and  seven  thousand 
other  cattle,  the  same  thing  was  done  by  the  rulers; 
for  they  gave  them  a  thousand  bulls,  and  a  thousand 
and  forty  other  cattle.  Nor  had  this  festival  been 
so  well  observed  from  the  days  of  king  Solomon,  as 
it  was  now  first  observed  with  great  splendour  and 
magnificence:  and  when  the  festival  was  ended,  they 
went  out  into  the  country,  and  ]jurged  it;  and  cleansed 
the  city  of  all  the  pollution  of  the  idols.  The  king 
also  gave  order  that  the  daily  sacrifice  should  be 
offered,  at  his  own  charges,  and  according  to  the 
law;    and    appointed    that    the    tithes,    and    the    first 

64  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 

fruits  should  be  given  by  the  multitude  to  the  priests 
and  Levites,  that  they  might  constantly  attend  upon 
divine  service,  and  never  be  taken  off  from  the 
worship  of  God.  Accordingly,  the  multitude  brought 
together  all  sorts  of  their  fruits  to  the  priests  and 
the  Levites.  The  king  also  made  garners  and  recep- 
tacles for  these  fruits,  and  distributed  them  to  every 
one  of  their  priests  and  Levites,  and  to  their  children 
and  wives.  And  thus  did  they  return  to  their  old 
form  of  divine  worship.  Xow  wlien  the  king  had 
settled  these  matters  after  the  manner  already  de- 
scribed, he  made  war  upon  the  Philistines,  and  beat 
them,  and  possessed  himself  of  all  the  enemies'  cities 
from  Gaza  to  Gath;  but  the  king  of  Assyria  sent 
to  him,  and  threatened  to  overturn  all  his  dominions, 
unless  he  would  pay  him  the  tribute  which  his  father 
paid  him  formerly;  but  king  Hezekiah  was  not  con- 
cerned at  his  threatenings,  but  depended  on  his  piety 
towards  God,  and  upon  Isaiah  the  prophet,  by  whom 
he  inquired,  and  accurately  knew  all  future  events. 
And  thus  much  shall  suffice  for  the  present  con- 
cerning this  king  Hezekiah. 


How  Slialmaneser  took  Samaria  hy  force,  and  how 
lie  transplanted  the  ten  tribes  into  Media,  and 
brought  the  nation  of  the  Cutheans  into  their 
country  [in  their  room]. 

1.  When  Shalmaneser,  the  king  of  Assyria,  had 
it  told  him,  that  [Hoshea],  the  king  of  Israel,  had 
sent  privately  to  So,  the  king  of  Egypt,  desiring  his 
assistance  against  him,  he  was  very  angry,  and  made 

Chap.  XIV.  OF  THE  JEWS.  65 

an  expedition  against  Samaria,  in  the  seventh  year 
of  the  reign  of  Hoshea;  but  when  he  was  not  ad- 
mitted [into  the  city]  by  tlie  king,  ^  he  besieged 
Samaria  three  years,  and  took  it  by  force  in  the  ninth 
year  of  the  reign  of  Hoshea,  and  in  the  seventh 
j^ear  of  Hezekiah  king  of  Jerusalem,  and  quite  de- 
mohshed  the  government  of  the  Israehtes,  and  trans- 
planted all  the  people  into  Media,  and  Persia,  among 
whom  he  took  king  Hoshea  alive;  and  when  he  had 
removed  these  people  out  of  this  their  land,  he 
transplanted  other  nations  out  of  Cuthath,  a  place 
so  called,  (for  there  is  [still]  a  river  of  that  name 
in  Persia)  into  Samaria,  and  into  the  country  of 
the  Israelites.  So  the  ten  tribes  of  the  Israelites 
were  removed  out  of  Judea,  nine  hundred  and  forty- 
seven  years  after  their  forefatliers  were  come  out  of 
the  land  of  Egypt,  and  possessed  themselves  of  this 
country,  but  eight  hundred  years  after  Joshua  had 
been  their  leader,  and,  as  I  have  already  observed, 
two  hundred  and  forty  years,  seven  months,  and 
seven  days,  after  they  had  revolted  from  Rehoboam, 
the  grandson  of  David,  and  had  given  the  kingdom 
to  Jeroboam.  And  such  a  conclusion  overtook  the 
Israelites,  when  they  had  transgressed  the  laws,  and 
would  not  hearken  to  the  pro2)hets,  who  foretold  that 
this  calamity  would  come  upon  them,  if  they  w^ould 
not  leave  off  their  evil  doings.  What  gave  birth  to 
these  evil  doings,  was  that  sedition  which  they  raised 
against  Rehoboam  the  grandson  of  David,  when  "they 

^  The  siege  of  Samaria,  though  not  given  a  particuhir  account  of, 
either  in  our  Hebrew  or  Greek  Bibles,  or  in  Josephus,  was  so  very  long, 
no  less  than  three  years,  that  it  was  no  way  improbable  but  parents, 
;ind  particularly  mothers,  might  therein  be  reduced  to  eat  their  own 
children,  as  the  law  of  Moses  had  threatened  upon  their  disobedience, 
Levit.  xxvi.  29,  Deut.  xxviii.  53-57,  and  as  was  accomplished  in  the  other 
shorter  sieges  of  both  the  cajiital  cities,  Jerusalem  and  Samaria;  the 
former  mentioned,  Jer.  xix.  9,  Antiq.  B.  IX.  ch.  4,  sect,  i,  and  the  latter, 
2  Kings  vi.  26-29. 

ee  ANTIQUITIES  Book  ix. 

set  up  Jeroboam  his  servant  to  ])e  their  king,  who, 
by  sinning  against  God,  and  l)ringing  them  to  imi- 
tate his  bad  example,  made  God  to  be  their  enemy, 
while  Jeroboam  underwent  that  punishment  which 
he  justly  deserved. 

2.  And  now  the  king  of  Assyria  invaded  all  Syria 
and  Phenicia  in  a  hostile  manner.  The  name  of  this 
king  is  also  set  down  in  the  archives  of  Tyre,  for 
he  made  an  expedition  against  Tyre,  in  the  reign  of 
Eluleus;  and  INIenander  attests  to  it,  who,  when  he 
wrote  his  Chronology,  and  translated  the  archives 
of  Tyre  into  the  Greek  language,  gives  us  the  fol- 
lowing history:  "One  whose  name  v/as  Eluleus, 
reigned  tliirty-six  years:  this  king  upon  the  revolt  of 
the  Citteans,  sailed  to  them,  and  reduced  them  again 
to  a  submission.  Against  these  did  the  king  of  As- 
syria send  an  army,  and  in  a  hostile  manner  overrun 
all  Phenicia,  but  soon  made  peace  with  them  all, 
and  returned  back :  but  Sidon  and  Ace,  and  Pala?tyrus, 
revolted;  and  many  other  cities  there  were  which 
delivered  themselves  up  to  the  king  of  Assyria.  Ac- 
cordingly, when  the  Tyrians  would  not  submit  to 
him,  the  king  returned,  and  fell  upon  them  again, 
while  the  Phenicians  had  furnished  him  with  three- 
score ships,  and  eight  hundred  men  to  row  them; 
and  when  the  Tyrians  had  come  upon  them  in  twelve 
ships,  and  the  enemies'  ships  were  dispersed,  they 
took  five  hundred  men  prisoners,  and  the  reputation 
of  all  the  citizens  of  T^^•e  was  thereby  increased:  but 
the  king  of  Assyria  returned,  and  ])laced  guards  at 
their  riv^er  and  aqueducts,  who  should  hinder  the 
Tyrians  from  drawing  water.  This  continued  for 
five  years,  and  still  the  Tyrians  bore  the  siege,  and 
drank  of  the  water  they  had  out  of  tbe  wells  they 
dug."  And  this  is  wbat  is  written  in  the  Tyrian 
arcliives  concerning  Sbah)ianescr,  tlie  king  of  Assyria. 

Chap.  xiv.  OF  THE  JEWS.  07 

3.  But  now  the  Cutheans  who  removed  into 
Samaria  (for  that  is  the  name  they  have  been  called 
by  to  this  time,  because  they  were  brought  out  of 
the  country  called  Cuiliath,  which  is  a  country  of 
Persia,  and  there  is  a  river  of  the  same  name  in  it), 
each  of  them,  according  to  their  nations,  which  were 
in  number  five,  brought  their  own  gods  into  Samaria; 
and  ])y  worsliipping  them,  as  w^as  the  custom  of  their 
own  coimtries,  they  provoked  Almighty  God  to  be 
angry  and  displeased  at  them,  for  a  plague  seized 
upon  them,  by  which  they  were  destroyed;  and  when 
they  found  no  cure  for  their  miseries,  they  learned 
by  the  oracle  that  they  ought  to  worship  Almighty 
God,  as  the  method  for  their  deliverance.  So  they 
sent  ambassadors  to  the  king  of  Assyria,  and  desired 
him  to  send  them  some  of  those  priests, of  the  Israel- 
ites whom  he  had  taken  captive.  And  when  he  there- 
upon sent  them,  and  the  people  were  by  them  taught 
the  laws,  and  the  holy  worship  of  God.  they  wor- 
shipped him  in  a  respectful  manner,  and  the  plague 
ceased  immediately;  and  indeed  they  continue  to 
make  use  of  the  very  same  customs  to  this  very  time, 
and  are  called  in  the  Hebrew  tongue  Ciitheans'.  but 
in  the  Greek  tongue  Samnrifans,  And  when  they 
see  the  Jews  in  prosperity,  they  pretend  that  they 
are  changed,  and  allied  to  them,  and  call  them  kins- 
men, as  though  they  were  derived  from  Joseph,  and 
had  by  that  means  an  original  alliance  with  them: 
but  when  they  see  them  falling  into  a  low  condition, 
they  say  they  are  no  way  related  to  them,  and  that 
the  Jews  have  no  right  to  expect  any  kindness  or 
marks  of  kindred  from  them,  but  they  declare  tliat 
they  are  sojourners,  that  come  from  other  coimtries. 
But  of  these  we  shall  have  a  more  seasonable  oppor- 
tunity to  discourse  hereafter. 






How  Sennacherib  made  an  ejppeditlon  against  Heze- 
kiah;  what  threatenings  Rahshakeh  made  to  Heze- 
liiah  when  Sennacherib  was  gone  against  the 
Egyptians;  how  Isaiah  the  2^^'ophet  encouraged 
him;  how  Sennacherib,  having  failed  of  success  in 
Egypt,  returned  thence  to  Jerusalem;  and  how, 
upon  his  finding  his  army  destroyed,  he  returred 
home;  and  what  befell  him,  a  little  afterward. 

1.  It  was  now  the  fourteenth  year  of  the  gov- 
ernment of  Hezekiah,  king  of  the  two  tribes,  when 
the  king  of  Assyria,  whose  name  was  Sennacherib, 
made  an  expedition  against  him  with  a  great  army, 
and  took  all  the  cities  of  the  tribe  of  Judah  and 
Benjamin  by  force;  and  when  he  was  ready  to  bring 
his  army  against  Jerusalem,  Hezekiah  sent  ambas- 
sadors to  him  beforehand,  and  promised  to  submit, 
and  pay  what  tribute  he  should  appoint.  Hereupon 
Sennacherib,  when  he  heard  of  what  offers  the  am- 


Chap.  I.  OF  THE  JEWS.  69 

bassadors  made,  resolved  not  to  proceed  in  the  war, 
but  to  accept  of  the  proposals  that  were  made  him; 
and  if  he  might  receive  three  hundred  talents  of 
silver,  and  thirty  talents  of  gold,  he  promised  that 
he  would  depart  in  a  friendly  manner;  and  he  gave 
secin'ity  upon  oath  to  the  ambassadors  that  he  would 
then  do  him  no  harm,  but  go  away  as  he  came.  So 
Hezekiah  submitted,  and  emptied  his  treasures,  and 
sent  the  money,  as  supposing  he  should  be  freed 
from  his  enemy,  and  from  any  farther  distress  about 
his  kingdom.  Accordingly,  the  AssjTian  king  took 
it;  and  yet  had  no  regard  to  what  he  had  promised; 
but  while  he  himself  went  to  the  war  against  the 
Egyptians  and  Ethiopians,  he  left  his  general  Rab- 
shakeh,  and  two  other  commanders,  with  great  forces, 
to  destroy  Jerusalem.  The  names  of  the  two  other 
commanders  were  Tartan  and  Rabsaris. 

2.  Now  as  soon  as  they  were  come  before  the 
walls,  they  pitched  their  camp,  and  sent  messengers 
to  Hezekiah,  and  desired  that  they  might  speak  with 
him:  but  he  did  not  himself  come  out  to  them  for 
fear,  but  he  sent  three  of  his  most  intimate  friends, 
the  name  of  one  was  Eliakim,  who  was  over  the 
kingdom,  and  Shebna,  and  Joah  the  recorder.  So 
these  men  came  out,  and  stood  over  against  the  com- 
manders of  the  Assyrian  army;  and  when  Rab- 
shakeh  saw  tliem,  he  bid  them  go  and  speak  to 
Hezekiah  in  the  manner  following:  That  "Sennach- 
erib the  ^  great  king,  desires  to  know  of  him,  on 
whom  it  is  that  he  relies  and  depends  in  flying  from 
his  lord,  and  will  not  hear  him,  nor  admit  his  army 
into  the  city?  Is  it  on  account  of  the  Egyptians, 
and    in    hopes    that    his    army    would    be    beaten    by 

*  This  title  of  Great  Kin;/,  both  in  our  Bibles,  2  Kings  xviii.  19,  Isa. 
xxxvi.  4,  and  here  in  Josephus,  is  the  very  same  that  Herodotus  gives 
this  Sennacherib  as  Spanheim  takes  notice  on  this  place. 

70  ANTIQUITIES  Book  x. 

them?  Whereupon  he  lets  him  know,  that  if  this 
be  what  he  expects,  he  is  a  foohsh  man,  and  hke 
one  who  leans  on  a  broken  reed,  while  such  a  one 
will  not  only  fall  down,  but  will  have  his  hand 
pierced  and  hurt  by  it.  That  he  ought  to  know,  he 
makes  this  exjDedition  against  him  by  the  will  of 
God,  who  hath  granted  this  favour  to  him,  that  he 
shall  overthrow  the  kingdom  of  Israel,  and  that  in 
the  very  same  manner  he  shall  destroy  those  that 
are  his  subjects  also."  When  Rabshakeh  had  made 
this  speech,  in  the  Hebrew  tongue,  for  he  was  skilful 
in  that  language,  Eliakim  was  afraid  lest  the  multi- 
tude that  heard  him  should  be  disturbed,  so  he  de- 
sired him  to  speak  in  the  Syrian  tongue;  but  the 
general  understanding  what  he  meant,  and  perceiv- 
ing the  fear  that  he  was  in,  he  made  his  answer  with 
a  greater,  and  a  louder  voice,  but  in  the  Hebrew 
tongue;  and  said,  that  "since  they  all  heard  what 
were  the  king's  commands,  they  would  consult  their 
own  advantage  in  delivering  up  themselves  to  us, 
for  it  is  plain  that  both  you  and  your  king  dissuade 
the  people  from  submitting  by  vain  hopes,  and  so 
induce  them  to  resist:  but  if  you  be  courageous,  and 
think  to  drive  our  forces  away,  I  am  ready  to  de- 
liver to  you  two  thousand  of  these  horses  that  are 
with  me  for  your  use,  if  you  can  set  as  many  horse- 
men on  their  backs,  and  show  your  strength,  but 
what  you  have  not,  you  cannot  produce.  AVhy  there- 
fore do  you  delay  to  deliver  up  yourselves  to  a 
superior  force,  who  can  take  you  without  your  con- 
sent? although  it  will  be  safer  for  you  to  deliver 
yourselves  up  voluntarily,  while  a  forcible  capture, 
when  you  are  beaten,  must  appear  more  dangerous, 
and  will  bring  farther  calamities  upon  you." 

3.     When  the  people,  as  well  as  the  ambassadors, 
heard   what   the   Assyrian   commander    said,    thev   re- 

Chap.  I.  OF  THE  JEWS.  71 

iated  it  to  Hezekiah,  who  thereupon  put  off  his  royal 
apparel,  and  clothed  himself  with  sackcloth  and  took 
the  habit  of  a  mourner;  and,  after  the  manner  of 
his  country,  he  fell  uj^on  his  face,  and  besought  God, 
and  entreated  him  to  assist  them,  now  they  had  no 
other  hope  of  relief.  He  also  sent  some  of  his 
friends,  and  some  of  the  priests,  to  the  prophet  Isaiah, 
and  desired,  that  he  would  pray  to  God,  and  offer 
sacrifices  for  their  common  deliverance,  and  so  put 
up  supplications  to  him,  that  he  would  have  indig- 
nation at  the  expectations  of  their  enemies,  and  ha^'e 
mercy  on  his  people.  And  when  the  prophet  had 
done  accordingly,  an  oracle  came  from  God  to  him, 
and  encouraged  the  king  and  friends  that  were  about 
him;  and  foretold,  that  "their  enemies  should  be 
beaten  without  fighting,  and  should  go  away  in  an 
ignominious  manner,  and  not  with  that  insolence 
which  they  now  show,  for  that  God  would  take  care 
that  they  should  be  destroyed."  He  also  foretold, 
that  "Sennacherib  the  king  of  Assyria,  should  fail 
of  his  purpose  against  Egypt,  and  that  when  he 
came  home  he  should  perish  by  the  sword." 

4.  About  the  same  time  also,  the  king  of  Assyria 
wrote  an  epistle  to  Hezekiah,  in  w^hich  he  said,  "he 
was  a  foolish  man  in  supposing  that  he  should  escape 
from  being  his  servant,  since  he  had  already  brought 
under  many  and  great  nations;  and  he  threatened, 
that  when  he  took  him,  he  would  utterly  destroy  him, 
unless  he  now  opened  the  gates,  and  willingly  re- 
ceived his  army  into  Jerusalem."  When  he  read  this 
epistle,  he  despised  it  on  account  of  the  trust  that 
he  had  in  God,  but  he  rolled  up  the  epistle,  and 
laid  it  up  within  the  temple.  And  as  he  made  his 
farther  prayers  to  God  for  the  city,  and  for  the 
preservation  of  all  the  people,  the  prophet  Isaiah 
said,  that  "God  had  heard  his  prayer,   and  that  h^ 

72  AXTIQUITIES  Book  x. 

should  not  be  ^  besieged  at  this  time  by  the  king  of 
Assyria;  that  for  the  future  he  might  be  secure  of 
not  being  at  all  disturbed  by  him;  and  the  people 
might  go  on  peaceably,  and  without  fear,  with  their 
husbandry  and  other  affairs."  But  after  a  little 
while,  the  king  of  Assyria,  when  he  had  failed  of 
his  treacherous  designs  against  the  Egyptians,  re- 
turned home  without  success,  on  the  following  oc- 
casion: He  spent  a  long  time  in  the  siege  of  Pelusium; 
and  when  the  banks  that  he  had  raised  over  against 
the  walls  were  of  a  great  height,  and  w^hen  he  was 
ready  to  make  an  immediate  assault  upon  them, 
but  heard  that  Tirhaka,  king  of  the  Ethiopians,  was 
coming  and  bringing  great  forces  to  aid  the  Egj^p- 
tians,  and  was  resolved  to  march  through  the  desert, 
and  so  to  fall  directly  upon  the  Assp'ians,  this  king 
Sennacherib  was  disturbed  at  the  news,  and,  as  I 
said  before,  left  Pelusium,  and  returned  back  with- 
out success.  Xow  concerning  this  Sennacherib, 
Herodotus  also  says,  in  the  second  book  of  his  his- 
tories, "How  this  King  came  against  the  Egyptian 
king,  who  was  the  priest  of  Vulcan,  and  that  as  he 
was  besieging  Pelusium,  he  broke  up  the  siege  on 
the  following  occasion;  this  Egyptian  priest  prayed 
to  God,  and  God  heard  his  prayer,  and  sent  a  judg- 
ment upon  the  Arabian  king."  But  in  this  Herod- 
otus was  mistaken  when  he  called  this  king  not  king 

^  What  Josephus  says  here,  how  Isaiah  the  prophet  assured  Hezekiah, 
that  "at  this  time  he  should  not  be  besieged  by  the  king  of  Assyria,  that 
for  the  future  he  miglit  be  secure  of  being  not  at  all  disturbed  by  him; 
and  that  [afterward]  the  people  might  go  on  peaceably,  and  without 
fear,  with  their  husbandry  and  other  affairs,"  is  more  distinct  in  our 
other  copies,  both  of  the  Kings  and  of  Isaiah,  and  deserves  very  great 
consideration.  The  words  are  these:  "This  shall  be  a  sign  unto  thee;  ye 
shall  eat  this  year  such  as  growetli  of  itself;  and  the  second  year  that 
which  springeth  of  the  same;  and  in  the  third  year  sow  ye,  and  reap, 
and  plant  vineyards,  and  eat  the  fruit  thereof,"  2  Kings  xix.  20,  Isa. 
xxxvii.  30,  which  seem  to  me  plainly  to  design  a  sabbatic  year,  a  year  of 
Jubilee,  next  after  it,  and  tlie  succeeding  usual  labours  and  fruits  of  them 
on  the  third  and   following  years. 

From   the  Painting  by   P.   T.  Loutherbourg,   R.   A.      Engraved  by   W.   Sharpe. 

Chap.  I.  OF  THE  JEWS.  73 

of  the  Ass\Tian.s,  but  of  the  Arabians;  for  he  saith, 
that  "a  multitude  of  mice  gnawed  to  pieces  in  one 
night  both  the  bows  and  the  rest  of  the  armour  of 
the  Assyrians,  and  tliat  it  was  on  that  account  that 
the  king,  wlien  he  had  no  bows  left,  drew  off  his 
army  from  Pelusium."  And  Herodotus  does  indeed 
give  us  this  history;  nay,  and  Berosus,  who  wrote 
of  the  affairs  of  C  ha  Idea,  makes  mention  of  this 
king  Sennacherib,  and  that  he  ruled  over  the  As- 
syrians, and  that  he  made  an  expedition  against  all 
Asia  and  Egypt;  and  '  says  thus: 

5.  "Now  when  Sennacherib  was  returning  from 
his  Egyptian  war  to  Jerusalem,  he  found  his  army 
under  Babshakeh  his  general,  in  danger  [by  a 
plague],  for  God  had  sent  a  pestilential  distemper 
upon  his  army;  and  on  the  very  first  night  of  the 
siege,  a  hundred  fourscore  and  five  thousand,  with 
their  captains  and  generals,  were  destroyed:  So  the 
king  was  in  a  great  dread,  and  in  a  terrible  agony 
at  this  calamity;  and  being  in  great  fear  for  his 
whole  army,  he  fled  wdth  the  rest  of  his  forces  to 
his  own  kingdom,  and  to  his  citj^  Xineveh:  And 
when  he  had  abode  there  a  little  while,  he  was 
treacherously  assaulted,  and  died  by  the  hands  of 
his  elder  sons  ^  Adrammelech  and  Seraser,  and  was 
slain  in  his  own  temple,  which  was  called  Araske. 
Now  these  sons  of  his  were  driven  away  on  account 
of  the  murder  of  their  father  by  the  citizens,  and 
went    into    Armenia,    while    Assarachoddas    took    the 

^  That  this  terrible  calamity  of  the  slaughter  of  the  18,5,000  Assyrians 
is  here  delivered  in  the  words  of  Berosus  the  Chaldean ;  and  that  it  was 
certainly  and  frequently  foretold  by  the  Jewish  proj)hets,  and  that  it 
was  certainly  and  undeniably  accomplished,  see  Authentic.  Rec.  Part  II. 
Y>.  838. 

^  We  are  here  to  tike  notice,  that  these  two  sons  of  Sennacherib,  that 
ran  away  into  Armenia,  became  the  heads  of  two  famous  families  there, 
the  Arzerunii  and  Genunii;  of  which  see  the  particular  histories  in  Moses 
Chorenensis,  p.  60. 

74  ANTIQUITIES  Book  x. 

kingdom  of  Sennacherib."  And  this  proved  to  be 
the  conclusion  of  this  Assyrian  expedition  against 
the  people  of  Jerusalem. 


How  Hezekiah  was  sick  and  read/j  to  die;  and  how 
God  bestowed  upon  him  fifteen  years  longer  life, 
\_and  seemed  that  promise^  by  the  going  back  of 
the  shadow  ten  degrees. 

1.  Now  king  Hezekiah  being  thus  delivered,  after 
a  surprising  manner,  from  the  dread  he  was  in, 
offered  thank-offerings  to  God,  with  all  his  people, 
because  nothing  else  had  destroyed  some  of  their 
enemies,  and  made  the  rest  so  fearful  of  undergoing 
the  same  fate,  that  they  departed  from  Jerusalem, 
by  that  divine  assistance:  Yet,  while  he  was  very 
zealous  and  diligent  about  the  worship  of  God,  did 
he  soon  afterward  fall  into  a  severe  ^  distemper, 
insomuch  that  the  physicians  despaired  of  him,  and 
expected  no  good  issue  of  his  sickness  as  neither  did 
his  friends;  and  besides  the  distemper  itself,  there 
was  a  very  melancholy  circumstance  that  disordered 
the  king,   which   was   the   consideration   that   he   was 

*  Josephus,  and  all  our  coj)ies  jilace  the  alckness  of  Hezekiah  after 
the  destruction  of  Sennacherib's  armi/,  because  it  appears  to  have  been 
after  his  first  assault,  as  he  was  going  into  Arabia  and  Egypt,  where  he 
pushed  his  conquests  as  far  as  they  would  go;  and  in  order  to  despatch 
ills  story  altogether;  yet  does  no  cojiy  but  this  of  Josephus  say  it  was 
after  that  destrviction,  but  only  that  it  ha])pcned  in  those  (la;/s.  or  about 
the  time  of  Hezekiah's  life.  Xor  will  the  fifteen  years  prolongation  of 
his  life  after  his  sickness,  allow  that  sickness  to  have  licen  later  than  the 
former  part  of  the  15th  j^ear  of  his  reign,  since  chronology  does  not 
allow  him  in  all  above  39  years  and  a  few  months,  whereas  the  first 
assault  of  Sennacherib  was  on  the  11th  year  of  Hezekiah,  but  tlic  de- 
Ntruction   of   Sunnachcrib's   army    was   not    till    llic    18th   year. 

Chap.  II.  OF  THE  JEWS.  75 

childless,  and  was  going  to  die,  and  leave  his  house 
and  his  government  without  a  successor  of  his  own 
body;  so  he  was  troubled  at  the  thoughts  of  this  his 
condition,  and  lamented  himself,  and  entreated  of 
God  that  he  would  prolong  his  life  for  a  little  while 
till  he  had  some  children,  and  not  suffer  him  to 
depart  this  life  before  he  was  become  a  father.  Here- 
upon God  had  mercy  upon  him,  and  accepted  of 
his  supplication,  because  the  trouble  he  was  under 
at  his  supposed  death  was  not  because  he  was  soon 
to  leave  the  advantages  he  enjoyed  in  the  kingdom, 
nor  did  he  on  that  account  pray  that  he  might  have 
a  longer  life  afforded  him,  but  in  order  to  have  sons, 
that  might  receive  the  government  after  him.  And 
God  sent  Isaiah  the  prophet,  and  commanded  him 
to  inform  Hezekiah,  that  "within  three  days'  time 
he  should  get  clear  of  his  distemper,  and  should 
survive  it  fifteen  years,  and  that  he  should  have 
children  also."  Now  upon  the  prophet's  saying  this, 
as  God  had  commanded  him;  he  could  hardly  believe 
it,  both  on  account  of  the  distemper  he  was  under, 
which  was  very  sore,  and  by  reason  of  the  sur- 
prising nature  of  what  was  told  him,  so  lie  desired 
that  Isaiah  would  give  him  some  sign  of  wonder, 
that  he  might  believe  him  in  what  he  had  said,  and 
be  sensible  that  he  came  from  God:  for  things  that 
are  beyond  expectation,  and  greater  than  our  hopes, 
are  made  credible  by  the  actions  of  like  nature.  And 
when  Isaiah  had  asked  him,  What  sign  he  desired 
to  be  exhibited  f  he  desired  that  he  would  make  the 
shadow  of  the  sun,  which  he  had  already  made  to 
go  down  ten  steps  [or  degrees]  in  his  house,  to 
^  return  again  to  the  same  place,  and  to  make  it  as 

'  As  to  this  regress  of  the  shadow,  either  upon  a  sun-dial,  or  the  steps 
of  the  royal  palace  huilt  by  Ahaz,  whetlier  it  were  ]ihysii-ally  done  by 
the    real    niiraciilons    revolution    of    the    earth    in    its    diurnal    motion    baek- 

76  ANTIQUITIES  Book  x. 

it  was  before.  And  when  the  prophet  prayed  to 
God  to  exhibit  this  sign  to  the  king,  he  saw  what 
he  desired  to  see,  and  was  freed  from  his  distemper, 
and  went  up  to  the  temple  where  he  worshipped 
God  and  made  vows  to  him. 

2.  At  this  time  it  was  that  the  dominion  of  the 
Assyrians  ^  was  overthrown  by  tlie  Medes,  but  of 
these  things  I  shall  treat  elsewhere.  But  the  king 
of  Babylon,  whose  name  was  BaJadon,  sent  am- 
bassadors to  Hezekiah,  with  presents,  and  desired 
he  would  be  his  ally  and  his  friend.  So  he  received 
the  ambassadors  gladly,  and  made  them  a  feast,  and 
showed  them  his  treasures,  and  his  armoury,  and 
the  other  wealth  he  was  possessed  of,  in  precious 
stones,  and  in  gold,  and  gave  them  presents  to  be 
carried  to  Baladon,  and  sent  them  back  to  him. 
Upon  which  the  prophet  Isaiah  came  to  him,  and 
inquired  of  him,  "Whence  those  ambassadors  came?" 
To  which  he  replied,  That  "they  came  from  Babylon, 
from  the  king;  and  that  he  had  showed  them  all  he 

ward  from  east  to  west,  for  a  while,  and  its  return  again  to  its  old 
natural  revolution  from  west  to  east,  or  whether  it  were  not  apparent 
only ;  and  liprformed  by  an  aerial  phosphorus,  which  imitated  the  sun's 
motion  backward,  while  a  cloud  hid  the  real  sun,  cannot  now  be  de- 
termined. Philosophers  and  astronomers  will  naturally  incline  to  the 
latter  hypothesis.  However,  it  must  be  noted,  that  Josephus  seems  to 
have  understood  it  otherwise  than  we  generally  do;  that  the  shadow  was 
accelerated  as  much  at  first  forward  as  it  was  made  to  go  backward 
afterward,  and  so  the  day  was  neither  longer  nor  shorter  than  usual, 
which  it  must  be  confessed,  agrees  best  of  all  to  astronomy,  whose  eclipses 
older  than  that  time  were  observed  at  the  times  of  the  day  as  if  this 
miracle  had  never  happened.  After  all,  this  wonderful  signal  was  not,  it 
seems,  peculiar  to  Judea,  l)ut  eitlier  seen,  or  at  last  heard  of,  at  Babylon 
also,  as  appears  by  -2  Chron.  xxxii.  31,  where  we  learn,  that  the  Babylonian 
ambassadors  were  sent  to  Hezekiah  among  other  things,  to  inquire  of  the 
wonder  that  was  done  in  the  hnuJ. 

'  This  expression  of  Josephus'  that  the  Medes,  upon  this  destruction 
of  the  Assyrian  army,  overthrew  the  Assyrian  empire,  seems  to  be  too 
strong,  for  although  they  immediately  cast  off  the  Assyrian  yoke,  and 
set  up  Deioces  a  king  of  their  own,  yet  it  was  some  time  before  the  Medes 
«nd  Iial)ylonians  overthrew  Xineveh,  and  some  generations  ere  the  Medes 
and  Persians  under  Cyaxares  and  Cyrus  overthrew  the  Assyrian  or  Baby- 
lonian  empire. 

Chap.  II.  OF  THE  JEWS.  77 

had,  that  by  the  sight  of  his  riches  and  forces  they 
might  thereby  guess  at  [the  plenty  he  was  in],  and 
be  able  to  inform  the  king  of  it."  But  the  proj^het 
rejoined,  and  said,  "Know  thou,  that,  after  a  little 
while,  these  riches  of  thine  shall  be  carried  away  to 
Babylon,  and  thy  posterity  shall  be  made  eunuchs 
there,  and  lose  their  manhood,  and  be  servants  to 
the  king  of  Babylon,  for  that  God  foretold  such 
things  would  come  to  pass."  Upon  which  words 
Hezekiah  was  troubled,  and  said.  That  "he  was  him- 
self unwilling  that  his  nation  should  fall  into  such 
calamities,  yet  since  it  is  not  possible  to  alter  what 
God  had  determined,  he  prayed  that  there  might  be 
peace  while  he  lived."  Berosus  also  makes  mention 
of  this  Baladon  king  of  Babylon.  Now  as  to  this 
prophet,  [Isaiah],  he  was  by  the  confession  of  all 
a  divine  and  wonderful  man  in  speaking  truth;  and 
out  of  the  assurance  that  he  had  never  written  what 
was  false,  he  wrote  down  all  his  prophecies,  and 
left  them  behind  in  books  that  their  accomplishment 
might  be  judged  of  from  the  events,  by  posterity: 
nor  did  this  prophet  do  so  alone,  but  the  others, 
which  were  twelve  in  number,  did  the  same.  And 
whatsoever  is  done  among  us,  whether  it  be  good, 
or  whether  it  be  bad,  comes  to  pass  according  to 
their  prophecies;  but  of  every  one  of  those  we  shall 
speak  hereafter. 

78  ANTIQUITIES  Book  x. 


How  Manasseh  reigned  after  Ilezehiah;  and  how, 
when  he  was  in  captivity,  he  returned  to  God,  and 
was  restored  to  his  hingdom,  and  left  it  to  [liis 
50??]  Ainon. 

1.  When  king  Hezekiah  had  survived  the  in- 
terval of  time  ah'eady  mentioned,  and  had  dwelt  all 
that  time  in  peace,  he  died,  having  completed  fifty- 
fonr  years  of  his  life,  and  reigned  twenty-nine:  but 
when  his  son  Manasseh,  whose  mother's  name  was 
Hephzibah,  of  Jerusalem,  had  taken  the  kingdom, 
lie  departed  from  the  conduct  of  his  father,  and  fell 
into  a  course  of  life  quite  contrary  thereto,  and 
showed  himself  in  his  manners  most  wicked  in  all 
respects,  and  omitted  no  sort  of  impiety,  but  imi- 
tated those  transgressions  of  the  Israelites,  by  the 
commission  of  which  against  God,  they  had  been 
destroyed;  for  he  was  so  hardy  as  to  defile  the  temple 
of  God  and  the  city,  and  the  whole  country;  for, 
by  setting  out  from  a  contempt  of  God,  he  bar- 
barously slew  all  the  righteous  men  who  were  among 
the  Hebrews,  nor  would  he  spare  the  prophets,  for 
he  every  day  slew  some  of  them,  till  Jerusalem  was 
overthrown  with  blood.  So  God  was  angry  at  these 
proceedings,  and  sent  prophets  to  the  king,  and  to 
the  multitude,  by  wliom  he  threatened  the  very  same 
calamities  to  them,  which  their  brethren  the  Israel- 
ites, upon  the  like  affronts  offered  to  God,  were  now 
imder.  But  these  men  woidd  not  believe  their  words, 
by  which  })elief  they  might  luive  reaped  the  advantage 
of  escaping  all  those  miseries,  yet  did  they  in  earnest 
learn  that  what  tlie  prophets  had  told  them  was  true. 

Chap.  III.  OF  THE  JEWS.  79 

2.  And  when  they  persevered  in  the  same  course 
of  Hfe,  God  raised  up  war  against  them,  from  the 
king  of  Babylon  and  Chaldea,  who  sent  an  army 
against  Judea,  and  laid  waste  the  country;  and 
caught  king  Manasseh  by  treachery,  and  ordered  him 
to  be  brought  to  him,  and  had  him  under  his  power 
to  inflict  what  punishment  he  pleased  upon  him. 
But  then  it  was  that  Manasseh  perceived  what  a 
miserable  condition  he  was  in,  and  esteeming  himself 
the  cause  of  all,  he  besought  God  to  render  his 
enemy  humane  and  merciful  to  him.  Accordingly, 
God  heard  his  prayer,  and  granted  him  what  he 
prayed  for.  So  Manasseh  was  released  by  the  king 
of  Babylon,  and  escaped  the  danger  he  was  in: 
And  when  he  was  come  to  Jerusalem,  he  endeavoured, 
if  it  were  possible,  to  cast  out  of  his  memory  those 
his  former  sins  against  God,  of  which  he  now  re- 
pented, and  to  apply  himself  to  a  very  religious 
life.  He  sanctified  the  temple,  and  purged  the  city, 
and  for  the  remainder  of  his  days  he  was  intent  on 
nothing  but  to  return  his  thanks  to  God  for  his 
deliverance,  and  to  preserve  him  propitious  to  him 
all  his  life  long.  He  also  instructed  the  nmltitude 
to  do  the  same,  as  having  very  nearly  experienced 
what  a  calamity  he  w^as  fallen  into  by  a  contrary 
conduct.  He  also  rebuilt  the  altar,  and  offered  the 
legal  sacrifices,  as  Moses  commanded.  And  when  he 
had  re-established  wdiat  concerned  the  divine  worship, 
as  it  ought  to  be,  he  took  care  of  the  security  of 
Jerusalem:  he  did  not  only  repair  the  old  w^alls  with 
great  diligence,  but  added  another  wall  to  the  former. 
He  also  built  very  lofty  towers,  and  the  garrisoned 
places  before  the  city  he  strengthened,  not  only  in 
other  respects,  but  with  provisions  of  all  sorts  that 
they  wanted.  And  indeed,  when  he  had  changed  his 
former    course,    he    so    led    liis    life    for    the    time    to 

80  ANTIQUITIES  Book  x. 

come,  that  from  the  time  of  his  return  to  piety 
towards  God,  he  was  deemed  a  happy  man,  and  a 
pattern  for  imitation:  when  therefore  he  had  Hved 
sixty-seven  years,  he  departed  this  Hfe,  having  reigned 
fifty-five  years,  and  was  huried  in  his  own  garden;  and 
the  kingdom  came  to  his  son  Amon,  whose  mother's 
name  was  Mesliumeleth,  of  the  city  of  Jobath. 


How  Amon  reigned  instead  of  Manasseh;  and  after 
Amon,  reigned  Josiali;  he  was  both  righteous  and 
religious.  As  also  coneerning  Huldah  the  prophet- 

1.  This  Amon  imitated  those  works  of  his  father 
which  he  insolently  did  when  he  was  young:  so  he 
had  a  conspiracy  made  against  him  by  his  own 
servants,  and  was  slain  in  his  own  house,  when  he 
had  lived  twenty-four  years,  and  of  them  had  reigned 
tv/o:  But  the  multitude  punished  those  that  slew 
Amon,  and  buried  him  with  his  father,  and  gave 
the  kingdom  to  his  son  Josiah,  who  was  eight  years 
old.  His  mother  was  of  the  city  of  Boscath;  and 
her  name  was  Jedidah.  He  was  of  a  most  excellent 
disposition,  and  naturally  virtuous,  and  followed  the 
actions  of  king  David,  as  a  pattern  and  rule  to  him 
in  the  whole  conduct  of  his  life.  And  when  he  was 
twelve  years  old,  he  gave  demonstrations  of  his  re- 
ligious and  righteous  behaviour;  for  he  brought  the 
people  to  a  sober  way  of  living,  and  exhorted  them 
to  leave  off  the  opinion  tlicy  had  of  their  idols,  be- 
cause tliey  Mere  not  gods,  but  to  worship  their  own 
God.     And  by  reflecting  on  the  actions   of  his   pro- 

Chap.  IV.  OF  THE  JEWS.  81 

genitors,  he  prudently  corrected  what  they  did  wrong, 
hke  a  very  elderly  man,  and  like  one  abundantly  able 
to  understand  what  was  fit  to  be  done,  and  when 
he  found  they  had  well  done,  he  observed  all  the 
country  over,  and  imitated  the  same.  And  thus  he 
acted  in  following  the  wisdom  and  sagacity  of  his 
own  nature,  and  in  following  the  laws  it  was  that 
he  succeeded  so  well  in  the  order  of  his  government, 
and  in  piety  with  regard  to  the  divine  worship.  And 
this  happened  because  the  transgressions  of  the 
former  kings  were  seen  no  more,  but  quite  vanished 
away;  for  the  king  went  about  the  city,  and  the 
whole  country,  and  cut  doM'n  the  groves  which  were 
devoted  to  strange  gods,  and  overthrew  their  altars; 
and  if  there  were  any  gifts  dedicated  to  them  by 
his  forefathers,  he  made  them  ignominious  and 
plucked  them  down,  and  by  this  means  he  brought 
the  people  back  from  their  opinion  about  them  to 
the  worship  of  God.  He  also  offered  his  accustomed 
sacrifices  and  burnt-offerings  upon  the  altar.  More- 
over, he  ordained  certain  judges  and  overseers,  that 
they  might  order  the  matters  to  them  severally  be- 
longing, and  have  regard  to  justice  above  all  things, 
and  distribute  it  with  the  same  concern  they  would 
have  about  their  own  soul.  He  also  sent  over  all 
the  country,  and  desired  such  as  pleased  to  bring 
gold  and  silver  for  the  repairs  of  the  temple,  ac- 
cording to  every  one's  inclinations  and  abilities.  And 
when  the  money  was  brought  in,  he  made  one 
Maaseiah  the  governor  of  the  city,  and  Shaphan  the 
scribe,  and  Joash  the  recorder,  and  Eliakim  the  high 
priest,  curators  of  the  temple,  and  of  the  charges 
contributed  thereto:  who  made  no  delay,  nor  put 
ofip  the  work  at  all,  but  prepared  architects,  and  Avhat- 
soever  was  proper  for  those  repairs,  and  set  closely 
about    the    work.     So    the    temple    was    repaired    by 

82  ANTIQUITIES  Book  x. 

tliis   means,    and   became    a   public   demonstration   of 
the  king's  piety. 

2.  But  when  he  was  now  in  the  eighteenth  year 
of  his  reign,  lie  sent  to  Eliakim  the  high  priest,  and 
gave  order,  that  out  of  what  money  was  overplus, 
lie  should  cast  cups  and  dishes,  and  vials,  for  minis- 
tration [in  the  temple];  and  besides,  that  they  should 
bring  all  the  gold  and  silver  which  was  among  the 
treasures,  and  expend  that  also  in  making  cups  and 
the  like  vessels:  But  as  the  high  priest  was  bring- 
ing out  the  gold,  he  light  upon  the  holy  books  of 
]Moses  that  were  laid  up  in  the  temple,  and  when 
he  had  brought  them  out,  he  gave  them  to  Shaphan 
the  scribe,  who,  when  he  had  read  them,  came  to 
the  king,  and  informed  him  that  all  was  finished 
which  he  had  ordered  to  be  done.  He  also  read 
over  the  books  to  him,  M'ho,  when  he  had  heard  them 
read,  rent  his  garment:  and  called  for  Eliakim  the 
high  priest,  and  for  [Shaphan]  the  scribe,  and  for 
certain  [other]  of  his  most  particular  friends,  and 
sent  them  to  Huldah  the  prophetess,  the  wife  of 
Shallum,  (which  Shallum  was  a  man  of  dignity  and 
of  an  eminent  family),  and  bid  them  go  to  her  and 
say.  That  [he  desired]  "she  would  appease  God, 
and  endeavour  to  render  him  propitious  to  them,  for 
that  there  was  cause  to  fear,  lest,  upon  the  trans- 
gression of  the  laws  of  ]Moses  by  their  forefathers, 
they  should  be  in  peril  of  going  into  captivity,  and 
of  being  cast  out  of  their  own  country;  lest  they 
should  be  in  want  of  all  things,  and  so  end  their 
days  miserably."  When  the  prophetess  had  heard 
this  from  the  messengers  that  were  sent  to  her  by 
the  king,  she  bid  them  go  back  to  the  king,  and 
say,  that  "God  had  already  given  sentence  against 
them,  to  destroy  the  people,  and  cast  them  out  of 
their  country,  and  deprive  them  of  all  the  happiness 

Cliap.  IV.  OF  THE  JEWS.  88 

they  enjoyed;  which  sentence  none  could  set  aside 
by  any  prayers  of  theirs,  since  it  was  passed  on 
account  of  the  transgressions  of  the  laws,  and  of 
their  not  having  repented  in  so  long  a  time,  while 
the  prophets  had  exhorted  them  to  amend,  and  had 
foretold  the  punishment  that  'would  ensue  on  their 
impious  practices;  which  threatening  God  would  cer- 
tainly execute  upon  them  that  they  might  be  per- 
suaded that  he  is  God,  and  had  not  deceived  them 
in  any  respect  as  to  what  he  had  denounced  ])y  his 
propliets:  that  yet  because  Josiah  was  a  righteous 
man,  he  would  at  present  delay  those  calamities,  but 
that  after  liis  death,  he  would  send  on  the  multitude 
what  miseries  he  had  determined  for  them." 

3.  So  these  messengers  ujDon  this  prophecy  of  the 
woman,  came  and  told  it  to  the  king;  whereupon  he 
sent  to  the  people  every  where,  and  ordered  that 
the  priests  and  the  Levites  should  come  together  to 
Jerusalem;  and  commanded  that  those  of  every  age 
should  be  present  also:  And  when  they  had  gathered 
together,  he  first  read  to  them  the  holy  books;  after 
which  he  stood  upon  a  pulpit,  in  the  midst  of  the 
multitude,  and  obliged  them  to  make  a  covenant, 
with  an  oath,  that  they  would  worship  God,  and 
keep  the  laws  of  jNIoses.  Accordingly,  they  gave 
their  assent  willingly,  and  undertook  to  do  what 
the  king  had  recommended  to  them.  So  they  im- 
mediately offered  sacrifices,  and  that  after  an  ac- 
ceptable manner,  and  besought  God  to  be  gracious 
and  merciful  to  them.  He  also  enjoined  the  high 
priest,  that  if  there  remained  in  tlie  temple  any 
vessel  that  was  dedicated  to  idols,  or  to  foreign  gods, 
they  should  cast  it  out:  So  when  a  great  number  of 
such  vessels  were  got  together,  he  burnt  tliem,  and 
scattered  their  ashes  abroad,  and  slew  the  ])riests 
of  the  idols,  that  were  not  of  the  family  of  Aaron. 

84  ANTIQUITIES  Book  x. 

4.  And  when  he  had  done  thus  in  Jerusalem,  he 
came  into  the  country,  and  utterly  destroyed  what 
buildings  had  been  made  therein  by  king  Jeroboam, 
in  honour  of  strange  gods;  and  he  burnt  the  bones 
of  the  false  prophets  upon  that  altar  which  Jeroboam 
first  built.  And  as  the  prophet  [Jadon],  who  came 
to  Jeroboam  when  he  was  offering  sacrifice,  and 
when  all  the  people  heard  him,  foretold  what  would 
come  to  pass,  viz.  That  "a  certain  man  of  the  house 
of  David,  Josiah  by  name,  should  do  what  is  here 
mentioned."  And  it  happened  that  those  predictions 
took  effect  after  three  hundred  and   sixty-one  years. 

5.  After  these  things,  Josiah  went  also  to  such 
other  Israelites  as  had  escaped  captivity  and  slavery 
under  the  Assyrians,  and  persuaded  them  to  desist 
from  their  impious  practices,  and  to  leave  off  the 
honours  they  paid  to  strange  gods,  but  to  worship 
rightly  their  own  Almighty  God,  and  adhere  to  him. 
He  also  searched  the  houses  and  the  villages,  and 
the  cities,  out  of  a  suspicion  that  somebody  might 
have  one  idol  or  other  in  private;  nay,  indeed,  he 
took  away  the  ^  chariots  [of  the  sun]  that  were  set 
up  in  his  royal  palace,  which  his  predecessors  had 
framed;  and  what  thing  soever  there  was  besides, 
which  they  worshipped  as  a  god.  And  when  he  had 
thus  purged  all  the  country,  he  called  the  people  to 
Jerusalem,  and  there  celebrated  the  feast  of  un- 
leavened bread,  and  that  called  the  Passover.  He 
also  gave  the  people  for  Paschal  sacrifices,  young 
kids   of   the   goats    and   lambs,    thirty   thousand,    and 

*  It  is  hard  to  reconcile  the  account  in  the  second  hook  of  Kings,  ch. 
xxiii.  11,  with  this  account  of  Joseplius,  and  to  translate  this  passage 
truly  in  Josephus,  whose  co])ics  are  sup])()sed  to  he  here  imperfect:  How- 
ever, the  general  sense  of  l)f)th  seems  to  he  tliis,  that  tliere  were  certain 
chariots  witli  their  iiorses,  dedicated  to  the  idol  of  the  sun,  or  to  Moloch: 
which  idol  must  he  carried  ahout  in  jirocession,  and  worsliipped  hy  the 
people;  which  chariots  were  now  taken  awa;i,  as  Josephus  says,  or  as 
the  book  of  the  Kings  says,  burnt  with  fire  by  Josiah. 

Chap.  V.  OF  THE  JEWS.  85 

three  hundred  oxen  for  burnt  offerings.  The  prin- 
cipal of  the  priests  also  gave  to  the  priests  against 
the  passover,  two  thousand  and  six  hundred  lambs; 
the  principal  of  the  Levites  also  gave  to  the  Levites 
five  thousand  lambs  and  five  hundred  oxen,  by  which 
means  there  was  great  plenty  of  sacrifices;  and  they 
offered  those  sacrifices  according  to  the  laws  of  Moses, 
while  every  priest  explained  the  matter,  and  min- 
istered to  the  multitude.  And  indeed  there  had  been 
no  other  festival  tluis  celel)rated  by  the  Hebrews 
from  the  times  of  Samuel  the  prophet;  and  the  plenty 
of  sacrifices  now  was  the  occasion  that  all  things  were 
performed  according  to  the  laws,  and  according  to 
the  custom  of  their  forefathers.  So  when  Josiah  had 
after  this  lived  in  peace;  nay,  in  riches  and  reputation 
also  among  all  men,  he  ended  his  life  in  the  manner 


How  Josiah  fought  tvith  Neco  [hing  of  Egyp^,  and 
was  wounded  and  died  in  a  little  afterward:  As 
also  how  Neco  carried  Jehoahaz,  who  had  been 
made  Mug,  into  Egypt,  and  delivered  the  hingdom 
to  Jehoiakim:  And  [lastly]  concerning  Jeremiah 
and  Ezekiel. 

1.  Now  Neco,  king  of  Egypt,  raised  an  army, 
and  marched  to  the  river  Euphrates,  in  order  to 
fight  with  the  Medes  and  Babylonians,  who  had 
^  overthrown  the  dominion  of  the   AssjTians,   for   he 

'  This  is  a  remarkable  passage  of  clironolog-y  in  Josephus,  that  about 
the  latter  end  of  the  reign  of  Josiah,  the  Mecies  and  Babylonians  over- 
threw   the    empire    of    the    Assyrians;    or    in    the    words    of    Tobit's    eon- 

80  ANTIQUITIES  Book  x. 

had  a  desire  to  reign  over  Asia.  Now  when  he  was 
come  to  the  city  Mendes,  which  belonged  to  the  king- 
dom of  Josiah,  he  brought  an  army  to  hinder  him 
from  passing  through  his  own  country,  in  his  ex- 
pedition against  the  Medes.  Now  Neco  sent  a 
herald  to  Josiah,  and  told  him,  Tliat  "he  did  not 
make  this  expedition  against  him,  but  was  making 
haste  to  Euphrates;  and  desired  that  he  would  not 
provoke  him  to  fight  against  Iiim,  because  he  ob- 
structed his  march  to  the  place  whither  he  had  re- 
solved to  go."  But  Josiah  did  not  admit  of  this 
advice  of  Neco's,  but  put  himself  into  a  posture  to 
hinder  him  from  this  intended  marcli.  I  suppose  it 
was  fate  that  pushed  him  on  to  this  conduct,  that 
it  might  take  an  occasion  against  him;  for  as  he 
was  setting  his  ^  army  in  array,  and  rode  about  in 
his  chariot,  from  one  wing  of  his  army  to  another, 
one  of  the  Egyptians  shot  an  arrow  at  him,  and  put 
an  end  to  his  eagerness  of  fighting:  for  being  sorely 
wounded,  he  commanded  a  retreat  to  be  sounded  for 
his  army,  and  returned  to  Jerusalem,  and  died  of 
that  wound;  and  was  magnificently  buried  in  the 
sepulchre  of  his  fathers,  when  he  had  lived  thirty- 
nine  years,  and  of  them  had  reigned  thirty-one.  But 
all  the  2^eople  mourned  greatly  for  him,  lamenting 
and  grieving  on  his  account  many  days:  and  Jere- 
miah   the    prophet    ^  composed    an    elegy    to    lament 

tinuator,  tliat  "before  Tobias  died,  lie  heard  of  the  destruction  of 
Nineveh,  wliich  was  taken  by  Nebuciiodoiiosor  tiie  Babylonian,  and  As- 
suerus  the  Mede,"  Tob.  xiv.  15 — See  Prideaux'  Connection  at  the  year  613. 

'  This  battle  is  justly  esteemed  the  very  same  that  Herodotus,  B.  II. 
sect.  15(),  mentions,  when  he  says,  that  "Xeeo  Joined  battle  with  the 
Syrians  [or  Jews]  at  Magdolum  (Megiddo,)  and  beat  them,"  as  Dr. 
Hudson  here  observes. 

'  AVhether  Jose])hus,  from  2  Chron.  xxxv.  9.5,  here  means  the  book  oi 
the  Lamentations  of  Jeremiah,  still  extant,  which  chiefly  lielongs  to  tl.:' 
destruction  of  .Jerusalem  under  Xel)uchadnezy,ar,  or  to  any  other  like 
melancholy  ])oem  now  lost,  but  extant  in  the  days  of  Joscphus,  belonging 
peculiarly  to  Josiah,  cannot  now  lu-  determined. 

Chup.  V.  OF  THE  JEWS.  87 

him,  which  is  extant  till  this  time  also.  Moreover, 
this  prophet  denounced  beforehand  the  sad  calamities 
that  were  coming  upon  the  city.  He  also  left  behind 
him  in  writing  a  description  of  that  destruction  of 
our  nation  which  has  lately  happened  in  our  days, 
and  the  taking  of  Babylon;  nor  was  he  the  only 
pr()])het  who  delivered  such  predictions  beforehand 
to  the  multitude,  but  so  did  Ezekiel  also,  who  was 
the  first  person  that  wrote,  and  left  behind  him  in 
writing  two  books  concerning  these  events.  Now 
these  two  prophets  were  priests  by  birth;  but  of  them 
Jeremiah  dwelt  in  Jerusalem,  from  the  thirteent]i 
year  of  the  reign  of  Josiah,  until  the  city  and  temple 
were  utterly  destroyed.  However  as  to  what  befell 
this  pro]:)het,  we  will  relate  it  in  its  proper  place. 

2.  Upon  the  death  of  Josiah,  which  we  have  al- 
ready mentioned,  his  son,  Jehoahaz  by  name,  took 
the  kingdom:  being  about  twenty-three  years  old: 
He  reigned  in  Jerusalem;  and  his  mother  was  Hanm- 
tal,  of  the  city  Libnah.  He  was  an  impious  man, 
and  imj^ure  in  his  course  of  life;  but  as  the  king  of 
Egypt  returned  from  the  battle,  he  sent  for  Je- 
hoahaz to  come  to  him,  to  the  city  called  ^  Hamath, 
which  belongs  to  Syria;  and  when  he  was  come,  he 
put  him  in  bonds,  and  delivered  the  kingdom  to  a 
brother  of  his,  by  the  father's  side  whose  name  Mas 
Elialxim,  and  changed  his  name  to  Jelwidldm,  and 
laid  a  tribute  upon  the  land  of  a  hundred  talents  of 
silver,  and  a  talent  of  gold,  and  the  sum  of  money 
Jehoiakim  paid  by  way  of  tribute:  but  Xeco  carried 
away  Jehoahaz  into  Egypt,  where  he  died  when  he 
had  reigned  three  months  and  ten  days.  Now  Je- 
hoiakim's    mother    was    called    Zcbudali,    of    the    city 

'  This  ancient  citv  Hamatli,  wliicli  is  joined  witli  Arpad,  or  Aradus, 
and  witli  Danifiscus,  "-'  Kings  xviii.  IS,  Isa.  xxxvi.  10,  Jer.  xlix.  2S,  eities 
of  Syria  and  Phenieia  near  the  borders  of  Judea,  was  also  itself  evi- 
dentlv  near  the  same  borders  though  long  ago  utterly  destroyed. 

88  ANTIQUITIES  Book  x. 

Rumah.  He  was  of  a  wicked  disposition,  and  ready 
to  do  mischief:  nor  was  he  either  rehgious  towards 
God,  or  good  natured  towards  men. 


Hotc  Nebuchadnezzar,  when  he  had  conquered  the 
king  of  Egypt,  made  an  ecVpedition  against  the 
Jews,  and  slew  Jehoiakini,  and  made  Jehoiachin 
his  son  king. 

1.  Now  in  the  fourth  j^ear  of  the  reign  of  Je- 
hoiakim,  one  whose  name  was  Nebuchadnezzar,  took 
the  government  over  the  Babylonians,  who  at  the 
same  time  went  up  with  a  great  army  to  the  city 
Carchemish,  which  w^as  at  P^uphrates,  upon  a  reso- 
lution he  had  taken  to  fight  with  Neco  king  of 
Egypt,  under  whom  all  Syria  then  was.  And  when 
Neco  understood  the  intention  of  the  king  of  Baby- 
lon, and  that  this  expedition  was  made  against  him, 
he  did  not  despise  his  attempt,  but  made  haste  with 
a  great  band  of  men  to  Euphrates  to  defend  himself 
from  Nebuchadnezzar;  and  when  they  had  joined 
battle,  he  was  beaten,  and  lost  many  ten  thousands 
[of  his  soldiers]  in  the  battle.  So  the  king  of  Baby- 
lon passed  over  Euphrates,  and  took  all  Syria,  as 
far  as  Pelusium,  excepting  Judea.  But  when  Neb- 
uchadnezzar had  already  reigned  four  years,  which 
was  the  eighth  of  Jehoiakim's  government  over  the 
Hebrews,  the  king  of  Babylon  made  an  expedition 
with  mighty  forces  against  the  Jews,  and  required 
tribute  of  Jehoiakim,  and  threatened  on  his  refusal 
to  make  war  against  him.  He  was  affrighted  at  his 
threatening,   and  bought  his  peace   with  money,   and 

Chap.  Yi.  OF  THE  JEWS.  89 

brought    the    tribute    he    was    ordered    to    bring    for 
three  years. 

2.  But  on  the  third  year,  upon  hearing  that  the 
king  of  the  Babylonians  made  an  expedition  against 
the  Egyptians,  he  did  not  pay  his  tribute,  yet  was 
he  disappointed  of  his  hope,  for  the  Egyptians  durst 
not  fight  at  this  time.  And  indeed  the  prophet 
Jeremiah  foretold  every  day,  how  vainly  they  relied 
on  their  hopes  from  Egypt,  and  how  the  city  would 
be  overthrown  by  the  king  of  Babylon,  and  Jehoiakim 
the  king  would  be  subdued  by  him.  But  what  he 
thus  spake  proved  to  be  of  no  advantage  to  them, 
because  there  were  none  that  should  escape;  for 
both  the  multitude,  and  the  rulers,  when  they  heard 
him,  had  no  concern  about  what  they  heard;  but 
being  displeased  at  what  was  said,  as  if  the  prophet 
were  a  diviner  against  the  king,  they  accused  Jere- 
miah, and  bringing  him  before  tlie  court  they  required 
that  a  sentence  and  a  punisliment  might  be  given 
against  him.  Now  all  the  rest  gave  their  votes 
for  his  condemnation,  but  the  elders  refused,  who 
prudently  sent  away  the  prophet  from  the  court  of 
[the  prison]  and  persuaded  the  rest  to  do  Jeremiah 
no  harm;  for  they  said,  that  "he  was  not  the  only 
person  who  foretold  what  would  come  to  the  city, 
but  that  Micah  signified  the  same  before  him,  as 
well  as  many  others,  none  of  M'hich  suffered  any 
thing  of  tlie  kings  that  then  reigned,  but  were  hon- 
oured as  the  prophets  of  God."  So  they  molhfied 
the  multitude  with  these  words,  and  delivered  Jere- 
miah from  the  punishment  to  which  he  was  con- 
demned. Now  when  this  prophet  had  written  all 
his  prophecies,  and  the  people  were  fasting,  and 
assembled  at  tlie  temple,  on  the  ninth  month  of  the 
fifth  year  of  Jehoiakim,  he  read  the  book  he  had 
composed   of   his   predictions,   of   what   was   to   befall 

00  ANTIQUITIES  Book  x. 

the  city,  and  the  temple,  and  the  multitude.  And 
when  the  rulers  heard  of  it,  they  took  the  book  from 
him,  and  bid  him  and  Baruch  the  scribe  to  go  their 
ways,  lest  they  should  be  discovered  by  one  or  other; 
but  they  carried  the  book,  and  gave  it  to  the  king, 
so  he  gave  order,  in  the  presence  of  his  friends,  that 
his  scribe  should  take  it,  and  read  it.  When  the 
king  heard  what  it  contained,  he  was  angry,  and 
tore  it,  and  cast  it  into  the  fire,  where  it  was  con- 
sumed. He  also  commanded,  that  they  should  seek 
for  Jeremiah  and  Baruch  the  scribe,  and  bring  them 
to  him,  tliat  tliey  might  be  punished.  However  they 
escaped  his  anger. 

3.  Xow  a  little  time  afterward,  the  king  of  Baby- 
Ion  made  an  expedition  against  Jehoiakim,  whom  he 
received  [into  the  city,]  and  this  out  of  fear  of  the 
foregoing  predictions  of  this  prophet,  as  supposing 
that  he  should  suffer  nothing  that  was  terrible,  be- 
cause he  neither  shut  the  gates,  nor  fouglit  against 
him;  yet  when  he  was  come  into  the  city,  he  did  not 
observe  the  covenants  he  had  made,  but  he  slew  such 
as  were  in  the  flower  of  their  age,  and  such  as  were 
of  the  greatest  dignity,  together  with  their  king 
Jehoiakim,  whom  he  commanded  to  be  thrown  before 
the  walls,  without  any  burial;  and  made  his  son 
Jelioiachin  king  of  the  country,  and  of  the  city:  he 
also  took  the  principal  persons  in  dignity  for  cap- 
tiA'es,  three  thousand  in  number,  and  led  them  away 
to  Babylon;  among  whom  was  the  prophet  Ezekiel, 
who  was  then  but  young.  And  this  was  the  end 
of  king  Jehoiakim,  when  he  had  lived  thirty-six  years, 
and  of  them  reigned  eleven:  but  Jehoiachin  succeeded 
him  in  the  kingdom,  whose  mother's  name  was  Xe- 
hushta:  she  was  a  citizen  of  Jerusalem.  He  reigned 
three  months  and  ten  days. 

Chap.  VII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  91 


That  the  king  of  Babylon  repented  of  niaking  Je- 
hoiachin  king,  and  took  hhn  atcai/  to  Babylon, 
and  delivered  the  kingdom  to  Zedekiah.  This  king 
would  not  believe  tcJiat  teas  predicted  by  Jeremiah 
and  Ezekiel,  but  joined  himself  to  the  Egyptians; 
ti'ho,  zchen  they  came  into  Judea,  were  vanquished 
by  the  king  of  Babylon:  as  also  xchat  befell  Jere- 

1.  But  a  terror  seized  on  the  king  of  Babylon, 
who  had  given  the  kingdom  to  Jehoiachin,  and  that 
immediately:  he  was  afraid  that  lie  should  })ear  him 
a  grudge,  because  of  his  killing  his  father,  and 
thereupon  should  make  the  country  revolt  from  him; 
wherefore  he  sent  an  army,  and  besieged  Jehoiachin 
in  Jerusalem;  but  because  he  was  of  a  gentle  and 
just  disposition,  he  did  not  desire  to  see  the  city 
endangered  on  his  account,  but  he  took  his  mother, 
and  kindred,  and  delivered  them  to  the  commanders 
sent  by  the  king  of  Babylon,  and  accepted  of  their 
oaths,  that  neither  should  they  suffer  any  harm, 
nor  the  city;  which  agreement  they  did  not  observe 
for  a  single  year,  for  the  king  of  Babylon  did  not 
keep  it,  but  gave  orders  to  his  generals  to  take  all 
that  were  in  the  city  captives,  both  the  youth  and 
the  handicraftsmen;  and  bring  them  bound  to  him; 
their  number  was  ten  thousand  eiglit  hundred  and 
thirty-two;  as  also  Jehoiachin,  and  his  mother  and 
friends:  And  when  these  were  brought  to  him,  he 
kept  them  in  custody,  and  a])pointed  Jchoiachin's 
uncle    Zedekiah  to   be   king;   and   made   him   take   an 

92  AXTIQUITIES  Book  x. 

oath,  that  he  would  certainly  keep  the  kingdom  for 
him,  and  make  no  innovation,  nor  have  any  league 
of  friendship  with  the  Egyptians. 

2.  Xow  Zedekiah  was  twenty  and  one  years  old 
when  he  took  the  govermiient:  and  had  the  same 
mother  with  his  brother  Jehoiakim,  but  was  a  de- 
spiser  of  justice  and  of  his  duty,  for  truly  those  of 
the  same  age  with  him  were  wicked  about  him,  and 
the  whole  multitude  did  what  unjust  and  insolent 
things  they  pleased;  for  which  reason  the  prophet 
Jeremiah  came  often  to  him,  and  protested  to  him, 
and  insisted.  That  "he  must  leave  off  his  impieties 
and  transgressions,  and  take  care  of  what  was  right, 
and  neither  give  ear  to  the  rulers,  (among  whom 
were  wicked  men),  nor  give  credit  to  their  false 
prophets,  who  deluded  them,  as  if  the  king  of  Baby- 
lon would  make  no  more  war  against  them,  and  as 
if  the  Egyptians  would  make  w^ar  against  him,  and 
conquer  him,  since  what  they  said  was  not  true,  and 
the  events  would  not  prove  such  [as  they  expected]." 
Xow  as  to  Zedekiah  himself,  while  he  heard  the 
prophet  speak  he  believed  him,  and  agreed  to  every 
thing  as  true,  and  sujjposed  it  was  for  his  advantage; 
but  then  his  friends  perverted  him,  and  dissuaded 
him  from  what  the  prophet  advised,  and  obliged  him 
to  do  what  they  pleased.  Ezekiel  also  foretold  in 
Babylon  what  calamities  were  coming  upon  the  people, 
which  when  he  heard,  he  sent  accounts  of  them  into 
Jerusalem:  But  Zedekiah  did  not  believe  their  proph- 
ecies, for  the  reasons  following:  It  happened  that 
the  two  prophets  agreed  with  one  another  in  what 
they  said,  as  in  all  other  things,  that  the  city  should 
be  taken,  and  Zedekiah  himself  should  be  taken 
captive;  but  Ezekiel  disagreed  with  him,  and  said 
that  "Zedekiah  should  not  see  Babyk)n/'  while  Jere- 
miah said,  to  him.  That  "the  king  of  Babylon  should 

Chap.  VII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  93 

carry  him  away  thither  in  bonds."  And  because  they 
did  not  both  say  the  same  thing  as  to  this  circmn- 
stance,  he  disbeheved  what  they  both  appeared  to 
agree  in,  and  condemned  them  as  not  speaking 
trutli  therein,  although  all  the  things  foretold  him 
did  come  to  pass  according  to  their  prophecies,  as 
we  shall  show  upon  a  fitter  opportunity. 

3.  Xow  when  Zedekiah  preserved  the  league  of 
mutual  assistance  he  had  made  with  the  Babylonians, 
for  eight  years,  he  brake  it,  and  revolted  to  the 
Egyptians,  in  hopes,  by  their  assistance,  of  over- 
coming the  Babylonians.  When  the  king  of  Babylon 
knew  this,  he  made  war  against  him;  he  laid  his 
country  waste,  and  took  his  fortified  towns,  and  came 
to  the  city  Jerusalem  itself  to  besiege  it:  But  when 
the  king  of  Egypt  heard  what  circumstances  Zede- 
kiah his  ally  was  in,  he  took  a  great  army  with  him, 
and  came  into  Judea,  as  if  he  would  raise  the  siege: 
upon  which  the  king  of  Babylon  departed  from 
Jerusalem,  and  met  the  Egyptians,  and  joined  battle 
with  them,  and  beat  them,  and  when  he  had  put  them 
to  flight,  he  pursued  them,  and  drove  tliem  out  of  all 
Syria.  Now  as  soon  as  the  king  of  Babylon  was 
departed  from  Jerusalem,  the  false  j^rophets  deceived 
Zedekiah,  and  said,  That  "the  king  of  Babylon  would 
not  any  more  make  war  against  him  or  his  people, 
nor  remove  them  out  of  their  own  country  into 
Babylon,  and  that  those  then  in  captivity  would 
return,  with  all  those  vessels  of  the  temple,  of  which 
the  king  of  Babylon  had  despoiled  that  temple." 
But  Jeremiah  came  among  them,  and  prophesied 
what  contradicted  those  predictions,  and  what  proved 
to  be  true.  That  "they  did  ill,  and  deluded  the  king; 
that  the  Egyptians  would  be  of  no  advantage  to 
them,  but  that  the  king  of  Babylon  would  renew  the 
war    against    Jerusalem,    and    besiege    it    again,    and 

94  ANTIQUITIES  Book  x. 

would  destroy  the  people  by  famine,  and  carry  away 
those  that  remained  into  captivity,  and  would  take 
away  what  they  had  as  spoils,  and  would  carry  off 
those  riches  that  were  in  the  temjjle;  nay,  that,  be- 
sides this,  he  would  burn  it,  and  utterly  overthrow 
the  city,  and  that  they  should  serve  him  and  his 
posterity  seventy  years;  that  then  the  Persians  and 
the  Medes  should  put  an  end  to  their  servitude,  and 
overthrow  the  Babylonians,  and  that  we  shall  be  dis- 
missed, and  return  to  this  land,  and  '  rebuild  the 
temple  and  restore  Jerusalem.'  When  Jeremiah 
said  this,  the  greater  part  believed  him,  but  the  rulers, 
and  those  that  were  wicked#^  despised  him,  as  one 
disordered  in  his  senses.  Now  he  had  resolved  to 
go  elsewhere,  to  his  own  country,  which  was  called 
Anathoth,  and  was  twenty  furlongs  distant  from 
Jerusalem;  and  as  he  was  going,  one  of  the  rulers 
met  him,  and  seized  upon  him,  and  accused  him 
falsely,  as  though  he  were  going  as  a  deserter  to 
the  Babylonians:  but  Jeremiah  said,  that  he  accused 
him  falsely,  and  added,  that  he  was  only  going  to 
his  own  country,  but  the  other  would  not  believe 
him,  but  seized  upon  him,  and  led  him  away  to  the 
rulers,  and  laid  an  accusation  against  him,  under 
whom  he  endured  all  sorts  of  torments  and  tortures, 
and  was  reserved  to  be  punished;  and  this  was  the 
condition  he  was  in  for  some  time,  wJiile  he  suffered 
what  I  have  already  described  unjustly. 

4.  Now  in  the  ninth  year  of  the  reign  of  Zede- 
kiah,  on  the  tenth  day  of  the  tenth  month,  the  king 
of  Babylon  made  a  second  expedition  against  Jeru- 
salem,   and   lay   before   it   eighteen   months,    and    be- 

^  Josephus  says  here,  that  Jeremiah  prophesied  not  only  of  the  return 
of  the  Jews  from  the  B;il)ylonian  captivity,  and  this  under  the  Persians 
and  Medes,  as  in  our  other  (■oi)ie.s;  but  of  their  rel)uilding  the  temple, 
and  even  the  city  Jerusalem,  which  do  not  apj)ear  in  our  copies  under 
his  name,  sec  the  note  on   Aiiti*!.    \^.   XI.  cli.   i.  sect.  2. 

Chap.  VII.  OY  TllK  .IKWS.  05 

siegerl  it  with  the  utmost  appHcation.  There  came 
upon  them  also  two  of  the  greatest  calamities  at  the 
same  time  that  Jerusalem  was  besieged,  a  famine 
and  pestilential  distemper,  and  made  great  havock 
of  them:  And  though  the  prophet  Jeremiah  was  in 
prison,  he  did  not  rest,  but  cried  out,  and  proclaimed 
aloud,  and  exhorted  the  multitude  to  open  their 
gates,  and  admit  the  king  of  Babylon,  for  that  if 
they  did  so,  they  should  be  preserved,  and  their 
whole  families,  but  if  they'  did  not  so,  they  should 
be  destroyed,  and  he  foretold,  that  if  any  one  stayed 
in  the  city,  he  sliould  certainly  perish  by  one  of 
these  ways,  either  be  consumed  by  the  famine,  or 
slain  ])y  tlie  enemy's  sword,  but  that  if  he  would  fly 
to  the  enemy  he  should  escape  death:  Yet  did  not 
these  riders  who  heard  believe  him,  even  when  they 
were  in  the  midst  of  their  sore  calamities,  but  they 
came  to  the  king,  and  in  their  anger,  informed  him 
what  Jeremiah  said,  and  accused  him,  and  complained 
of  the  prophet  as  of  a  madman,  and  one  that  dis- 
heartened their  minds,  and  ])y  the  denunciation  of 
miseries,  weakened  the  alacrity  of  the  multitude,  who 
were  otherwise  ready  to  expose  themselves  to  dangers 
for  him,  and  for  their  country,  while  he,  in  a  way  of 
threatening,  warned  them  to  fly  to  the  enemy,  and 
told  them  that  the  city  should  certainly  be  taken, 
and  be  utterly  destroyed. 

5.  But  for  the  king  himself,  he  was  not  at  all 
irritated  against  Jeremiah,  such  was  his  gentle  and 
righteous  disposition;  yet  that  he  might  not  be  en- 
gaged in  a  quarrel  with  those  rulers  at  such  a  time, 
by  opposing  what  they  intended,  he  let  them  do  with 
the  prophet,  whatsoever  they  would:  Whereupon, 
when  the  king  had  granted  them  such  a  permission, 
they  presently  came  into  the  prison  and  took  him; 
and  Jet  him  down  with  a  cord  into  a  pit  full  of  mire, 

96  ANTIQUITIES  Book  x. 

that  he  might  be  suffocated,  and.  die  of  himself.  So 
he  stood  up  to  the  neck  in  the  mire,  which  was  all 
about  him,  and  so  continued:  but  there  was  of  the 
king's  servants,  who  was  in  esteem  with  him,  an 
Ethiopian  by  descent,  who  told  the  king  what  a 
state  the  prophet  was  in,  and  said,  that  his  friends 
and  his  rulers  had  done  evil  in  putting  the  prophet 
into  the  mire,  and  by  that  means  contriving  against 
him  that  he  should  suffer  a  death  more  bitter  than 
that  by  his  bonds  only.  When  the  king  heard  this, 
he  repented  of  his  having  delivered  up  the  prophet 
to  the  rulers,  and  bid  the  Ethiopian  take  thirty  men 
of  the  king's  guards,  and  cords  with  them,  and  what- 
soever else  they  understood  to  be  necessary  for  the 
prophet's  preservation,  and  draw  him  up  immedi- 
ately. So  the  Ethiopian  took  the  men  he  was  or- 
dered to  take,  and  drew  up  the  prophet  out  of  the 
mire,  and  left  him  at  liberty  [in  the  prison]. 

6.  But  when  the  king  had  sent  to  call  him  pri- 
vately, and  inquired  what  he  could  say  to  him  from 
God,  which  might  be  suitable  to  his  present  cir- 
cumstances, and  desired  him  to  inform  him  of  it, 
Jeremiah  replied,  that  "he  had  somewhat  to  say:" 
but  he  said  withal;  he  "should  not  be  believed,  nor 
if  he  admonished  them,  should  be  hearkened  to;  for, 
said  he,  thy  friends  have  determined  to  destroy  me, 
as  though  I  had  been  guilty  of  some  wickedness: 
and  where  are  now  those  men  who  deceived  us,  and 
said  that,  the  king  of  Babylon  would  not  come  and 
fight  against  us  any  more;  but  I  am  afraid  now 
to  speak  the  truth,  lest  thou  shouldst  condemn  me 
to  die."  And  when  the  king  had  assured  him  upon 
oath,  that  he  would  neither  himself  put  him  to  death, 
nor  deliver  him  up  to  the  rulers,  he  became  bold 
upon  that  assurance  that  was  given  him;  and  gave 
him  this  advice,  that  "he  should  deliver  the  city  up 

Chap.  VII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  97 

to  the  Babylonians;  and  he  said,  that  it  was  God 
that  prophesied  this  by  him,  that  (he  must  do  so) 
if  he  would  be  preserved  and  escape  out  of  the  dan- 
ger he  was  in,  and  that  then  neither  should  the 
city  fall  to  the  ground,  nor  should  the  temple  be 
burned;  but  that  (if  he  disobeyed,)  he  would  be  the 
cause  of  these  miseries  coming  upon  the  citizens, 
and  of  the  calamit>^  that  would  befall  his  whole 
house."  When  the  king  heard  this,  he  said,  that 
"he  would  willingly  do  what  he  persuaded  him  to, 
and  what  he  declared  would  be  to  his  advantage, 
but  that  he  was  afraid  of  those  of  his  own  country 
that  had  fallen  away  to  the  Babylonians,  lest  he 
should  be  accused  by  them  to  the  king  of  Babylon, 
and  be  punished."  But  the  prophet  encouraged  him, 
and  said,  "He  had  no  cause  to  fear  such  punishment, 
for  that  he  should  not  have  the  experience  of  any 
misfortune,  if  he  would  deliver  all  up  to  the  Baby- 
lonians, neither  himself,  nor  his  children,  nor  his 
wives,  and  that  the  temple  should  then  continue 
unhurt."  So  when  Jeremiah  had  said  this,  the  king 
let  him  go,  and  charged  him,  "To  betray  what  they 
had  resolved  on  to  none  of  the  citizens,  nor  to  tell 
any  of  these  matters  to  any  of  the  rulers,  if  they 
should  have  learned  that  he  had  been  sent  for,  and 
should  inquire  of  him  what  it  was  that  he  was  sent 
for,  and  Avhat  he  had  said  to  him?  but  to  pretend  to 
them,  that  he  besought  him  that  he  might  not  be 
kept  in  bonds  and  in  prison."  And  indeed  he  said 
so  to  them;  for  they  came  to  the  prophet,  and  asked 
him,  what  advice  it  was  that  he  came  to  give  the 
king  relating  to  them?  and  thus  1  have  finished  what 
concerns  this  matter. 

98  ANTIQUITIES  Book  x. 


How  the  hing  of  Bahijidti  took  Jerusalem  and  burnt 
the  temple,  and  removed  the  people  of  Jerusalem, 
and  Zedekiali  to  Bahijlon.  As  also,  who  they  were 
that  had  succeeded  in  the  high  priesthood  under 
the  kings. 

1.  Now  the  king  of  Babylon  was  very  intent  and 
earnest  upon  the  siege  of  Jerusalem:  and  he  erected 
towers  upon  great  banks  of  earth,  and  from  them 
repelled  those  that  stood  upon  the  walls:  he  also 
made  a  great  number  of  such  banks  round  about 
the  whole  city,  whose  height  was  equal  to  those  walls. 
However,  those  that  were  within,  bore  the  siege 
with  courage  and  alacrity,  for  they  were  not  dis- 
couraged, either  by  the  famine,  or  by  the  pestilential 
distemper,  but  were  of  cheerful  minds  in  the  prose- 
cution of  the  war,  although  those  miseries  within 
oppressed  them  also,  and  they  did  not  suffer  them- 
selves to  be  terrified,  either  by  the  contrivances  of 
the  enemy,  or  by  their  engines  of  war,  but  contrived 
still  different  engines  to  oppose  all  the  other  withal, 
till  indeed  there  seemed  to  be  an  entire  struggle 
between  the  Babylonians,  and  the  people  of  Jeru- 
salem, which  had  the  greater  sagacity  and  skill;  the 
former  party  supposing  they  should  ])e  thereby  too 
hard  for  the  other,  for  the  destruction  of  the  city; 
the  latter  jjlacing  their  hopes  of  deliverance  in 
nothing  else  but  in  persevering  in  such  inventions  in 
opposition  to  the  other,  as  might  demonstrate  the 
enemies'  engines  were  useless  to  them.  And  this 
siege   they  endured   for   eighteen   months,   until   they 

Chap.  Yiii.  OF  THE  JEWS.  DO 

were  destroyed  by  the  famine,  and  by  the  darts  which 
the  enemy  threw  at  them  from  the  towers. 

2.  Now  the  city  was  taken  in  the  ninth  day  of 
the  fourth  month,  in  the  eleventh  year  of  the  reign 
of  Zedekiah.  They  were  indeed  only  generals  of 
the  king  of  Babylon,  to  w^hom  Xebuchadnezzar  com- 
mitted the  care  of  the  siege,  for  he  abode  himself 
in  the  city  of  Riblah.  The  names  of  these  generals 
who  ravaged  and  subdued  Jerusalem,  if  any  one 
desire  to  know  them,  were  these,  Nergal  Sharezer, 
Samgar  Xebo,  Rabsaris,  Sarsechim,  and  Rabmag. 
And  when  the  city  was  taken  about  midnight,  and 
the  enemies'  generals  were  entered  into  the  temj^le, 
and  when  Zedekiah  was  sensible  of  it,  he  took  his 
wives  and  his  children,  and  his  captains  and  his 
friends,  and  with  them  fled  out  of  the  city,  through 
the  fortified  ditch,  and  through  the  desert:  and  when 
certain  of  the  deserters  had  informed  the  Baby- 
lonians of  this,  at  break  of  day,  they  made  haste 
to  pursue  after  Zedekiah,  and  overtook  him  not  far 
from  Jericho,  and  encompassed  him  about;  but  for 
those  friends  and  captains  of  Zedekiah  who  had 
fled  out  of  the  city  wnth  him,  when  they  saw  their 
enemies  near  them,  they  left  him  and  dispersed 
themselves,  some  one  way  and  some  another,  and 
every  one  resolved  to  save  himself;  so  the  enemy 
took  Zedekiah  alive,  when  he  was  deserted  by  all 
but  a  few%  with  his  children  and  his  waves,  and 
brought  him  to  the  king.  When  he  was  come,  Xeb- 
uchadnezzar began  to  "call  him  a  wicked  wretch, 
and  a  covenant  breaker,  and  one  that  had  forgotten 
his  former  words,  when  he  promised  to  keep  the 
country  for  him.  He  also  reproached  him  for  his 
ingratitude,  that  when  he  had  received  the  kingdom 
from  him,  who  had  taken  it  from  Jehoiachin,  and 
given  it  him,  he  had  made  use  of  the  power  he  gave 

100  ANTIQUITIES  Book  x. 

him  against  him  that  gave  it,  but,  said  he,  God  is 
great,  who  hated  that  conduct  of  thine,  and  hath 
brought  thee  under  us."  And  when  he  had  used 
these  words  to  Zedekiah,  he  commanded  his  sons 
and  his  friends  to  be  slain,  while  Zedekiah  and  the 
rest  of  the  captains  looked  on,  after  which  he  put 
out  the  eyes  of  Zedekiah:  and  bound  him,  and  carried 
him  to  Babylon.  And  these  things  happened  to 
him,^  as  Jeremiah  and  Ezekiel  had  foretold  to  him, 
that  he  should  l)e  caught,  and  brought  before  the 
king  of  Babylon,  and  should  speak  to  him  face  to 
face;  and  should  see  his  eyes  with  his  own  eyes;  and 
thus  far  did  Jeremiah  prophesy;  but  he  was  also 
made  blind,  and  brought  to  Babylon,  but  did  not 
see  it,  according  to  the  prediction  of  Ezekiel. 

3.  We  have  said  thus  much,  because  it  was  suffi- 
cient to  show  the  nature  of  God  to  such  as  are  ig- 
norant of  it,  that  it  is  various,  and  acts  many  different 
ways,  and  that  all  events  happen  after  a  regular 
manner,  in  their  proper  season,  and  that  foretells 
what  must  come  to  pass.  It  is  also  sufficient  to 
show  the  ignorance  and  incredulity  of  men,  whereby 
they  are  not  permitted  to  foresee  any  thing  that  is 
future,  and  are,  without  any  guard,  exposed  to 
calamities,  so  that  it  is  impossible  for  them  to  avoid 
the  experience  of  those  calamities. 

4.  And  after  this  manner  have  the  kings  of 
David's  race  ended  their  lives,  being  in  number 
twenty-one,  until  the  last  king,  who  altogether  reigned 
five  hundred  and  fourteen  years,  and  six  months, 
and   ten   days;    of   whom    Saul,    who    was    their    first 

'  Tliis  observation  of  Josephus'  about  the  seeming  disagreement  of 
Jeremiah,  eh.  xxii.  4,  and  xxxiv.  3,  and  Ezek.  xii.  13,  hut  real  agreement 
at  last,  concerning  the  fate  of  Zedekiah,  is  very  true,  and  very  remark- 
able. See  ch.  vii.  sect.  3.  Nor  is  it  at  all  unlikely  that  the  courtiers 
and  false  prophets  might  make  use  of  this  seeming  contradiction  to 
dissuade  Zedekiah  from  believing  either  of  those  prophets,  as  Josephus 
here  intimates   he   was   dissuaded   thereby. 

Chap.  vm.  OF  THE  JEWS.  101 

king,  retained  the  government  twenty  years,  though 
he  was  not  of  the  same  tribe  with  the  rest. 

5.  And  now  it  was  that  the  king  of  Babylon 
sent  Nebuzaradan,  the  general  of  his  army,  to  Jeru- 
salem, to  pillage  the  temple,  who  had  it  also  in  com- 
mand to  burn  it  and  the  royal  palace,  and  to  lay 
the  city  even  with  the  ground,  and  to  transplant 
the  people  into  Babylon.  Accordingly,  he  eame  to 
Jerusalem  in  the  eleventh  year  of  king  Zedekiah, 
and  pillaged  the  temple,  and  carried  out  the  vessels 
of  God,  both  gold  and  silver,  and  particularly  that 
large  laver  which  Solomon  dedicated,  as  also  the 
pillars  of  brass,  and  their  chapiters,  with  the  golden 
tables  and  the  candlesticks;  and  when  he  had  carried 
these  off,  he  set  fire  to  the  temple  in  the  fifth  month, 
the  first  day  of  the  month,  on  the  eleventh  year  of 
the  reign  of  Zedekiah,  and  in  the  eighteenth  year 
of  Nebuchadnezzar;  he  also  burnt  the  palace,  and 
overthrew  the  citj^  Now  the  temj)le  was  burnt  four 
hundred  and  seventy  years,  six  months  and  ten  days, 
after  it  was  built.  It  was  then  one  thousand  and 
sixty-two  years,  six  months  and  ten  days,  from  the 
departure  out  of  Egypt;  and  from  the  deluge  to 
the  destruction  of  the  temple,  the  whole  interval 
was  one  thousand  nine  hundred  fifty-seven  years, 
six  months  and  ten  days;  but  from  the  generation 
of  Adam,  until  this  befell  the  temple,  there  were 
three  thousand  five  hundred  and  thirteen  years,  six 
months  and  ten  days;  so  great  was  the  number  of 
years  hereto  belonging.  And  what  actions  were 
done  during  these  years,  we  have  particularly  re- 
lated. But  the  general  of  the  Babylonian  king  now 
overthrew  the  city  to  the  very  foundations,  and  re- 
moved all  the  people,  and  took  for  prisoners  the 
high  priest  Seraiah,  and  Zephaniah  the  priest  that 
was   next   to   him,    and   the    rulers   that   guarded   the 

102  ANTIQUITIES  Book  x. 

temple,  who  were  three  in  number,  and  the  eunuch 
who  was  over  the  armed  men,  and  seven  friends  of 
Zedekiah,  and  his  scribe,  and  sixty  other  rulers,  all 
which,  together  with  the  vessels  which  they  had  pil- 
laged, he  carried  to  the  king  of  Babylon  to  Riblah, 
a  city  of  Syria.  So  the  king  commanded  the  heads 
of  the  high  priest  and  of  the  rulers  to  be  cut  off 
there;  but  he  himself  led  all  the  captives,  and  Zede- 
kiah to  Babylon.  He  also  led  Josedek  the  higli 
priest  away  bound.  He  was  the  son  of  Seraiah 
the  high  priest,  whom  the  king  of  Babylon  had  slain 
in  Riblah,  a  city  of  Syria,  as  we  have  just  now 

6.  And  now,  because  we  have  enumerated  the 
succession  of  the  kings,  and  who  they  were,  and 
how  long  they  reigned,  I  think  it  necessary  to  set 
down  the  names  of  the  high  priests,  and  who  they 
were  that  succeeded  one  anotlier  in  the  high  priest- 
hood under  the  kings.  The  first  high  priest  then  at 
the  temple  which  Solomon  built,  was  Zadoc;  after 
him  liis  son  Achimas  received  tliat  dignity;  after 
Achimas  was  Azarias;  his  son  was  Joram,  and  Joram's 
son  was  Isus,  after  him  was  Axioramus;  his  son 
was  Phideas,  and  Phideas'  son  was  Sudeas,  and 
Sudeas'  son  was  Juelus,  and  Juelus'  son  was  Jotham, 
and  Jotham's  son  was  Urias,  and  Urias'  son  was 
Nerias,  and  Nerias'  son  was  Odeas,  and  his  son  was 
Sallumus,  and  Sallumus'  son  was  Elcias,  and  his 
son  ^  [was  Azarias,  and  his  son]  was  Sareas,  and 
his  son  was  Josadoc,  who  was  carried  captive  to 
Babylon.  All  these  received  the  high  priesthood 
by  succession,  the  sons  from  their  father. 

*  I  have  here  inserted  hi  brackets  this  liigh  priest  Azarias,  though 
lie  be  omitted  in  all  Joscphus'  cojiies,  out  of  the  Jewish  chronicle,  Sedar 
Olain,  because  we  know  from  Josc])hiis  himself,  that  the  mmiber  of 
the  high  ])ricsts  belonging  to  this  interval  was  eighteen,  Antiq.  15.  XX. 
ch.  X.  whereas  his  coi)ics  Iwne  here  but  sc\cnlccn. 

Chap.  IX.  OF  THE  .TEWS.  103 

7.  When  the  king  was  come  to  Babylon,  lie  kept 
Zedekiah  in  prison  until  he  died,  and  buried  him 
magnificently,  and  dedicated  the  vessels  he  had  pil- 
laged out  of  the  temple  of  Jerusalem  to  his  own 
gods,  and  planted  the  people  in  the  country  of  Baby- 
lon, but  freed  the  high  priest  from  his  bonds. 


How  Nehuzaradan  set  Gedaliah  over  the  Jews  that 
were  left  in  Judea,  whieh  Gedaliah  was  a  little 
afterward  slain  hij  Ishmael:  and,  how  Johanan,  after 
Ishmael  was  driven  away,  went  down  into  Egypt 
with  the  people,  which  people  Nebuchadnezzar, 
when  he  made  an  eiVpedition  against  the  Egyptians, 
took  captive,  and  brought  them  away  to  Babylon. 

1.  NoAV  the  general  of  the  army,  jSTebuzaradan, 
when  he  had  carried  the  people  of  the  Jews  into 
captivity,  left  the  poor,  and  those  that  had  deserted, 
in  the  country,  and  made  one,  whose  name  was 
Gedaliah,  the  son  of  Ahikam,  a  person  of  a  noble 
family,  their  governor;  which  Gedaliah  was  of  a 
gentle  and  righteous  disposition.  He  also  com- 
manded them  that  they  should  cultivate  the  ground, 
and  pay  an  appointed  tribute  to  the  king.  He  also 
took  Jeremiah  the  prophet  out  of  prison,  and  would 
have  persuaded  him  to  go  along  with  him  to  Babylon, 
for  that  he  had  been  enjoined  by  the  king  to  supply 
him  with  whatsoever  he  wanted:  and  if  he  did  not 
like  to  do  so,  he  desired  him  to  inform  him  where 
he  resolved  to  dwell,  that  he  might  signify  the  same 
to  the  king:  but  the  prophet  had  no  mind  to  follow 

104  AXTIQUITIES  Book  x. 

him,  nor  to  dwell  any  where  else,  but  would  gladly 
live  in  the  ruins  of  his  country,  and  in  the  miserable 
remains  of  it.  When  the  general  understood  what 
his  purpose  was,  he  enjoined  Gedaliah,  whom  he 
left  behind,  to  take  all  possible  care  of  him,  and 
to  supply  him  with  whatsoever  he  wanted:  So  when 
he  had  given  him  rich  presents,  he  dismissed  him. 
Accordingly,  Jeremiah  abode  in  a  city  of  that  country, 
which  was  called  Mis  pah;  and  desired  of  Xebuzara- 
dan,  that  he  would  set  at  liberty  his  disciple  ^  Baruch, 
the  son  of  Xeraiah.  one  of  a  very  eminent  family, 
and  exceeding  skilful  in  the  language  of  his  country. 
2.  When  Xebuzaradan  had  done  thus,  he  made 
haste  to  Babylon:  But  as  to  those  that  fled  away 
during  the  siege  of  Jerusalem,  and  had  been  scat- 
tered over  the  country,  when  they  heard  that  the 
Babylonians  were  gone  away,  and  had  left  a  remnant 
in  the  land  of  Jerusalem,  and  those  such  as  were  to 
cultivate  the  same,  they  came  together  from  all 
parts  to  Gedaliah  to  JNIispah.  Xow  the  rulers  that 
were  over  them  were  Johanan,  the  son  of  Kareah, 
and  Jazeniah,  and  Seraiah,  and  others  beside  them. 
Now  there  was  of  the  royal  family  one  Ishmael,  a 
wicked  man,  and  very  crafty,  who  during  the  siege 
of  Jerusalem,  fled  to  Baalis,  the  king  of  the  Am- 
monites, and  abode  with  him  during  that  time:  And 
Gedaliah  persuaded  them  now  they  were  there,  to 
stay  with  him,  and  to  have  no  fear  of  the  Babylonians, 
for  that  if  they  would  cultivate  the  country,  they 
should  suffer  no  harm.  This  he  assured  them  of  by 
oath;  and  said,  that  they  should  have  him  for  their 
patron,  and  that  if  any  disturbance  should  arise, 
they    should    find    him    ready    to    defend    them.     He 

'  Of  this  character  of  Baruch  the  son  of  Xeraiah,  and  the  genuineness 
of  his  book  that  stands  now  in  the  Apocrypha,  and  that  it  is  really  a 
canonical  book,  and  an  appendix  to  Jeremiah,  see  Authent.  Rec.  Part  I. 
pp.  1-11. 

Chap.  IX.  OF  THE  JEWS.  10.5 

also  advised  them  to  dwell  in  any  city,  as  every  one 
of  them  pleased;  and  that  they  would  send  men 
along  with  his  own  servants,  and  rebuild  their  houses 
upon  the  old  foundations,  and  dwell  there,  and  he 
admonished  them  beforehand,  that  they  should  make 
preparation,  while  the  season  lasted,  of  corn,  and 
wine,  and  oil,  that  they  might  have  whereon  to  feed 
during  the  winter.  When  he  had  thus  discoursed 
to  them,  he  dismissed  them,  that  every  one  might 
dwell  in  what  place  of  the  country  he  pleased. 

3.  Xow  when  this  report  w^as  spread  abroad  as 
far  as  the  nations  that  bordered  on  Judea,  that 
Gedaliah  kindly  entertained  those  that  came  to  him, 
after  they  had  fled  away,  upon  this  (only)  condi- 
tion, that  they  should  pay  tribute  to  the  king  of 
Babylon,  they  also  came  readily  to  Gedaliah,  and 
inhabited  the  country.  And  when  Johanan  and  the 
rulers  that  were  with  him  observed  the  country,  and 
the  humanity  of  Gedaliah,  they  were  exceedingly 
in  love  w4th  him,  and  told  him  that  Baalis,  the  king 
of  the  Ammonites,  had  sent  Ishmael  to  kill  him 
by  treachery,  and  secretly,  that  he  might  have  the 
dominion  over  the  Israelites,  as  being  of  the  royal 
famih^;  and  they  said  that  he  might  deliver  himself 
from  this  treacherous  design,  if  he  would  give  them 
leave  to  slay  Ishmael,  and  nobody  should  know  it, 
for  they  told  him  they  were  afraid  that  when  he 
was  killed  by  the  other,  the  entire  ruin  of  the  re- 
maining strength  of  the  Israelites  would  ensue:  But 
he  professed.  That  "he  did  not  beheve  what  they 
said,  when  they  told  him  of  such  a  treacherous  de- 
sign, in  a  man  that  had  been  well  treated  by  him; 
because  it  was  not  probable  that  one  who,  under 
such  a  want  of  all  things,  had  failed  of  nothing 
that  was  necessary  for  him,  should  be  found  so 
wicked   and   ungrateful   towards   his   benefactor,   tliat 

106  ANTIQUITIES  Book  x. 

when  it  would  be  an  instance  of  wickedness  in  him 
not  to  save  him,  had  he  been  treacherously  assaulted 
by  others  to  endeavour,  and  that  earnestly,  to  kill 
him  with  his  own  hand:  That  how^ever,  if  he  ought 
to  suppose  this  information  to  be  true,  it  was  better 
for  himself  to  be  slain  by  the  other,  than  to  destroy 
a  man  who  fled  to  him  for  refuge,  and  entrusted 
his  own  safety  to  him,  and  committed  himself  to 
his  disposal." 

4.  So  Johanan,  and  the  rulers  that  were  with 
him  not  being  able  to  persuade  Gedaliah,  went  away: 
but  after  the  interval  of  thirty  days  was  over,  Ish- 
mael  came  again  to  Gedaliah,  to  the  city  Mispah 
and  ten  men  with  him,  and  when  he  had  feasted 
Ishmael,  and  those  that  were  with  him  in  a  splendid 
manner,  at  his  table,  and  had  given  them  presents, 
he  became  disordered  in  drink,  while  he  endeavoured 
to  be  very  merry  with  them;  and  when  Ishmael 
Saw  him  in  that  case,  and  that  he  was  drowned  in 
his  cups  to  the  degree  of  insensibility,  and  fallen 
asleep,  he  rose  on  a  sudden,  with  his  ten  friends, 
and  slew  Gedaliah  and  those  that  were  with  him 
at  the  feast,  and  when  he  had  slain  them,  he  went 
out  by  night,  and  slew  all  the  Jews  that  were  in 
the  city,  and  those  soldiers  also  which  were  left 
therein  by  the  Babylonians:  But  the  next  day  four- 
score men  came  out  of  the  country  with  presents  to 
Gedaliah,  none  of  them  knowing  what  had  befallen 
him;  when  Ishmael  saw  them,  he  invited  them  in 
to  Gedaliah,  and  when  they  were  come  in,  he  shut 
up  the  court,  and  slew  them,  and  cast  their  dead 
bodies  down  into  a  certain  deep  pit,  that  they  might 
not  be  seen;  but  of  these  fourscore  men  Ishmael 
spared  tliose  that  entreated  him  not  to  kill  them; 
till  they  had  delivered  up  to  him  what  riches  they 
had  concealed  in  the  fields,  consisting  of  their  furni- 

Chap.  IX.  OF  THE  JEWS.  107 

tiire,  and  garments,  and  corn:  but  he  took  captive 
the  people  that  were  in  Mispah,  with  their  wives 
and  children;  among  whom  were  the  daughters  of 
king  Zedekiah,  whom  Nebuzaradan,  the  general  of 
the  army  of  Babylon,  had  left  with  Gedaliah:  And 
when  he  had  done  this,  he  came  to  the  king  of  the 

5.  But  when  Johanan  and  the  rulers  with  him 
heard  of  what  was  done  at  Mispah  by  Ishmael,  and 
of  the  death  of  Gedaliah,  they  had  indignation  at 
it,  and  every  one  of  them  took  his  own  armed  men 
and  came  suddenly  to  fight  with  Ishmael,  and  over- 
took him  at  the  fountain  in  Hebron:  And  when 
those  that  were  carried  away  captives  by  Ishmael, 
saw  Johanan  and  the  rulers,  they  were  very  glad; 
and  looked  upon  them  as  coming  to  their  assistance; 
so  they  left  him  that  had  carried  them  captives,  and 
came  over  to  Johanan:  then  Ishmael,  with  eight 
men,  fled  to  the  king  of  the  Ammonites;  but  Jo- 
hanan took  those  whom  he  had  rescued  out  of  the 
hands  of  Ishmael,  and  the  eunuchs,  and  their  wives 
and  children,  and  came  to  a  certain  place  called 
31  an  (Ira,  and  there  they  abode  that  day,  for  they 
had  determined  to  remove  from  thence,  and  go  into 
Egypt,  out  of  fear  lest  the  Babylonians  should  slay 
them  in  case  they  continued  in  the  country,  and 
that  out  of  anger  at  the  slaughter  of  Gedaliah,  who 
had  been  by  them  set  over  it  for  governor. 

6.  Now  while  they  were  under  this  deliberation, 
Johanan,  the  son  of  Kareah,  and  the  rulers  that 
were  with  liim,  came  to  Jeremiah  the  prophet,  and 
desired  that  he  would  pray  to  God  that  because  they 
were  at  an  utter  loss  about  what  they  ought  to  do, 
he  would  discover  it  to  tliem,  and  they  sware  that 
they  would  do  whatsoevei-  Jeremiah  should  say  to 
them.     And    when    the    ])ro])het    said    he    would    be 

108  ANTIQUITIES  Book  x. 

their  intercessor  with  God,  it  came  to  pass,  that 
after  ten  days  God  appeared  to  him,  and  said,  "That 
he  would  inform  Johanan  and  the  other  rulers,  and 
all  the  people,  that  he  would  be  with  them  while 
they  continued  in  that  country,  and  take  care  of 
them,  and  keep  them  from  being  hurt  by  the  Baby- 
lonians, of  whom  they  were  afraid,  ])ut  that  he  would 
desert  them,  if  they  went  into  Egypt,  and  out, of 
his  wrath  against  them,  would  inflict  the  same  pun- 
ishments upon  them  which  they  knew  their  brethren 
had  already  endured."  So  when  the  prophet  had 
informed  Johanan  and  the  people  that  God  had 
foretold  these  things,  he  was  not  believed,  when  he 
said  that  God  commanded  them  to  continue  in  that 
country,  but  they  imagined  that  he  said  so  to  gratify 
Baruch,  his  own  disciple,  and  belied  God,  and  that 
he  persuaded  them  to  stay  there,  that  they  might 
be  destroyed  by  the  Babylonians.  Accordingly,  both 
the  people  and  Johanan  disobeyed  the  counsel  of 
God,  which  he  gave  tliem  by  the  prophet,  and  re- 
moved into  Egypt,  and  carried  Jeremiah  and  Baruch 
along  with  him. 

7.  And  when  they  were  there,  God  signified  to 
the  prophet,  tliat  the  king  of  Babylon  was  about 
making  an  expedition  against  the  Egyptians,  and 
commanded  him  to  foretell  to  the  people  that  Egypt 
should  be  taken,  and  tlie  king  of  Babylon  should  slay 
some  of  them,  and  should  take  others  captive,  and 
bring  them  to  Babylon;  which  things  came  to  pass 
accordingly:  for  on  the  fifth  year  after  the  destruc- 
tion of  Jerusalem,  which  was  the  twenty-third  of 
the  reign  of  Nebuchadnezzar,  he  made  an  expedition 
against  Celoesyria,  and  when  he  had  possessed  him- 
self of  it,  he  made  war  against  the  Ammonites  and 
Moabites;  and  when  he  had  brought  all  these  na- 
tions under  subjection,  he  fell  upon  Egypt,  in  order 

Chap.  IX.  OF  THE  JEWS.  109 

to  overthrow  it;  and  he  slew  the  ^  king  that  then 
reigned,  and  set  up  another;  and  he  took  those  Jews 
that  were  there  captives,  and  led  them  away  to 
Bahylon.  And  such  was  the  end  of  the  nation  of 
the  Hebrews,  as  it  hath  been  delivered  down  to  us, 
it  having  gone  twice  beyond  Euphrates;  for  the 
people  of  the  ten  tribes  were  carried  out  of  Samaria 
by  the  Assyrians,  in  the  days  of  king  Hoshea;  after 
which  the  people  of  the  two  tribes  that  remained 
after  Jerusalem  was  taken,  [were  carried  away]  by 
Nebuchadnezzar,  the  king  of  Babylon  and  Chaldea. 
Now  as  to  Shalmanezer,  he  removed  the  Israelites 
out  of  their  country,  and  placed  therein  the  nation 
of  the  Cutheans,  who  had  formerly  l^elonged  to 
the  inner  parts  of  Persia  and  Media,  but  were  then 
called  Samaritans,  by  taking  the  name  of  the  country 
to  which  they  were  removed;  but  the  king  of  Baby- 
lon, who  brought  out  the  two  tribes,-  placed  no 
other  nation  in  their  country,  by  which  means  all 
Judea  and  Jerusalem,  and  the  temple,  continued 
to  be  a  desert  for  seventy  years:  but  the  entire  in- 
terval of  time  which  passed  from  the  captivity  of 
the  Israelites,  to  the  carrying  away  of  the  two  tribes, 
proved  to  be  an  hundred  ancl  thirty  years  six  months 
and  ten  days. 

*  Herodotus  says,  this  king  of  Efiypt  [Pharaoh  Hophra,  or  Apries] 
was  slain  by  the  Egyptians,  as  Jeremiah  foretold  his  slaughter  by  his 
enemies,  Jer.  xliv.  x?9,  30,  and  that  as  a  sign  of  the  destruction  of  Egv'pt 
[by  Nebuchadnezzar,]  Josephus  says,  this  king  was  slain  by  Nebuchad- 
nezzar himself. 

*  We  see  here  that  Judea  was  left  in  a  manner  desolate  after  the 
captivity  of  the  two  tril,es,  and  was  not  repeopled  with  foreign  colonies, 
perhaps  as  an  indication  of  Providence  that  the  Jews  were  to  repeople 
it  without  opposition  themselves.  I  also  esteem  the  latter  and  present 
desolate  condition  of  the  same  country,  without  being  repeopled  by 
foreign  colonies,  to  be  a  like  indication,  that  the  same  Jews  are  here- 
after to  repeople  it  again  themselves,  at  their  so  long  expected  future 

110  ANTIQUITIES  Book  x. 


Concerning  Daniel,  and  what  befell  him  at  Babylon. 

1.  But  now  Xebuchadnezzar  king  of  Babylon  took 
some  of  the  most  noble  of  the  Jews  that  were  children 
and  the  kinsmen  of  Zedekiah  their  king,  such  as  were 
remarkable  for  the  beauty  of  their  bodies,  and  the 
comeliness  of  their  countenances,  and  delivered  them 
into  the  hands  of  tutors,  and  to  the  improvement  to 
be  made  by  them.  He  also  made  some  of  them  to 
be  eunuchs;  which  course  he  took  also  with  those  of 
other  nations,  wliom  he  had  taken  in  the  flower  of 
their  age,  and  afforded  them  their  diet  from  his  own 
table,  and  had  them  instructed  in  the  institutes  of 
the  country,  and  taught  the  learning  of  the  Chaldeans; 
and  they  had  now  exercised  themselves  sufficiently  in 
that  wisdom  which  he  had  ordered  they  should  apply 
themselves  to.  Nom^  among  these  there  were  four  of 
the  family  of  Zedekiah,  of  most  excellent  dispositions, 
one  of  whom  was  called  Daniel,  another  was  called 
Ananias,  another  Mcsacl,  and  the  fourth  Azarias: 
And  the  king  of  Babylon  changed  their  names,  and 
commanded  that  they  should  make  use  of  other  names: 
Daniel  he  called  Baltasar,  Ananias,  Shadrach,  INIesael, 
Meshach,  and  Azarias,  ^ibcdnego.  These  the  king 
had  in  esteem,  and  continued  to  love,  because  of  tlie 
very  excellent  temper  they  were  of,  and  because  of 
their  application  to  learning,  and  the  progress  they 
had  made  in  wisdom. 

2.  Now  Daniel  and  his  kinsmen,  had  resolved  to 
use  a  sevei-e  diet,  and  to  a])stain  from  those  kinds  of 
food  wliicli  came  fi-om  tlie  king's  table,  and  entirely 
to  f()r])ear  to  eat  of  all  living  creatures:   So  he  came 

Chap.  X.  OF  THE  JEWS.  Hi 

to  Aslipenaz,  who  was  that  ^  eunuch  to  whom  the 
care  of  them  was  committed,  and  desired  him  to  take 
and  spend  what  was  brought  for  them  from  the  king, 
but  to  give  them  pulse  and  dates  for  their  food,  and 
any  thing  else,  besides  the  flesh  of  living  creatures, 
that  he  pleased;  for  that  their  inclinations  were  to 
that  sort  of  food,  and  that  they  despised  the  other. 
He  replied,  that  he  was  ready  to  serve  them  in  what 
they  desired,  but  he  suspected  that  they  would  be 
discovered  by  the  king,  from  their  meagre  bodies, 
and  the  alteration  of  their  countenances,  because  it 
could  not  be  avoided  but  their  bodies  and  colours  must 
be  changed  with  their  diet,  especially  while  they  would 
be  clearly  discovered  by  the  finer  appearance  of  the 
other  children,  who  would  fare  better,  and  thus  they 
should  bring  him  in  danger,  and  occasion  him  to  be 
punished:  yet  did  they  persuade  Arioch,  who  was 
thus  fearful,  to  give  them  what  food  they  desired  for 
ten  days,  by  way  of  trial,  and  in  case  the  habit  of 
their  bodies  were  not  altered,  to  go  on  in  the  same 
way,  as  expecting  that  they  should  not  be  hurt  thereby 
afterwards,  but  if  he  saw  them  look  meagre,  and  worse 
than  the  rest,  he  should  reduce  them  to  their  former 
diet.  Xow,  when  it  appeared  that  they  were  so  far 
from  becoming  worse  by  the  use  of  this  food,  that 
they  grew  plumper  and  fuller  in  body  than  the  rest, 
insomuch  that  he  thought  those  who  fed  on  what  came 
from  the  king's  table  seemed  less  plump  and  full, 
while  those  that  were  with  Daniel  looked  as  if  they 
had  lived  in  plenty,  and  all  sorts  of  luxury;  Arioch, 
from  that  time,  securely  took  himself  what  the  king 

*  Thfit  Daniel  was  made  one  of  these  eunuchs  of  which  Tsaiah  proph- 
esied, Isa.  xxxix.  7,  and  the  three  children  his  companions  also,  seems 
to  me  plain,  both  here  in  Josephus,  and  in  our  copies  of  Daniel,  Dan. 
i.  3,  fi,  T-11,  18,  although  it  must  he  {^ranted  that  some  married  ))ersons, 
that  liad  cliildrcn  were  soniftimes  calk-d  eunuchs,  in  a  general  accei)tation 
for  courtiers,  on  account  that  so  nuuiy  of  the  ancient  courtiers  were  real 
eunuchs.     See  Gen.  xxxix.    1. 

112  ANTIQUITIES  Book  x. 

sent  every  day  from  his  supper,  according  to  custom, 
to  the  children,  but  gave  them  the  forementioned  diet, 
while  they  had  their  souls  in  some  measure  more  pure, 
and  less  burdened,  and  so  fitter  for  learning,  and  had 
their  bodies  in  better  tune  for  hard  labour,  for  they 
neither  had  the  former  oppressed  and  heavy  with 
variety  of  meats,  nor  were  the  other  effeminate  on 
the  same  account;  so  they  readily  understood  all  the 
learning  that  was  among  the  Hebrews,  and  among 
the  Chaldeans,  as  especially  did  Daniel,  who  being 
already  sufficiently  skilful  in  wisdom,  was  very  busy 
about  the  interpretation  of  dreams;  and  God  mani- 
fested himself  to  him. 

3.  Now  two  years  after  the  destruction  of  Egypt, 
king  Nebuchadnezzar  saw  a  wonderful  dream,  the 
accomplishment  of  which  God  showed  him  in  his 
sleep,  but  when  he  arose  out  of  his  bed,  he  forgot  the 
accomplishment:  So  he  sent  for  the  Chaldeans  and 
magicians,  and  the  prophets,  and  told  them,  that  he 
had  seen  a  dream,  and  informed  them  that  he  had 
forgotten  the  accomplishment  of  what  he  had  seen, 
and  he  enjoined  them  to  tell  him,  both  what  the  dream 
was,  and  what  was  its  signification;  and  they  said  that 
this  was  a  thing  impossible  to  be  discovered  by  men, 
but  they  promised  him,  that  if  he  would  explain  to 
them  what  dream  he  had  seen,  they  would  tell  him  its 
signification.  Hereupon  he  threatened  to  put  them  to 
death;  unless  they  told  him  his  dream:  and  he  gave 
command  to  have  them  all  put  to  death,  since  they 
confessed  they  could  not  do  what  they  were  com- 
manded to  do.  Now  when  Daniel  heard  that  the 
king  had  given  a  command,  that  all  the  wise  men 
should  be  put  to  death,  and  that  among  them  himself 
and  his  three  kinsmen  were  in  danger,  he  went  to 
Arioch,  who  was  captain  of  the  king's  guards,  and 
desired  to  know  of  him  what  was  the  reason  why  the 

Chap.  X.  OF  THE  JEWS.  113 

king  had  given  command  that  all  the  wise  men,  and 
Chaldeans,  and  magicians,  should  be  slain.  So  when 
he  had  learned  that  the  king  had  had  a  dream,  and  had 
forgotten  it,  and  that  when  they  were  enjoined  to 
inform  the  king  of  it,  they  had  said  they  could  not 
do  it,  and  had  thereby  provoked  him  to  anger;  he 
desired  of  Arioch  that  he  would  go  in  to  the  king,  and 
desire  respite  for  the  magicians  for  one  night,  and  to 
put  off  their  slaughter  so  long,  for  that  he  hoped 
within  that  time  to  obtain,  by  prayer  to  God,  the 
knowledge  of  the  dream.  Accordingly,  Arioch  in- 
formed the  king  of  what  Daniel  desired:  So  the  king 
bid  them  delay  the  slaughter  of  the  magicians  till  he 
knew  what  Daniel's  promise  would  come  to;  but  the 
young  man  retired  to  his  own  house,  with  his  kinsmen, 
and  besought  God  that  whole  night  to  discover  the 
dream,  and  thereby  deliver  the  magicians  and  Chal- 
deans, with  whom  they  were  themselves  to  perish, 
from  the  king's  anger,  by  enabling  him  to  declare  his 
vision,  and  to  make  manifest  what  the  king  had  seen 
the  night  before  in  his  sleep,  but  had  forgotten  it. 
Accordingly,  God  out  of  pity  to  those  that  were  in 
danger,  and  out  of  regard  to  the  wisdom  of  Daniel, 
made  known  to  him  the  dream  and  its  interpretation, 
that  so  the  king  might  understand  by  him  its  significa- 
tion also.  When  Daniel  had  obtained  this  knowledge 
from  God,  he  arose  very  joyful,  and  told  it  his  brethren, 
and  made  them  glad,  and  to  hope  well,  that  they 
should  now  preserve  their  lives,  of  which  they  despaired 
before,  and  had  their  minds  full  of  nothing  but  the 
thoughts  of  dying.  So  when  he  had  with  them  re- 
turned thanks  to  God  who  had  commiserated  their 
youth,  when  it  was  day  he  came  to  Arioch,  and  desired 
him  to  bring  him  to  the  king,  because  he  would  dis- 
cover to  him  that  dream  which  he  had  seen  the  night 

lU  ANTIQUITIES  Book  x. 

4.  When  Daniel  was  come  in  to  the  king,  he 
excused  himself  first,  that  "he  did  not  pretend  to  be 
wiser  than  the  other  Chaldeans  and  magicians,  when, 
upon  their  entire  inability  to  discover  his  dream,  he 
was  undertaking  to  inform  him  of  it,  for  this  was  not 
by  his  own  skill,  or  on  account  of  his  having  better 
cultivated  his  understanding  than  the  rest,  but  he  said, 
God  hath  had  pity  upon  us,  when  we  were  in  danger 
of  death,  and  when  I  prayed  for  the  life  of  myself, 
and  of  those  of  my  own  nation,  hath  made  manifest 
to  me  both  the  dream,  and  the  interpretation  thereof, 
for  I  was  not  less  concerned  for  thy  glory  than  for 
the  sorrow  that  we  were  by  thee  condemned  to  die, 
while  thou  didst  so  unjustly  command  men,  both  good 
and  excellent  in  themselves,  to  be  put  to  death,  when 
thou  enjoinedst  them  to  do  what  was  entirely  above 
the  reach  of  human  wisdom,  and  requiredst  of  them 
what  was  the  work  only  of  God.  Wherefore,  as  thou 
in  thy  sleep  wast  solicitous  concerning  those  that  should 
succeed  thee  in  the  government  of  the  whole  world, 
God  was  desirous  to  show  thee  all  those  that  should 
reign  after  thee,  and  to  that  end  exhibited  to  thee  the 
following  dream:  Thou  seemedst  to  see  a  great  image 
standing  before  thee,  the  head  of  which  proved  to  be 
of  gold,  the  shoulders  and  arms  of  silver,  and  the  belly 
and  the  thighs  of  brass,  but  the  legs  and  the  feet  of 
iron;  after  which  thou  sawest  a  stone  broken  off  from 
a  mountain,  which  fell  upon  the  image  and  threw  it 
down  and  brake  it  to  pieces,  and  did  not  permit  any 
part  of  it  to  remain  whole,  but  the  gold,  the  silver, 
the  iron,  and  the  brass,  became  smaller  than  meal, 
which  upon  the  blast  of  a  violent  wind,  was  by  force 
carried  away,  and  scattered  abroad,  but  the  stone  did 
increase  to  such  a  degree,  that  the  whole  earth  beneath 
it  seemed  to  be  filled  therewith.  This  is  the  dream 
which  thou  sawest,  and  its  interpretation  is  as  follows; 

Chap.  X.  OF  THE  JEWS.  11.5 

The  head  of  gold  denotes  thee,  and  the  kings  of  Babylon 
that  have  been  before  thee ;  but  the  two  hands  and  arms 
signify  this,  that  your  government  shall  be  dissolved 
by  two  kings;  but  another  king  that  shall  come  from 
the  west,  armed  with  brass,  shall  destroy  that  govern- 
ment; and  another  government  that  shall  be  like  unto 
iron  shall  put  an  end  to  the  power  of  the  former,  and 
shall  have  dominion  over  all  the  earth,  on  account  of 
the  nature  of  iron,  wliich  is  stronger  than  that  of  gold, 
of  silver,  and  of  brass."  Daniel  did  also  declare  the 
meaning  of  the  ^  stone  to  the  king,  but  I  do  not  think 
proper  to  relate  it,  since  I  have  only  undertaken  to  de- 
scribe things  past  or  things  present,  but  not  things  that 
are  future :  yet  if  any  one  be  so  very  desirous  of  knowing 
truth,  as  not  to  waive  such  points  of  curiosity,  and  can- 
not curb  his  inclination  for  understanding  the  uncertain- 
ties of  futurity,  and  whether  they  will  happen  or  not, 
let  him  be  diligent  in  reading  the  book  of  Daniel, 
which  he  will  find  among  the  sacred  writings. 

5.  When  Nebuchadnezzar  heard  this,  and  recol- 
lected his  dream,  he  was  astonished  at  the  nature  of 
Daniel,  and  fell  upon  his  face,  and  saluted  Daniel  in 
the  manner  that  men  worship  God,  and  gave  commanrl 
that  he  should  be  sacrificed  to  as  a  god.  And  this 
was  not  all,  for  he  also  imposed  the  name  of  his  own 
god  upon  him,  [Baltasar],  and  made  him  and  liis 
kinsmen  rulers  of  liis  whole  kingdom;  which  kinsmen 
of  his  happened  to  fall  into  great  danger  by  the  envy 
and  malice  of  [their  enemies]  ;  for  they  offended  the 
king  upon  the  occasion  following:  he  made  an  image 

'  Of  this  most  remarkable  jKissage  in  Josephus,  concerning  tiie  t:luii(' 
cut  ovt  of  the  moiintahi,  ami  dentroifed  the  imaffc,  wliich  he  would  not 
explain,  hut  intimated  to  be  a  ])rophecy  of  futurity,  and  probably  not 
safe  for  him  to  explain,  as  belonging-  to  the  destruction  of  the  Honuin 
empire,  take  the  words  of  Havercam]),  ch.  x.  sect.  4,  "Nor  is  this  to  be 
wondered  at.  that  he  would  not  now  meddle  with  things  future,  for  lie 
had  no  mind  to  provoke  the  Roiuans,  by  sjieaking  of  the  destruction  of 
that   citv   wliich   tlicv  called   the   r/rnidl  rll;/." 

116  ANTIQUITIES  Book  X. 

of  gold,  whose  height  was  sixty  cubits,  and  its  breadth 
six  cubits,  and  set  it  in  the  great  plain  of  Babylon; 
and  when  he  was  going  to  dedicate  the  image,  he  in- 
vited the  principal  men  out  of  all  the  earth  that  was 
under  his  dominions,  and  commanded  them  in  the  first 
place,  that  when  they  should  hear  the  sound  of  the 
trumpet  they  should  then  fall  down  and  worship  the 
image;  and  he  threatened,  that  those  who  did  not  so, 
should  be  cast  into  a  fiery  furnace.  When  therefore 
all  the  rest,  upon  the  hearing  of  the  sound  of  the 
trumpet,  worshipped  the  image,  they  related  that 
Daniel's  kinsmen  did  not  do  it,  because  they  would 
not  transgress  the  laws  of  their  country:  So  these 
men  were  convicted  and  cast  immediately  into  the 
fire,  but  were  saved  by  divine  providence,  and  after 
a  surprising  manner  escaped  death,  for  the  fire  did 
not  touch  them:  and  I  suppose  that  it  touched  them 
not,  as  if  it  reasoned  with  itself,  that  they  were  cast 
into  it  without  any  fault  of  theirs,  and  that  therefore 
it  was  too  weak  to  burn  the  young  men  when  they 
were  in  it.  This  was  done  by  the  power  of  God,  who 
made  their  bodies  so  far  superior  to  the  fire,  that  it 
could  not  consume  them.  This  it  was  which  recom- 
mended them  to  the  king  as  righteous  men,  and  men 
beloved  of  God,  on  which  account  they  continued  in 
great  esteem  with  him. 

6.  A  little  after  this  the  king  saw  in  his  sleep  again 
another  vision;  how  he  should  fall  from  his  dominion, 
and  feed  among  the  wild  beasts,  and  that  when  he  had 
lived  in  this  manner  in  the  desert  for  ^  seven  years, 

^  Since  Joscphus  here  explains  the  seven  prophetic  times  which  were 
to  pass  over  Ncl)uc}iadnczzar,  Dan.  iv.  16,  to  be  seven  years,  we  thence 
learn  how  he  most  probably  must  have  understood  those  other  parallel 
phrases,  of  a  time,  times  and  an  half,  Antiq.  B.  VII.  ch.  xxv.  of  so 
many  prophetic  i/ears  also,  though  he  withal  lets  us  know,  by  this  hint 
at  the  inter])rctnti()n  of  the  .^tereiiti/  ircck.f.  as  belonging  to  the  fourrth 
monurch\',  juul  the  destruction  of  Jerusalem  by  the  Romans  in  tlie  days 
of  Jose])l;us,  cH.   ii.  sect.   7,  tiat  he  did   not  think   those    i/ears  to  be  bara 

Chap.  X.  OF  THE  JEWS.  117 

he  should  recover  his  dominion  again.  When  he  had 
seen  this  dream,  he  called  the  magicians  together 
again,  and  inquired  of  them  about  it,  and  desired  them 
to  tell  him  what  it  signified;  but  when  none  of  them 
could  find  out  the  meaning  of  the  dream,  nor  discover 
it  to  the  king,  Daniel  was  the  only  person  that  ex- 
plained it:  and  as  he  foretold  so  it  came  to  pass;  for 
after  he  had  continued  in  the  wilderness  the  fore- 
mentioned  interval  of  time,  while  no  one  durst  attempt 
to  seize  his  kingdom  during  those  seven  years,  he 
prayed  to  God  that  he  might  recover  his  kingdom, 
and  he  returned  to  it.  But  let  no  one  blame  me  for 
writing  down  every  thing  of  this  nature,  as  I  find 
it  in  our  ancient  books;  for  as  to  that  matter,  I  have 
plainly  assured  those  that  think  me  defective  in  any 
such  point,  or  complain  of  my  management,  and  have 
told  them  in  the  beginning  of  this  history,  that  I  in- 
tended to  do  no  more  than  translate  the  Hebrew  books 
into  the  Greek  language,  and  promised  them  to  explain 
those  facts,  without  adding  any  thing  to  them  of  my 
own,  or  taking  any  thing  away  from  them. 

years,  but  rather  clai/s  for  years;  by  which  reckoning,  and  by  which 
alone,  could  70  weeks,  or  490  days  reach  to  the  age  of  Josephus.  But 
as  to  tlie  truth  of  those  seven  years'  banishment  of  Nebuchadnezzar  from 
men,  and  his  living  so  long  among  the  beasts,  the  very  small  remains 
we  have  any  where  else  of  this  Nebuchadnezzar,  prevent  our  expectation 
of  any  otlier  full  account  of  it.  So  far  we  know  by  Ptolemy's  canon,  a 
contemporary  record,  as  well  as  by  Josephus  presently,  that  he  reigned 
in  all  43  years,  that  is,  eight  years  after  we  meet  with  any  account  of 
his  actions;  one  of  the  la^t,  of  which  was  the  13  years  siege  of  Tyre, 
Antiq.  B.  X.  ch.  xi.  where  yet  the  Old  Latin  has  but  three  years  and 
ten  montiis,  yet  were  his  actions  before  so  remarkable,  l)oth  in  sacred  and 
profane  authors,  that  such  vacuity  of  eight  years  at  the  least,  at  tne 
latter  end  of  his  reign,  must  be  allowed  to  agree  very  well  with  Daniel's 
accounts,  that  after  a  seven  years'  brutal  life,  he  might  return  to  his 
reason,  and  to  the  exercise  of  his  royal  authority,  for  one  whole  year  at 
least  before  his  death. 

118  ANTIQUITIES  Book  x. 


Concerning  N ehuchadnczzar  and  his  successors:  and 
how  their  government  was  dissolved  by  the  Persians; 
and  what  things  befell  Daniel  in  Media,  and  what 
2)roj)hecies  he  delivered  there. 

1.  Now  when  king  Nebncliadnezzar  had  reigned 
^  forty-three  years,  he  ended  liis  hfe.  He  was  an 
active  man,  and  more  fortunate  than  the  kings  that 
were  before  him.  Now  Berosus  makes  mention  of 
his  actions  in  the  third  book  of  his  Chaldaic  history, 
where  he  says  thus:  "When  his  father  Nebuchodonosor 
[Nabojjollassar]  heard  that  the  governor  whom  he 
had  set  over  Egypt,  and  the  pLaces  about  Celoesyria 
and  Phenicia,  had  revolted  from  him,  while  he  was 
not  himself  able  any  longer  to  undergo  the  hardships 
[of  war],  he  committed  to  his  son  Nebuchadnezzar, 
who  was  still  but  a  youth,  some  parts  of  his  army, 
and  sent  them  against  them.  So  when  Nebuchadnez- 
zar had  given  battle,  and  fought  with  the  rebel,  he 
beat  him,  and  reduced  the  country  from  under  his 
subjection,  and  made  it  a  branch  of  his  own  kingdom; 
but  about  that  time  it  happened,  that  his  father  Neb- 
uchodonosor [Nabopollassar]  fell  ill,  and  ended  his 
life  in  the  city  Babylon,  when  he  had  reigned  "  twenty- 

'  These  4^5  years  for  tlie  duration  of  the  reign  of  Xebuchadnezzar  are, 
as  I  have  just  now  ohserxed,  the  very  same  nunii)er  in  Ptolemy's  canon. 
Moses  Chorenensis  does  also  confirm  this  capti\ity  of  the  Jews  under 
Xehuchadnezzar,  and  adds,  what  is  very  remarkable,  tliat  one  of  those 
Jews  that  were  carried  by  him  into  cajitivity  jjot  away  into  Armenia, 
and    raised   the  jrreat    family  of  the   Bagradita^   there. 

"^  These  21  years  here  ascribed  to  one  named  Xahonld.ttti'r  in  the  first 
book  against  A))ion,  or  to  \al)oi)ollassar,  the  father  of  the  great  Nebuchad- 
nezzar, are  also  the  very  same  with  Ihose  given  him  in  Ptolemy's  canon. 
And  note  here,  that  what  Dr.  Prideaux  says,  at  the  year  613,  that 
Nebucliadnez/.ar   must   have   l)een    n    conuMon    name   of   the   other   kings    of 

Chap.  XI.  OF  THE  JEWS.  119 

one  years;  and  when  he  was  made  sensible,  as  he  was 
in  a  httle  time,  that  his  father  Nebuchodonosor  [Nab- 
opollassar]  was  dead,  and  having  settled  the  affairs 
of  Egypt,  and  the  other  countries,  as  also  those 
that  concerned  the  captive  Jews  and  Phenicians, 
and  Syrians,  and  those  of  the  Egyptian  nations,  and 
having  committed  the  conveyance  of  them  to  Babylon 
to  certain  of  his  friends,  together  with  the  gross  of 
his  army,  and  the  rest  of  their  ammunition  and  pro- 
visions, he  went  himself  hastily,  accompanied  with  a 
few  others,  over  the  desert,  and  came  to  Babylon. 
So  he  took  upon  him  the  management  of  public  affairs, 
and  of  the  kingdom  which  had  been  kept  for  him 
by  one  that  was  the  principal  of  the  Chaldeans,  and 
he  received  the  entire  dominions  of  his  father,  and 
appointed,  that  when  the  captives  came,  they  should 
be  j^laced  as  colonies,  in  the  most  proper  places  of 
Babylonia:  but  then  he  adorned  the  temple  of  Belus, 
and  the  rest  of  the  temples,  in  a  magnificent  manner, 
with  the  spoils  he  had  taken  in  war.  He  also  added 
another  city  to  that  which  was  there  of  old,  and 
rebuilt  it,  that  such  as  would  besiege  it  hereafter 
might  no  more  turn  the  course  of  the  river,  and 
thereby  attack  the  city  itself:  He  therefore  built 
three  walls  round  about  the  inner  city,  and  three 
others  about  that  which  was  the  outer,  and  this  he 
did  with  burnt  brick.  And  after  he  had,  after  a 
becoming  manner,  walled  the  city,  and  adorned  its 
gates  gloriously,  he  built  another  palace  before  his 
father's  palace,  but  so  that  they  joined  to  it;  to 
describe  whose  vast  heiglit,  and  immense  riches,  it 
would  perhaps  be  too  much  for  me  to  attempt;  yet 
as  large  and  lofty  as  they  were,  they  were  completed 

Babylon,  besides  the  great  Nebuehadnezzar  himself,  is  a  frroundless 
mistake  of  some  modern  chronologers  only,  and  destitute  of  all  proper 
original  authority. 

120  ANTIQUITIES  Book  x. 

in  ^  fifteen  days.  He  also  erected  elevated  places  for 
walking,  of  stone,  and  made  it  resemble  mountains, 
and  built  it  so  that  it  might  be  planted  with  all  sorts 
of  trees.  He  also  erected  what  was  called  a  pensile 
paradise,  because  his  wife  was  desirous  to  have  things 
like  her  own  country,  she  having  been  bred  up  in  the 
palaces  of  JMedia."  JNIegasthenes  also,  in  his  fourth 
book  of  his  accounts  of  India,  makes  mention  of  these 
things,  and  thereby  endeavours  to  show  that  this  king 
[Nebuchadnezzar]  exceeded  Hercules,  in  fortitude, 
and  in  the  greatness  of  his  actions;  for  he  saith,  that 
"he  conquered  a  gi*eat  part  of  Lybia  and  Iberia." 
Diodes  also,  in  the  second  book  of  his  accounts  of 
Persia,  mentions  this  king;  as  does  Philostrates  in  his 
accounts  both  of  India  and  of  Phenicia,  say,  that 
"this  king  besieged  Tyre  thirteen  years,  while  at  the 
same  time  Ethball  reigned  at  Tyre."  These  are  all 
the  histories  that  I  have  met  with  concerning  this 

2.  But  now  after  the  death  of  Nebuchadnezzar, 
Evil-Merodach  his  son  succeeded  in  the  kingdom,  who 
immediately  set  Jeconiah  at  liberty,  and  esteemed  him 
among  his  most  intimate  friends:  He  also  gave  him 
many  presents,  and  made  him  honourable  above  the 
rest  of  the  kings  that  were  in  Babylon;  for  his  father 
had  not  kept  his  faith  with  Jeconiah,  when  he  volun- 
tarily delivered  up  himself  to  him,  with  his  wives  and 
children,  and  his  whole  kindred,  for  the  sake  of  his 
country,   that   it   might   not   be   taken   by   siege,    and 

'  These  fifteen  days  for  finishing  such  vast  buildings  at  Babylon,  in 
Josephus'  copy  of  Berosus,  would  seem  too  absurd  to  be  supposed  to  be 
the  true  number,  were  it  not  for  the  same  testimony  extant  also  in  the 
first  book  against  Apion,  sect.  19,  with  the  same  number.  It  thence  in- 
deed appears,  that  Josephus'  copy  of  Berosus  had  this  small  number, 
but  that  it  is  the  true  number  I  still  doubt.  Josephus  assures  us,  that 
the  walls  of  so  much  a  smaller  city  as  Jerusalem  were  two  years  and 
four  months  in  building  liy  Nehemiah,  who  yet  hastened  the  work  all 
he  could,  Antiq.  B_.  XI.  ch.  v,  sect.  8.  I  should  think  115  days,  or  a 
year  and  15  days,  much  more  proportionable  to  so  great  a  work. 

Ciiap.  XI.  OF  THE  JEWS.  121 

utterly  destroyed,  as  we  said  before.  When  Evil- 
Merodach  was  dead,  after  a  reign  of  eighteen  years, 
Xighssar  his  son  took  the  government,  and  retained  it 
forty  years,  and  then  ended  his  hfe:  and  after  him 
the  succession  in  the  kingdom  came  to  his  son  Lab- 
ofordacus,  who  continued  in  it  in  all  but  nine  months; 
and  when  he  was  dead  it  came  to  ^  Baltasar,  who,  by 
the  Babylonians,  was  called  Xaboandelus ;  against  him 
did  Cyrus,  the  king  of  Persia,  and  Darius,  the  king  of 
^Nledia,  make  war;  and  when  he  was  besieged  in  Baby- 
lon, there  happened  a  wonderful  and  prodigious  vision. 
He  was  sat  down  at  supper  in  a  large  room,  and  there 
were  a  great  many  vessels  of  silver,  such  as  were  made 
for  royal  entertainments,  and  he  had  with  him  his 
concubines,  and  his  friends;  whereupon  he  came  to  u 
resolution,  and  commanded  that  those  vessels  of  God 
which  Nebuchadnezzar  had  plundered  out  of  Jerusa- 
lem, and  had  not  made  use  of,  but  had  put  them  into 
his  own  temple,  should  be  brought  out  of  that  temple. 
He  also  grew  so  haughty  as  to  proceed  to  use  them 
in  the  midst  of  his  cups  drinking  out  of  them,  and 
blaspheming  against  God.  In  the  mean  time  he  saw 
a  hand  proceed  out  of  the  wall,  and  writing  upon  the 

'  It  is  here  remarkable,  that  Josephus,  without  the  knowledge  of 
Ptolemv's  canon,  should  call  the  same  king  whom  he  himself  here  (Bar. 
i.  11,  and  Dan.  v.  1,  -2,  9,  1^,  22,  29,  30,)  styles  Beltazar,  or  Behhazzar, 
from  the  Babylonian  god  Bel,  Neboaiiflehis  also;  but  in  the  first  book 
against  Apion  sect.  19,  vol.  iii.  from  the  same  citation  out  of  Berosus, 
A(tbo7inedon,  from  the  Babylonian  god  Xabo  or  Xebo.  This  last  is  not 
remote  from  the  original  pronunciation  itself  in  Ptolemy's  canon,  Na- 
bonadiiis.  for  both  the  place  of  this  king  in  that  canon,  as  the  last  of 
the  Assyrian  or  Babylonian  kings,  and  the  number  of  years  of  his  reign, 
seventeen,  the  same  in  both,  demonstrate  that  it  is  one  and  the  same 
king  that  is  meant  by  them  all.  It  is  also  worth  noting,  that  Josephus 
knew  that  Darius,  the  partner  of  Cyrus,  was  the  son  of  Astyages,  and 
was  called  by  another  name  among  the  Greeks,  though  it  does  not  appear 
he  knew  what  that  name  was,  as  having  never  seen  the  best  history  of 
this  period,  which  is  Xenophon's:  But  then  what  Josephus'  present  copies 
say  presently,  sect.  4,  that  it  was  only  within  no  long  time  after  the 
hand  writing  on  the  wall  that  Beltasar  was  slain,  does  not  so  agree  with 
our  copies  of  Daniel,  which  say  it  was   the  same  night,  Dan.   v.   30. 

122  ANTIQUITIES  Book  x. 

wall  certain  syllables:  at  which  sight  ])eing  disturbed, 
he  called  the  magicians  and  Chaldeans  together,  and 
all  that  sort  of  men  that  are  among  these  Barbarians, 
and  were  able  to  interpret  signs  and  dreams,  that 
they  might  explain  the  writing  to  him.  But  when 
the  magicians  said  they  could  discover  nothing,  nor 
did  understand  it,  the  king  was  in  great  disorder  of 
mind,  and  under  great  trouble  at  this  surprising  ac- 
cident, so  he  caused  it  to  be  proclaimed  through  all 
the  country,  and  promised,  that  to  him  who  could 
explain  the  writing,  and  give  the  signification  couched 
therein,  he  would  give  him  a  golden  chain  for  his  neck, 
and  leave  to  wear  a  purple  garment,  as  did  the  kings 
of  Chaldea,  and  would  bestow  on  him  the  third  part 
of  his  own  dominions.  When  this  proclamation  was 
made,  the  magicians  ran  together  more  earnestly,  and 
werp  very  ambitious  to  find  out  the  importance  of  the 
writing,  but  still  hesitated  about  it  as  much  as  before. 
Now  when  the  king's  ^  grandmother  saw  him  cast 
down  at  this  accident,  she  began  to  encourage  him, 
and  to  say,  that  "there  was  a  certain  captive  who  came 
from  Judea,  a  Jew  by  birth,  but  brought  away  thence 
by  Xebuchadnezzar,  when  he  had  destroyed  Jerusalem, 
whose  name  was  Daniel,  a  wise  man,  and  one  of  great 
sagacity  in  finding  out  what  was  impossible  for  others 
to  discover,  and  what  was  known  to  God  alone;  who 
brought  to  light  and  answered  such  questions  to  Neb- 
uchadnezzar, as  no  one  else  was  able  to  answer,  when 
they  were  consulted.  She  therefore  desired  that  he 
would  send  for  him,  and  inquire  of  him  concerning 
the  writing,  and  to  condemn  the  unskil fulness  of  those 
that  could  not  find  their  meaning,  and  this,  although 

^  This  grandmother  or  mother  of  Baltasar,  the  queen  Dowager  of 
Bahj'lon,  (for  she  is  distinguished  from  his  queen,  Dan.  v.  10,  23,)  seems 
to  have  heen  the  famous  Xitceris,  who  fortified  Babylon  against  the 
Medes  and  Persians,  and  in  all  probability  governed  under  Bnltasar,  who 
seems  to  have  been  a  weak  and  effeminate  prince. 

Chap.  XI.  OF  THE  JEWS.  123 

what  God  signified  thereby  should  be  of  a  melancholy 

3.  When  Baltasar  heard  this,  he  called  for  Daniel; 
and  when  he  had  discoursed  to  him  what  he  had  learned 
concerning  him  and  his  wisdom,  and  how  a  divine 
spirit  was  with  him;  and  that  he  alone  was  fully 
capable  of  finding  out  what  others  would  never  have 
thought  of.  he  .desired  him  to  declare  to  him  what 
tliis  writing  meant:  That  if  he  did  so,  he  would  give 
liim  leave  to  wear  purple,  and  to  put  a  chain  of  gold 
about  his  neck,  and  would  bestow  on  him  the  third 
part  of  his  dominion,  as  an  honorary  reward  for  his 
wisdom,  that  thereby  he  might  become  illustrious  to 
those  who  saw  him,  and  who  inquired  upon  what  oc- 
casion he  obtained  such  honours.  But  Daniel  desired, 
That  "he  would  keep  his  gifts  to  himself:  for  what 
is  the  effect  of  wisdom,  and  of  divine  revelation,  admits 
of  no  gifts,  and  bestows  its  advantages  on  petitioners 
freely,  but  that  still  he  would  explain  the  writing  to 
him:  which  denoted,  that  he  should  soon  die,  and  this 
because  he  had  not  learnt  to  honour  God,  and  not  to 
admit  things  above  human  nature,  by  what  punish- 
ments his  j)rogenitors  had  undergone,  for  the  injuries 
he  had  offered  to  God;  and  because  he  had  quite  for- 
gotten how  Xebuchadnezzar  was  removed  to  feed 
among  w^ld  beasts,  for  his  impieties,  and  did  not  re- 
cover his  former  life  among  men,  and  his  kingdom, 
but  upon  God's  mercy  to  him,  after  many  supplica- 
tions and  prayers;  who  did  thereupon  praise  God  all 
the  days  of  his  life,  as  one  of  almighty  power,  and 
who  takes  care  of  mankind.  [He  also  put  him  in 
mind]  how  he  had  greatly  blasphemed  against  God, 
and  had  made  use  of  his  vessels,  amongst  his  con- 
cubines: that  therefore  God  saw  tliis,  and  was  angry 
with  him,  and  declared  by  this  wi-iting  l)e forehand 
what    a    sad    conclusion    of    liis    life    lie    should    come 

124  ANTIQUITIES  Book  x. 

to.  And  he  explained  the  writing  thus; — MAX  EH. 
This,  if  it  be  expounded  in  the  Greek  language,  may 
signify,  a  X limber^  because  God  hath  numbered  so 
long  a  time  for  thy  hfe,  and  for  thy  government,  and 
that  there  remains  but  a  small  portion.  THEKEL. 
This  signifies,  a  Weight,  and  means  that  God  hath 
weighed  thy  kingdom  in  a  balance,  and  finds  it  going 
down  already.  PH^IRES.  This  also,  in  the  Greek 
tongue,  denotes  a  Fragment;  God  will  therefore  break 
thy  kingdom  in  pieces,  and  divide  it  among  the  JNIedes 
and  Persians." 

4.  When  Daniel  had  told  the  king,  that  the  writing 
upon  the  wall  signified  these  events,  Baltasar  w\as  in 
great  sorrow  and  affliction,  as  was  to  be  expected, 
when  the  interpretation  was  so  hea\y  upon  him. 
However,  he  did  not  refuse  what  he  had  promised 
Daniel,  although  he  were  become  a  foreteller  of  mis- 
fortunes to  him.  but  bestowed  it  all  upon  him:  as 
reasoning  thus,  that  what  he  was  to  reward  was  pecul- 
iar to  himself,  and  to  fate,  and  did  not  belong  to 
the  prophet;  but  that  it  was  the  part  of  a  good  and  a 
just  man  to  give  what  he  had  promised,  altliough  the 
events  were  of  a  melancholy  nature.  Accordingly, 
the  king  determined  so  to  do.  Xow  after  a  little 
while,  both  himself,  and  the  city,  were  taken  by  Cyrus, 
the  king  of  Persia,  who  fought  against  him;  for  it 
was  Baltasar,  under  whom  Babylon  was  taken,  when 
he  had  reigned  seventeen  years.  And  this  is  the  end 
of  the  posterity  of  king  Nebuchadnezzar,  as  history 
informs  us;  Init  when  Babylon  was  taken  by  Darius, 
and  when  he,  with  his  kinsman  Cyrus,  had  put  an  end 
to  the  dominion  of  the  Babylonians,  he  was  sixty-two 
years  old.  He  was  the  son  of  Astyages,  and  had 
another  name  among  the  Greeks.  ^Moreover,  he  took 
Daniel  the  prophet,  and  carried  him  with  him  into 
Media,  and  honoured  him  very  greatly,  and  kept  him 

Chap.  XI.  OF  THE  JEWS.  125 

with  him;  for  he  was  one  of  the  three  presidents 
whom  he  set  over  his  three  hundred  and  sixty  prov- 
inces, for  into  so  many  did  Darius  part  them. 

5.  However,  while  Daniel  was  in  so  great  a 
dignity,  and  in  so  great  favour  with  Darius,  and  was 
alone  intrusted  with  every  thing  by  him,  as  having 
somewhat  di\'ine  in  him,  he  was  envied  by  the  rest; 
for  those  that  see  others  in  greater  honour  than  them- 
selves with  kings,  envy  them:  and  when  those  that 
were  grieved  at  the  great  favour  Daniel  was  in  with 
Darius,  sought  for  an  occasion  against  him,  he  af- 
forded them  no  occasion  at  all,  for  he  was  above  all 
the  temptations  of  money,  and  despised  bribery,  and 
esteemed  it  a  very  base  thing  to  take  any  thing  by 
w^ay  of  reward,  even  when  it  might  be  justly  given 
him,  he  afforded  those  that  envied  him  not  the  least 
handle  for  an  accusation.  So  when  they  could  find 
nothing  for  which  tliey  might  calumniate  him  to  the 
king;  nothing  that  was  shameful  or  reproachful,  and 
thereby  deprive  him  of  the  honour  he  was  in  with  him, 
they  sought  for  some  otlier  method  whereby  they 
might  destroy  him.  When  therefore  they  saw  that 
Daniel  prayed  to  God  three  times  a-day,  they  thought 
they  had  gotten  an  occasion  by  which  they  might 
ruin  him;  so  they  came  to  Darius,  and  told  him.  That 
"the  princes  and  governors  had  thought  proper  to 
allow  the  multitude  a  relaxation  for  thirty  days,  that 
no  one  might  offer  a  petition  or  prayer  either  to  him- 
self, or  to  the  gods,  but  that  he  who  shall  transgress 
this  decree  shall  be  cast  into  the  den  of  lions,  and 
there  perish." 

6.  Whereupon,  the  king,  being  not  acquainted  with 
their  wicked  design,  nor  suspecting  that  it  was  a  con- 
trivance of  theirs  against  Daniel,  said,  he  was  pleased 
with  this  decree  of  theirs,  and  he  promised  to  confirm 
what    they    desired;    he    also    published    an    edict    to 

126  ANTIQUITIES  Book  x. 

promulgate  to  the  people  that  decree  which  the  princes 
liad  made.  Accordingly,  all  the  rest  took  care  not 
to  transgress  those  injunctions,  and  rested  in  quiet; 
but  Daniel  had  no  regard  to  them,  but,  as  he  was 
wont,  he  stood  and  prayed  to  God  in  the  sight  of 
them  all:  but  the  princes  having  met  with  the  occa- 
sion they  so  earnestly  sought  to  find  against  Daniel, 
came  presently  to  the  king,  and  accused  him,  that 
Daniel  was  the  only  person  that  transgressed  the 
decree,  while  not  one  of  the  rest  durst  pray  to  their 
gods.  This  discovery  they  mrde,  not  because  of  his 
impiety,  but  because  they  had  watched  him,  and  ob- 
served him  out  of  en^y;  for  sup230sing  that  Darius 
did  thus  out  of  a  greater  kindness  to  him  than  they 
expected,  and  that  he  was  ready  to  grant  him  pardon 
for  this  contempt  of  his  injunctions,  and  envying 
this  very  pardon  to  Daniel,  they  did  not  become  more 
favourable  to  him,  but  desire^^  hr  might  be  cast  into 
the  den  of  lions  according  to  the  law.  So  Darius, 
lioping  that  God  would  deliver  him,  and  that  he  would 
undergo  nothing  that  was  terrible  by  the  wild  l^easts, 
bid  him  bear  this  accident  cheerfully:  And  when  he 
was  cast  into  the  den,  he  put  his  seal  to  the  stone  that 
lay  upon  the  mouth  of  the  den,  and  went  his  way; 
but  he  passed  all  the  night  without  food,  and  without 
sleep,  being  in  great  distress  for  Daniel.  But  when 
it  was  day,  he  got  up,  and  came  to  the  den,  and  found 
the  seal  entire,  which  lie  had  left  the  stone  sealed 
witlial;  he  also  opened  the  seal,  and  cried  out,  and 
called  to  Daniel,  and  asked  him.  If  he  were  alive? 
And  as  soon  as  he  heard  the  king's  voice,  and  said 
that  he  had  suffered  no  harm,  the  king  gave  order 
tliat  he  should  be  drawn  up  out  of  tlie  den.  Xow 
wlien  his  enemies  saw  that  Daniel  liad  suffered  nothing 
which  was  terrible,  they  would  not  own  tliat  he  was 
preserved  by  God,   and  by  his   providence;   but  they 

Chap.  XT.  OF  THE  JEWS.  127 

said,  that  'ihe  hons  had  been  filled  full  with  food, 
and  on  that  account  it  was,  as  they  supposed,  that 
the  lions  would  not  touch  Daniel,  nor  come  to  him; 
and  this  they  alleged  to  the  king:  But  the  king,  out 
of  an  abhorrence  of  their  wickedness,  gave  order,  that 
they  should  throw  in  a  great  deal  of  flesh  to  the  lions; 
and  when  they  had  filled  themselves,  he  gave  farther 
order,  that  Daniel's  enemies  should  be  cast  into  the  den, 
that  he  might  learn  whether  the  lions,  now  they  were 
full,  would  touch  them  or  not.  And  it  appeared  plain  to 
Darius,  after  the  princes  had  been  cast  to  the  wild 
beasts,  that  it  was  God  who  preserved  Daniel,  ^  foi- 
the  lions  spared  none  of  them,  but  tore  them  all  to 
pieces,  as  they  had  been  very  hungry,  and  wanted 
food.  I  suppose  therefore  it  was  not  their  hunger, 
which  had  been  a  little  before  satisfied  with  abundance 
of  flesh,  but  the  wickedness  of  these  men  that  pro- 
voked them  [to  destroy  the  princes] ;  for  if  it  so 
please  God,  that  ^vickedness  might,  by  even  those  ir- 
rational creatures,  be  esteemed  a  plain  foundation  for 
their  punishment. 

7.  When  therefore  those  that  had  intended  thus 
to  destroy  Daniel  by  treachery,  were  themselves  de- 
stroyed, king  Darius  sent  [letters]  over  all  the  coun- 
try, and  praised  that  God  whom  Daniel  worshipped; 
and  said.  That  "he  was  the  only  true  God,  and  had 
all  power."  He  had  also  Daniel  in  very  great  esteem, 
and  made  him  the  principal  of  his  friends.  Now  when 
Daniel  was  become  so  illustrious  and  famous,  on  ac- 
count  of  the  opinion   men  had  that  he   was   beloved 

^  It  is  no  way  improbalile  that  Daniel's  enemies  might  suggest  this 
reason  to  the  i<ing,  why  the  lions  did  not  meddle  with  him,  and  that 
they  suspected  the  king's  kindness  to  Daniel  had  procured  these  lions 
to  be  so  filled  beforehand,  and  that  thence  it  was  that  he  encouraged 
Daniel  to  submit  to  this  exjieriment.  in  Iiojies  of  coming  off  safe;  and 
that  this  was  the  true  reason  of  nuiking  so  terrible  an  experiment  upon 
those  his  enemies,  and  all  their  families.  Dan.  vi.  2i,  though  our  other 
copies  do  not   directly   take   notice  of   it. 

128  ANTIQUITIES  Book  x. 

of  God,  he  built  a  tower  at  Ecbatana  in  Media:  it 
was  a  most  elegant  building,  and  wonderfully  made, 
and  it  is  still  remaining,  and  preserved  to  this  day; 
and  to  such  as  see  it,  it  appears  to  have  been  lately 
built,  and  to  have  been  no  older  than  that  very  day 
when  any  one  looks  upon  it,  it  is  ^  so  fresh,  flourishing, 
and  beautiful,  and  no  way  grown  old  in  so  long  time, 
for  buildings  suffer  the  same  as  men  do;  they  grow 
old  as  well  as  they,  and  by  numbers  of  years  their 
strength  is  dissolved,  and  their  beauty  withered.  Xow 
they  bury  the  kings  of  ]Media,  of  Persia,  and  Parthia, 
in  this  tower  to  this  day;  and  he  who  was  entrusted 
'vnth  the  care  of  it,  was  a  Jewish  priest;  which  thing 
is  also  observed  to  this  day:  But  it  is  fit  to  give  an 
account  of  what  this  man  did,  vrhich  is  most  admirable 
to  hear,  for  he  was  so  happy  as  to  have  strange  revela- 
tions made  to  him,  and  those  as  to  one  of  the  greatest 
of  the  prophets,  insomuch,  that  while  he  was  alive 
he  had  the  esteem  and  applause  both  of  the  kings  and 
of  the  multitude,  and  now  he  is  dead,  he  retains  a 
remembrance  that  will  never  fail,  for  the  several  books 
that  he  wrote  and  left  behind  him  are  still  read  by 
us  till  this  time,  and  from  them  we  believe  that  Daniel 
conversed  with  God;  for  he  did  not  only  prophesy  of 
future  events,  as  did  the  otlier  prophets,  but  he  also 
determined  the  time  of  their  accomplishment:  And 
M'hile  prophets  used  to  foretell  misfortunes,  and  on 
til  at  account  were  disagreeable  both  to  the  kings  and 
to  the  multitude,  Daniel  was  to  them  a  prophet  of 

'  What  Josei>hu.s  here  says,  that  the  stones  of  the  sepulchres  of  the 
kings  of  Persia  at  this  tower,  or  those  perhaps  of  the  same  sort  that 
are  now  commonly  called  the  ruins  of  Persepolis,  continued  so  entire 
■ind  unaltered  in  "his  days,  as  if  they  were  lately  put  there,  "I,  says 
R eland,  here  can  show  to  he  true,  as  to  those  stones  of  the  Persian 
kings'  mausoleum  which  Corn.  Brunius  brake  off  and  gave  me."  He 
iiscrihed  this  to  the  hardness  of  the  stone,  which  scarcely  yields  to  iron 
tools,  and  proves  frequently  too  hard  for  cutting  by  the  chissel,  but 
oftentimes  breaks  into  pieces. 

Chap.  XI.  OF  THP:  jews.  129 

good  things,  and  this  to  such  a  degree,  that  by  the 
agreeable  nature  of  his  predictions,  he  procured  the 
good-will  of  all  men,  and  l^y  the  accomplishment  of 
them,  he  procured  the  belief  of  their  truth,  and  the 
opinion  of  [a  sort  of]  divinity  for  himself,  among 
the  multitude.  He  also  wrote  and  left  behind  him 
what  made  manifest  tlie  accuracy  and  undeniable 
veracity  of  his  predictions;  For  he  saith,  That  "when 
he  was  in  Susa,  the  metropolis  of  Persia,  and  went 
out  into  the  field  with  his  companions,  there  was,  on 
the  sudden,  a  motion  and  concussion  of  the  earth, 
and  that  he  was  left  alone  by  himself,  his  friendrj 
flying  away  from  him;  and  that  he  was  disturbed. 
and  fell  on  his  face,  and  on  his  two  hands,  and  that 
a  certain  person  touched  him,  and,  at  the  same  time, 
bid  him  rise,  and  see  what  would  befall  his  country- 
men after  many  generations.  He  also  related,  that 
when  he  stood  up,  he  was  shown  a  great  ram,  with 
many  horns  growing  out  of  his  head,  and  that  the 
last  was  higher  than  the  rest:  that  after  this  he  looked 
to  the  w^est,  and  saw  a  he-goat  carried  through  the  air 
from  that  quarter;  that  he  rushed  upon  the  ram  with 
violence,  and  smote  him  twice  with  his  horns,  and 
overthrew  him  to  the  ground,  and  trampled  upon 
him:  that  afterward  he  saw  a  very  great  horn  grow- 
ing out  of  the  head  of  the  he-goat,  and  that  when  it 
w^as  broken  off,  four  horns  grew  up  that  were  ex- 
posed to  each  of  the  four  winds,  and  he  wrote  that 
out  of  them  arose  another  lesser  horn,  which,  as  he 
said,  waxed  great ;  and  that  God  showed  to  him,  that 
it  should  fight  against  his  nation,  and  take  their  city 
by  force,  and  bring  the  temple- worship  to  confusion 
and  forbid  the  sacrifices  to  be  offered  for  one  thousan  I 
two  hundred  and  ninety-six  days."  Daniel  wrote 
that  he  saw  these  visions  in  the  plain  of  Susa;  and 
he  hath  informed  us,   that   God   interpreted  the   ap- 

130  ANTIQUITIES  Book  x. 

pearance  of  this  vision  after  the  following  manner; 
"He  said  that  tlie  ram  signified  the  kingdoms  of  the 
JNledes  and  Persians,  and  the  horns  those  kings  that 
were  to  reign  in  them:  and  that  the  last  horn  signified 
the  last  king,  and  that  he  should  exceed  all  the  kings 
in  riches  and  glory:  that  the  goat  signified  that  one 
should  come  and  reign  from  the  Greeks,  who  should 
twice  fight  with  the  Persian,  and  overcome  him  in 
battle,  and  should  receive  his  entire  dominion;  that 
by  the  great  horn  which  sprang  out  of  the  forehead 
of  the  he-goat  was  meant  the  first  king;  and  that  the 
springing  up  of  four  horns  upon  its  falling  off,  and 
the  conversion  of  every  one  of  tliem  to  the  four  quar- 
ters of  the  earth,  signified  the  successors  that  should 
arise  after  the  deatli  of  tlie  first  king,  and  the  parti- 
tion of  the  kingdom  among  them,  an(l  that  they  should 
be  neither  his  children,  nor  of  his  kindred,  that  should 
reiffn  over  the  habitable  earth  for  manv  years;  and 
that  from  among  them  there  should  arise  a  certain 
king  that  should  overcome  our  nation  and  their  laws, 
and  should  take  away  their  political  government,  and 
should  spoil  the  temple,  and  forliid  the  sacrifices  to 
be  offered  for  three  years'  time."  And  indeed  so 
it  came  to  pass,  that  our  nation  suffered  these  things 
under  Antiochus  Epiphanes,  according  to  Daniel's 
vision,  and  what  he  wrote  many  years  before  they 
came  to  pass.  In  the  very  same  manner  Daniel  also 
wrote  concerning  the  Roman  government,  and  that 
our  country  should  be  made  desolate  by  them.  All 
these  things  did  this  man  leave  in  wTiting,  as  God 
had  showed  them  to  him,  insomuch,  that  such  as  read 
his  prophecies,  and  see  how  they  have  been  fulfilled, 
would  wonder  at  the  honour  wherewith  God  honoured 
Daniel:  and  may  thence  discover  liow  the  Epicureans 
are  in  an  erroi-,  who  cast  providence  out  of  human 
life,   and   do   not   believe  that   (iod    takes   care   of  the 

Chap.  XI.  OF  THE  JEWS.  131 

affairs  of  the  world,  nor  that  the  universe  is  governed 
and  continued  in  being  by  that  blessed  and  immortal 
nature,  but  say  that  the  world  is  carried  along  of  its 
own  accord,  without 'a  ruler  and  a  curator:  which, 
were  it  destitute  of  a  guide  to  conduct  it,  as  they 
imagine,  it  would  be  like  ships  without  pilots,  which 
we  see  drowned  by  the  winds,  or  like  chariots  without 
drivers,  which  are  overturned,  so  would  the  world  be 
dashed  in  pieces  by  its  being  carried  without  a  Prov- 
idence, and  so  perish,  and  come  to  nought.  So  that, 
by  the  forementioned  predictions  of  Daniel,  those 
men  seem  to  me  very  much  to  err  from  the  truth,  who 
determine,  that  God  exercises  no  providence  over 
human  affairs ;  for  if  that  were  the  case,  tliat  the  world 
went  on  by  mechanical  necessity,  w^e  should  not  see 
tliat  all  things  would  come  to  pass  according  to  his 
prophecy.  Now  as  to  myself,  I  have  so  described 
these  matters  as  I  have  found  them  and  read  them; 
but  if  any  one  is  inclined  to  another  opinion  about 
them,  let  him  enjoy  his  different  sentiments  without 
anv  blame  fi*om  me. 





How  Cijrus,  king  of  the  Persians,  delivered  the  Jews 
out  of  Bahijlon,  and  suffered  them  to  return  to 
their  own  country,  and  to  build  their  temple,  for 
which  work  he  gave  them   money. 

1.  Ix  the  first  year  of  the  reign  of  ^  Cjtus,  which 
was  the  seventieth  from  tlie  day  that  our  people 
were  removed  out  of  their  own  land  into  Babylon, 
God  commiserated  the  captivity  and  calamity  of 
these  poor  people,  according  as  he  had  foretold 
to  them  by  Jeremiah  the  prophet,  before  the  de- 
struction of  the  city;  that  after  they  had  served 
Nebuchadnezzar  and  his  posterity,  and  after  they 
had  undergone  that  servitude  seventy  years,  he  would 
restore  them  again  to  the  land  of  their  fathers,  and 
they  should  build  their  temple,  and  enjoy  their  ancient 

'  This  Cyrii.s  is  called  God's  shepherd,  by  Xenophon,  as  well  as  by 
Isaiah,  Isa.  xliv.  28,  as  also  it  is  said  of  him  by  the  same  prophet,  that 
"I  will  make  a  man  more  precious  than  fine  gold,  even  a  man  tlian  the 
golden  wedge  of  Ophir,"  Isa.  xiii.  12,  which  character  makes  Xenophon's 
most  excellent  history  of  him  very  credible. 

"  132 

Chap.  I.  OF  THE  JEWS.  133 

prosperity.  And  these  things  God  did  afford  them: 
for  he  stirred  up  the  mind  of  Cyrus,  and  made  him 
write  this  throughout  all  Asia,  "Thus  saith  Cyrus 
the  king,  since  God  Almighty  hath  appointed  me 
to  be  king  of  the  habitable  earth,  I  believe  that  he 
is  that  God  which  the  nation  of  the  Israelites  worship, 
for  indeed  he  foretold  my  name  by  the  prophets,  and 
that  I  should  build  him  an  house  at  Jerusalem,  in 
the  country  of  Judea." 

2.  This  was  known  to  Cjtus  by  his  reading  the 
book  which  Isaiah  left  behind  him  of  his  prophecies; 
for  this  prophet  said,  that  God  hath  spoken  thus 
to  him  in  a  secret  vision;  "My  will  is,  that  Cyrus, 
whom  I  have  appointed  to  be  king  over  many  and 
great  nations,  send  back  my  people  to  their  own 
land;  and  build  my  temple."  This  was  foretold  by 
Isaiah  one  hundred  and  forty  years  before  the  temple 
was  demolished.  Accordingly  when  Cjtus  read  this, 
and  admired  the  divine  power,  an  earnest  desire 
and  ambition  seized  upon  him,  to  fulfil  what  was 
so  written;  so  he  called  for  the  most  eminent  Jews 
that  were  in  Babylon,  and  said  to  them,  that  "he 
gave  them  leave  to  go  back  to  their  own  country, 
and  to  rebuild  ^  their  city  Jerusalem,  and  the  temple 
of  God,  for  that  he  would  be  their  assistant,  and 
that  he  would  write  to  the  rulers  and  governors  that 
were  in  the  neighbourhood  of  their  country  of  Judea, 

^  This  leave  to  build  Jerusalem,  sect.  2,  3,  and  the  epistle  of  Cyrus 
to  Sisinnes  and  Sathrabuzanes,  to  the  same  purpose,  are  most  unfor- 
tunately omitted  in  all  our  coi)ies,  but  this  best  and  completest  copy  of 
Josephus,  and  by  such  omission  the  famous  prophecy  of  Isaiah,  Isa.  xliv. 
23,  wliere  we  are  informed,  that  God  said  of,  or  to  Cyrus,  "He  is  my 
shepherd,  and  shall  jierform  all  my  pleasure;  even  saying  to  Jerusalem, 
thou  shalt  be  built,  and  to  the  temple,  thy  foundation  shall  be  laid," 
could  not  hitherto  be  demonstrated  from  tlie  sacred  history  to  have  been 
completely  fulfdled ;  I  mean  as  to  that  part  of  it  which  concerned  his 
giving  leave  or  conmiission  for  rebuilding  the  city  Jerusalem  as  distinct 
from  the  temple,  whose  rebuilding  is  alone  permitted  or  directed  in  tiie 
decree  of  Cyrus  in  all  our  copies. 

134  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

that  they  should  contribute  to  them  gold  and  silver 
for  the  building  of  the  temple,  and  besides  that, 
beasts  for  their  sacrifices." 

3.  When  Cyrus  had  said  this  to  the  Israelites, 
the  rulers  of  the  two  tribes  of  Judah  and  Benjamin, 
with  the  Levites,  and  priests,  went  in  haste  to  Jeru- 
salem, yet  did  many  of  them  stay  at  Babylon,  as 
not  willing  to  leave  their  possessions;  and  when  they 
were  come  thither,  all  the  king's  friends  assisted 
them,  and  brought  in,  for  the  building  of  the  temple, 
some  gold  and  some  silver,  and  some  a  great  many 
cattle  and  horses.  So  they  performed  their  vows 
to  God,  and  offered  the  sacrifices  that  had  been 
accustomed  of  old  time;  I  mean  this  upon  the  re- 
building of  their  city,  and  the  revival  of  the  ancient 
practices  relating  to  their  worship.  Cyrus  also  sent 
back  to  them  the  vessels  of  God  which  king  Neb- 
uchadnezzar had  pillaged  out  of  the  temple,  and 
had  carried  to  Babylon.  So  he  committed  these 
things  to  Mithridates,  the  treasurer,  to  be  sent  away, 
with  an  order  to  give  them  to  Sanabassar,  that  he 
might  keep  them  till  the  temple  was  built;  and 
when  it  was  finished,  he  might  deliver  them  to  the 
priests  and  rulers  of  the  multitude,  in  order  to  their 
being  restored  to  the  temple.  Cyrus  also  sent  an 
epistle  to  the  governors  that  were  in  Syria,  the  con- 
tents whereof  here  follow: 

"King    Cyrus    to     Sisixxes    and    Sathrabuzaxes, 
scndetk  greeting. 

"I  have  given  leave,  to  as  many  of  the  Jews  that 
dwell  in  my  country  as  please  to  return  to  their 
own  country,  and  to  rebuild  their  city,  and  to  build 
the  temple  of  God  at  Jerusalem,  on  the  same  place 
where  it  was  before.     I  have  also  sent  mv  treasurer 

Chap.  I.  OF  THE  JEWS.  135 

Mithridates,  and  Zorobabel,  the  governor  of  the 
Jews,  that  they  may  hiy  the  foundations  of  the 
temple,  and  may  build  it  sixty  cubits  high,  and  of 
the  same  latitude,  making  three  edifices  of  polished 
stones,  and  one  of  the  wood  of  the  country,  and 
the  same  order  extends  to  the  altar,  whereon  they 
offer  sacrifices  to  God.  I  require  also,  that  the 
sacrifices  for  these  things  may  be  given  out  of  my 
revenues.  Moreover,  I  have  also  sent  the  vessels 
which  king  Nebuchadnezzar  pillaged  out  of  the 
temple,  and  have  given  them  to  Mithridates,-  the 
treasurer,  and  to  Zorobabel  the  governor  of  the  Jews, 
that  they  may  have  them  carried  to  Jerusalem,  and 
may  restore  them  to  the  temple  of  God.  Xow  their 
number  is  as  follows:  fifty  chargers  of  gold,  and 
five  hundred  of  silver;  forty  Thericleon  cups  of  gold, 
and  five  hundred  of  silver;  fifty  basons  of  gold,  and 
five  hundred  of  silver,  thirty  vessels  for  pouring, 
[the  drink  offerings],  and  three  hundred  of  silver; 
thirty  vials  of  gold,  and  two  thousand  four  hundred 
of  silver;  with  a  thousand  other  large  vessels.  I 
permit  them  to  have  the  same  honour  which  they 
were  used  to  have  from  their  forefathers,  as  also 
for  their  small  cattle,  and  for  wine  and  oil,  two 
hundred  and  five  thousand  and  five  hundred  drachmae; 
and  for  wheat  flour,  twenty  thousand  and  five  hun- 
dred artabee;  and  I  give  order,  that  these  expenses 
shall  be  given  them  out  of  the  tributes  due  from 
Samaria.  The  priests  shall  also  offer  these  sacrifices 
according  to  the  laws  of  Moses  in  Jerusalem:  and 
when  they  offer  them,  they  shall  pray  to  God  for 
the  preservation  of  the  king  and  of  his  family,  that 
the  kingdom  of  Persia  may  continue.  But  my  will 
is,  that  those  who  disobey  these  injunctions,  and 
make  them  void,  shall  be  hung  upon  a  cross,  and 
their    substance    brought    into    the    king's    treasury," 

*136  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

And  such  was  the  import  of  this  epistle.  Now  the 
number  of  those  that  came  out  of  captivity  to  Jeru- 
salem, were  forty-two  thousand  four  hundred  and 


How  upon  the  death  of  Cyrus,  the  Jews  were  hin- 
dered in  huildiug  of  the  temple  hy  the  Cutheans, 
and  the  neighbouring  governors:  and  how  Cambyses 
entirely  forbade  the  Jews  to  do  any  such  thing. 

1.  When  the  foundations  of  the  temple  were 
laying,  and  when  the  Jews  were  very  zealous  about 
building  it,  the  neighbouring  nations,  and  especially 
the  Cutheans,  whom  Shalmanezer,  king  of  AssjTia, 
had  brought  out  of  Persia  and  INIedia,  and  had  planted 
in  Samaria,  when  he  carried  the  people  of  Israel 
captives,  besought  the  governors,  and  those  that  had 
the  care  of  such  affairs,  that  they  would  interrupt 
the  Jews,  both  in  the  rebuilding  of  their  city,  and 
in  the  building  of  their  temple.  Now  as  these  men 
were  corrupted  by  them  with  money,  they  sold  the 
Cutheans  their  interest  for  rendering  this  building 
a  slow  and  a  careless  work,  for  Cyrus,  who  was 
busy  about  other  wars,  knew  nothing  of  all  this; 
and  it  so  happened,  that  when  he  had  led  his  army 
against    the    ^  Massageta?    he    ended    his    hfe.     But 

'  Josephus  here  follows  Herodotus,  and  tliose  that  related  how  Cyrus 
made  war  with  the  Scythians  and  Massagets,  near  the  Caspian  sea,  and 
perished  in  it;  while  Xenophon's  account,  which  appears  never  to  have 
been  seen  by  Josephus,  that  Cyrus  died  in  ])eace,  in  his  own  country  of 
Persia,  is  attested  to  by  the  writers  of  the  affairs  of  Alexander  the  Great, 
when  they  agree  that  he  found  Cyrus'  sepulchre  at  Pasargadae,  near 
Persepolis.  This  account  of  Xenophon's  is  also  confirmed  by  the  circum- 
stances  of   Cambyses,    upon    his    succession    to    Cyrus,    who,  'instead   of   a 

Chap.  II.  OF  THE  JEWS.  137 

when  Cambyses,  the  son  of  Cyrus,  had  taken  the 
kingdom,  the  governor  in  Syria,  and  Phenicia,  and 
in  the  countries  of  Amnion,  and  Moab,  and  Samaria, 
wrote  an  epistle  to  Cambyses;  whose  contents  were 
as  follows:  "To  our  Lord  Cambyses;  we  thy  servants, 
Rathumus  the  historiographer,  and  Semellius  the 
scribe,  and  the  rest  tliat  are  thy  judges  in  Syria  and 
Phenicia,  sendeth  greeting:  It  is  fit,  O  King,  that 
thou  shouldest  know  that  these  Jcavs  which  were 
carried  to  Babylon,  are  come  into  our  country,  and 
are  building  that  rebellious  and  wicked  city,  and 
its  market  places,  and  setting  up  its  walls,  and 
raising  up  the  temple:  know  therefore,  that  when 
these  things  are  finished,  they  will  not  be  willing  to 
pay  tribute,  nor  will  they  submit  to  thy  commands, 
but  will  resist  kings,  and  will  choose  rather  to  rule 
over  others,  than  be  ruled  over  themselves.  We 
therefore  thought  it  proper  to  write  to  thee,  O  King, 
while  the  works  about  the  temple  are  going  on  so 
fast,  and  not  to  overlook  this  matter,  that  thou 
mayest  search  into  the  books  of  thy  fathers,  for  thou 
wilt  find  in  them,  that  the  Jews  have  been  rebels, 
and  enemies  to  kings,  as  hath  their  city  been  also, 
which,  for  that  reason,  hath  been  till  now  laid  waste. 
We  thought  proper  also  to  inform  thee  of  this 
matter,  because  thou  mayest  otherwise  perhaps  be 
ignorant  of  it,  that  if  this  city  be  once  inhabited, 
and  be  entirely  encompassed  with  walls,  thou  wilt 
be  excluded  from  thy  passage  to  Celesyria  and 

war  to  avenge  his  father's  death  upon  the  Scj'thians  and  Massagets,  and 
to  prevent  tliose  nations  from  overrunning  his  nortiiern  provinces,  which 
would  have  heen  the  natural  consequence  of  his  father's  ill  success  and 
death  there,  went  immediately  to  an  EgAptian  war,  long  ago  begun  by 
Cyrus,  according  to  Xcnophon,  p.  fili,  and  conquered  that  kingdom,  nor 
is  there,  that  I  ever  heard  of  the  least  mention  in  the  reign  of  Cambyses 
of  any  war  against  the  Scythians  and  ^Massagets  that  he  was  ever  engaged 
in  all  his  life. 

138  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

2.  When  Cambyses  had  read  the  epistle,  being 
naturally  wicked,  he  was  irritated  at  what  they 
told  him;  and  wrote  back  to  them  as  follows:  "Cam- 
byses the  king,  to  Rathumus  the  historiographer,  to 
Beeltethmus,  to  Semellius  the  scribe,  and  the  rest 
that  are  in  commission,  and  dwelling  in  Samaria 
and  Phenicia,  after  this  manner;  I  have  read  the 
epistle  that  was  sent  from  you;  and  I  gave  order 
that  the  books  of  my  forefathers  should  be  searched 
into,  and  it  is  there  found,  that  this  city  hath  always 
been  an  enemy  to  kings,  and  its  inhabitants  have 
raised  seditions  and  wars.  We  also  are  sensible 
that  their  kings  have  been  powerful,  and  tyrannical, 
and  have  exacted  tribute  of  Celesyria  and  Phenicia: 
Wherefore  I  give  order  that  the  Jews  shall  not  be 
permitted  to  build  that  city,  lest  such  mischief  as 
they  used  to  bring  upon  kings  be  greatly  augmented." 
When  this  epistle  was  read,  Rathumus,  and  Semel- 
lius the  scribe,  and  their  associates,  got  suddenly 
on  horseback,  and  made  haste  to  Jerusalem;  they 
also  brought  a  great  company  with  them,  and  for- 
bade the  Jews  to  build  the  city,  and  the  temple. 
Accordingly,  these  works  were  hindered  from  going 
on  till  the  second  year  of  the  reign  of  Darius,  for 
nine  years  more;  for  Cambyses  reigned  six  years, 
and  within  that  time  overthrew  Egypt,  and  when  he 
was  come  back,  he  died  at  Damascus. 

Chap.  III.  OF  THE  JEWS.  139 


How,  after  the  death  of  Camhyses,  and  the  slaughter 
of  the  Magi,  hut  under  the  reign  of  Darius,  Zoro- 
hahel  was  superior  to  the  rest  in  the  solution  of 
problems,  and  thereby  obtained  this  favour  of  the 
king,  that  the  temple  should  be  built. 

1.  After  the  slaughter  of  the  Magi,  who,  upon 
the  death  of  Cambyses,  attained  the  government  of 
the  Persians  for  a  year,  those  famihes  which  were 
called  the  seven  families  of  the  Persians,  appointed 
Darius,  the  son  of  Hystaspes,  to  be  their  king.  Now 
he,  while  he  was  a  private  man,  had  made  a  vow  to 
God,  that  if  he  came  to  be  king,  he  would  send  all 
the  vessels  of  God  that  were  in  Babylon  to  the  temple 
at  Jerusalem.  Xow  it  so  fell  out,  that  about  this 
time  Zorobabel,  who  had  been  made  governor  of  the 
Jews  that  had  been  in  captivity,  came  to  Darius, 
from  Jerusalem:  for  there  had  been  an  old  friendship 
between  him  and  the  king.  He  was  also,  with  two 
others,  thought  worthy  to  be  guards  of  the  king's 
body;  and  obtained  that  honour  which  he  hoped  for. 

2.  jVow  in  the  first  year  of  the  king's  reign,  Darius 
feasted  those  that  were  about  him,  and  those  born 
in  his  house,  with  the  rulers  of  the  INIedes,  and  princes 
of  the  Persians,  and  the  toparchs  of  India  and 
Ethiopia,  and  the  generals  of  the  armies  of  his  hun- 
dred and  twenty-seven  provinces:  But  when  they 
had  eaten  and  drank  to  satiety,  and  abundantly,  they 
every  one  departed  to  go  to  bed  at  their  own  houses, 
and  Darius  the  king  went  to  bed;  but  after  he  had 
rested  a  little  part  of  the  night,  he  awaked,  and  not 
being  able  to   sleep   any  more  he   fell  into  conversa- 

140  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

tion  with  the  three  guards  of  his  body,  and  promised, 
that  to  him  who  should  make  an  oration,  about 
points  that  he  should  inquire  of,  such  as  should  be 
most  agreeable  to  truth,  and  to  the  dictates  of  wis- 
dom, he  would  grant  it  as  a  reward  of  his  victory, 
to  put  on  a  purple  garment,  and  to  drink  in  cups 
of  gold,  and  to  sleep  upon  gold,  and  to  have  a 
chariot  with  bridles  of  gold,  and  to  sit  next  to  him- 
self, on  account  of  his  wisdom;  and,  says  he,  he  shall 
be  called  my  cousin.  Now  when  he  had  promised 
to  give  them  these  gifts,  he  asked  the  first  of  them. 
Whether  wine  was  not  the  strongest?  The  second, 
Whether  kings  were  not  such?  And  the  third, 
Whether  women  were  not  such?  Or  whether  truth 
was  not  the  strongest  of  all?  When  he  had  proposed 
that  they  should  make  their  inquiries  about  those 
problems,  he  went  to  rest;  but  in  the  morning  he 
sent  for  his  great  men,  his  princes,  and  toparchs  of 
Persia  and  Media,  and  set  himself  down  in  the  place 
where  he  used  to  give  audience,  and  bid  each  of  the 
guards  of  his  body  to  declare  what  they  thought 
proper  concerning  the  proposed  questions,  in  the 
hearing  of  them  all. 

3.  Accordingly,  the  first  of  them  began  to  speak 
of  the  strength  of  wine,  and  demonstrated  it  thus: 
"When,  said  he,  I  am  to  give  my  opinion  of  wine, 
O  you  men,  I  find  that  it  exceeds  every  thing,  by 
the  following  indications:  It  deceives  the  minds  of 
those  that  drink  it,  and  reduces  that  of  the  king  to 
the  same  state  with  that  of  the  orphan,  and  he  who 
stands  in  need  of  a  tutor,  and  erects  that  of  the 
slave  to  the  boldness  of  him  that  is  free,  and  that 
of  the  needy  becomes  like  that  of  the  rich  man,  for 
it  changes  and  renews  the  soids  of  men  when  it 
gets  into  them,  and  it  (luenches  the  sorrow  of  those 
that    arc    under    calamities,    and    makes    men    forget 

Chap.  III.  OF  THE  JEWS.  141 

the  debts  they  owe  to  others,  and  makes  them  think 
themselves  to  be  of  all  men  the  richest;  it  makes 
them  talk  of  no  small  things,  but  of  talents,  and 
such  other  names  as  become  wealthy  men  only;  nay, 
more,  it  makes  them  insensible  of  their  commanders, 
and  of  their  kings,  and  takes  away  the  remembrance 
of  their  friends  and  companions,  for  it  arms  men 
even  against  those  that  are  dearest  to  them,  and 
makes  them  appear  the  greatest  strangers  to  them, 
and  when  they  are  become  sober,  and  they  have 
slept  out  their  wine  in  the  night,  they  arise  without 
knowing  any  thing  they  have  done  in  their  cups; 
I  take  these  for  signs  of  power,  and  by  them  dis- 
cover that  wine  is  the  strongest,  and  most  insuperable 
of  all  things." 

4.  As  soon  as  the  first  had  given  the  fore-men- 
tioned demonstrations  of  the  strength  of  wine,  he 
left  off;  and  the  next  to  him  began  to  speak  about 
the  strength  of  a  king,  and  demonstrated  that  it 
was  the  strongest  of  all,  and  more  powerful  than 
any  thing  else  that  appears  to  have  any  force  or 
wisdom.  He  began  his  demonstration  after  the  fol- 
lowing manner;  and  said,  "They  are  men  who  govern 
all  things;  they  force  the  earth  and  the  sea  to  be- 
come profitable  to  them  in  what  they  desire,  and 
over  these  men  do  kings  rule,  and  over  them  they 
have  authority.  Now  those  men  who  rule  over  that 
animal  which  is  of  all  the  strongest  and  most  power- 
ful, must  needs  deserve  to  be  esteemed  insuperable 
in  power  and  force;  for  example,  when  these  kings 
command  their  subjects  to  make  war,  and  undergo 
dangers,  they  are  hearkened  to,  and  when  they  send 
them  against  their  enemies,  their  power  is  so  great 
that  they  are  obeyed.  They  command  men  to  level 
mountains,  and  to  pull  down  walls  and  towers;  nay, 
when  thev  are  commanded  to  be  killed  and  to   kill, 

142  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

they  submit  to  it,  that  they  may  not  appear  to 
transgress  the  king's  commands,  and  when  they 
liave  conquered,  they  bring  what  they  have  gained 
in  the  war  to  the  king.  Those  also  who  are  not 
sokliers,  ])ut  cultivate  the  ground,  and  plough  it, 
and  when,  after  they  have  endured  the  labour,  and 
all  the  inconveniences  of  such  works  of  husbandry, 
they  have  reaped  and  gathered  in  their  fruits,  they 
bring  tributes  to  the  king.  And  whatsoever  it  is 
which  the  king  says  or  commands,  it  is  done  of 
necessity,  and  that  without  any  delay,  while  he  in 
the  mean  time  is  satiated  with  all  sorts  of  food  and 
pleasures,  and  sleeps  in  quiet.  He  is  guarded  by 
such  as  watch,  and  such  as  are,  as  it  were  fixed  down 
to  the  place  through  fear,  for  no  one  dares  leave 
him,  even  when  he  is  asleep,  nor  does  any  one  go 
away  and  take  care  of  his  own  affairs,  but  he  esteems 
this  one  thing  tlie  only  work  of  necessity,  to  guard 
the  king,  and  accordingly  to  this  he  wholly  addicts 
himself.  How  then  can  it  be  otherwise,  but  that 
it  must  appear  that  the  king  exceeds  all  in  strength, 
while  so  great  a  multitude  obeys  his  injunctions f 

5.  Xow  when  this  man  had  held  his  peace,  the 
third  of  them,  who  was  Zorobabel,  began  to  instruct 
them  about  women,  and  about  truth,  who  said  thus: 
"Wine  is  strong,  as  is  the  king  also,  whom  all  men 
obey,  but  women  are  superior  to  them  in  power,  for 
it  was  a  woman  that  brought  the  king  into  the  world; 
and  for  those  that  plant  the  vines  and  make  the 
wine,  they  are  women  who  bear  them,  and  bring 
them  up:  nor  indeed  is  there  any  thing  which  we 
do  not  receive  from  them :  for  these  women  weave 
garments  for  us,  and  our  household  affairs  are  by 
their  means  taken  care  of,  and  preserved  in  safety; 
nor  can  we  live  se])arate  from  women.  And  when 
we  have  gotten  a  great  deal  of  gold  and   silver,  and 

Chap.  III.  OF  THE  JEWS.  148 

any  other  thing  that  is  of  great  vakie,  and  deserving 
regard,  and  see  a  beautiful  woman,  we  leave  all 
these  things,  and  with  open  mouth  fix  our  eyes  upon 
her  countenance,  and  are  willing  to  forsake  what  we 
have,  that  we  may  enjoy  her  beauty,  and  procure 
it  to  ourselves.  We  also  leave  father,  and  mother, 
and  the  earth  that  nourishes  us,  and  frecjuently 
forget  our  dearest  friends,  for  the  sake  of  women: 
nay,  we  are  so  hardy  as  to  lay  down  our  lives  for 
them.  But  what  will  chiefly  make  you  take  notice 
of  the  strength  of  women  is  this  that  follows:  Do 
not  we  take  pains,  and  endure  a  great  deal  of 
trouble,  and  that  both  by  land  and  sea,  and  when 
we  have  procured  somewhat  as  the  fruit  of  our  la- 
bours, do  we  not  bring  them  to  the  women,  as  to 
our  mistresses;  and  bestow  them  upon  them?  nay,  I 
once  saw  the  king,  who  is  lord  of  so  many  people, 
smitten  on  the  face  by  Apame,  the  daughter  of 
Rabsases  Themasius,  his  concubine,  and  his  diadem 
taken  away  from  him,  and  put  upon  her  own  head, 
while  he  bore  it  patiently;  and  when  she  smiled  he 
smiled,  and  when  she  was  angry  he  v/as  sad;  and 
according  to  the  change  of  her  passions,  he  flattered 
his  wife,  and  drew  her  to  reconciliation  by  the  great 
humiliation  of  himself  to  her,  if  at  any  time  he  saw 
her  displeased  at  him." 

6.  And  when  the  princes  and  rulers  looked  one 
upon  another,  he  began  to  speak  about  truth;  and 
he  said,  "I  have  already  demonstrated  how  powerful 
women  are;  but  both  these  women  themselves,  and 
the  king  himself,  are  weaker  than  truth;  for  although 
the  eartli  be  large,  and  the  heaven  high,  and  the 
course  of  the  sim  swift,  yet  are  all  these  moved 
according  to  the  will  of  God,  who  is  true  and  right- 
eous, for  which  cause  we  also  ought  to  esteem  truth 
to   be   strongest   of   all   things,   and   that    what    is    un- 

144  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

righteous  is  of  no  force  against  it.  Moreover,  all 
things  else  that  have  any  strength  are  mortal,  and 
short-lived,  but  truth  is  a  thing  that  is  immortal,  and 
eternal.  It  affords  us  not  indeed  such  a  beauty  as 
will  wither  away  by  time,  nor  such  riches  as  may 
be  taken  away  by  fortune,  but  righteous  rules  and 
laws.  It  distinguishes  them  from  injustice,  and  puts 
what  is  unrighteous  to  rebuke."  ^ 

7.  So  when  Zorobabel  had  left  off  his  discourse 
about  truth,  and  the  multitude  had  cried  out  aloud 
that  he  had  spoken  the  most  wisely,  and  that  it 
was  truth  alone  that  had  immutable  strength,  and 
such  as  never  would  wax  old,  the  king  commanded, 
that  he  should  ask  for  somewhat  over  and  above 
what  he  had  promised,  for  that  he  would  give  it  him 
because  of  his  wisdom,  and  that  prudence  wherein 
he  exceeded  the  rest;  and  thou  shalt  sit  with  me, 
said  the  king,  and  shalt  be  called  my  cousin.  When 
he  had  said  this,  Zorobabel  put  him  in  mind  of  the 
vow  he  had   made   in   case  he   shoidd   ever   have   the 

'  The  reader  is  to  note,  that  although  the  speeches  or  papers  of  these 
three  of  the  king's  guard  are  much  the  same,  in  the  third  book  of  Esdras, 
ch.  iii.  and  iv.  as  tliey  are  liere  in  Josephus,  yet  that  tlie  introduction  of 
them  is  entirely  different,  while  in  our  Esdras  the  whole  is  related  as  the 
contrivance  of  the  three  of  the  king's  guard  themselves:  and  even  the 
mighty  rewards  iire  spoken  of  as  proposed  by  themselves,  and  the  speeches 
are  related  to  have  been  delivered  by  themselves  to  the  king  In  writing, 
while  all  is  contrary  in  Josephus.  I  need  not  say  whose  account  is  the 
most  probable,  the  matters  speak  for  themselves;  and  there  can  be  no 
doubt  but  Josephus'  history  is  here  to  be  very  much  preferred  before 
the  other.  Nor  indeed  does  it  seem  to  me  at  all  unlikely,  that  the 
whole  was  a  contrivance  of  king  Darius'  own,  in  order  to  be  decently 
and  inoffensively  j)ut  in  mind  by  Zorobabel,  of  fulfilling  his  old  vow  for 
the  rebuilding  of  Jerusalem  and  the  temple,  and  the  restoration  of  the 
worship  of  the  One  True  God  there.  Nor  does  the  full  meaning  of 
Zorobabel,  when  he  cries  out,  3  Esdras  iv.  40.  "Blessed  be  the  God  of 
truth;"  and  here  "God  is  true  and  righteous,"  or  even  of  all  the  people, 
li  Esdras  iv.  41.  "Great  is  truth,  and  mighty  above  all  things,"  seem 
to  me  much  different  from  this,  "There  is  but  One  Tiiui:  God,"  the  God 
of  Israel.  To  wliich  doctrine,  such  as  Cyrus,  and  Darius,  etc.  the  Jews' 
great  patrons,  seem  not  to  have  l)ecn  very  averse,  though  the  entire 
idolatry  of  their  kingdoms  made  them  generally  conceal  it. 

Chap.  III.  OF  THE  JEWS.  145 

kingdom.  Now  this  vow  was,  "to  rebuild  Jerusalem, 
and  to  build  therein  the  temple  of  God;  as  also  to 
restore  the  vessels  whicli  Nebuchadnezzar  had  pil- 
laged, and  carried  to  Babylon."  And  this,  said  he, 
is  that  request  which  thou  now  permittest  me  to 
make,  on  account  that  I  have  been  judged  to  be 
wise,  and  understanding. 

8.  So  the  king  was  pleased  with  what  he  had 
said,  and  arose  and  kissed  him;  and  wrote  to  the 
toparchs,  and  governors,  and  enjoined  them  to  con- 
duct Zorobabel  and  those  that  were  going  with  him 
to  build  the  temple.  He  also  sent  letters  to  those 
rulers  that  were  in  Syria  and  Phenicia  to  cut  down 
and  carry  cedar  trees  from  Lebanon  to  Jerusalem, 
and  to  assist  him  in  building  the  city.  He  also 
wrote  to  them,  that  all  the  captives  who  should  go 
to  Judea  should  be  free;  and  he  prohibited  his 
deputies  and  governors  to  lay  any  king's  taxes  upon 
the  Jews;  he  also  permitted,  that  they  should  have 
all  that  land  which  they  could  possess  themselves 
of  without  tributes.  He  also  enjoined  the  Idumeans 
and  Samaritans,  and  the  inhabitants  of  Celesyria, 
to  restore  villages  which  they  had  taken  from  the 
Jews;  and  that  besides  all  this,  fifty  talents  should 
be  given  them  for  the  building  of  the  temple.  He 
also  permitted  them  to  offer  their  appointed  sacri- 
fices, and  that  whatsoever  the  high  priest  and  the 
priests  wanted,  and  those  sacred  garments  wherein 
they  used  to  worship  God,  should  be  made  at  his 
own  charges;  and  that  the  musical  instruments  which 
the  Levites  used  in  singing  hymns  to  God  should 
be  given  them.  Moreover  he  charged  them,  tliat 
portions  of  land  should  be  given  to  those  that  guarded 
the  city  and  the  temple,  as  also  a  determinate  sum  of 
money  every  year  for  their  maintenance:  and  withal  he 
sent  the  vessels.     And  all  that  Cyrus  intended  to  do 

146  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

before  liim  relating  to  the   restoration  of   Jerusalem, 
Darius    also    ordained    should    be    done    accordingly. 

9.  Now  when  Zorobabel  had  obtained  these  grants 
from  the  king,  he  went  out  of  the  palace,  and  look- 
ing up  to  heaven,  he  began  to  return  thanks  to 
God  for  the  wisdom  he  had  given  him,  and  the  vic- 
tory he  had  gained  thereby,  even  in  the  presence  of 
Darius  himself;  for,  said  he,  "I  had  not  been  thought 
worthy  of  these  advantages,  O  l^ord,  unless  thou 
liadst  been  favoura])le  to  me."  When  therefore  he 
had  returned  these  thanks  to  God  for  the  present 
circumstances  he  was  in,  and  had  prayed  to  him  to 
afford  him  the  like  favoiu-  for  the  time  to  come,  he 
came  to  Babylon,  and  l)rought  tlie  good  news  to 
his  countrymen  of  what  grants  he  had  procured  for 
them  from  the  king;  who,  when  they  heard  the  same,"* 
gave  thanks  also  to  God  that  he  restored  the  land 
of  their  forefathers  to  them  again:  So  they  betook 
themselves  to  drinking,  and  eating,  and  for  seven 
days  they  continued  feasting,  and  kept  a  festival,  for 
the  rebuilding  and  restoration  of  their  country:  after 
this  they  chose  themselves  rulers,  who  should  go  up 
to  Jerusalem,  out  of  the  tribes  of  their  forefathers, 
with  their  wives  and  children,  and  cattle,  who  trav- 
elled to  Jerusalem  with  joy  and  pleasure,  under 
the  conduct  of  those  whom  Darius  sent  along  with 
them,  and  making  a  noise  with  songs,  and  pipes, 
and  cymbals.  The  rest  of  the  Jewish  multitude  also 
besides  accompanied  them  with  rejoicing. 

10.  And  thus  did  these  men  go,  a  certain  and 
determinate  number  out  of  every  family,  though  I 
do  not  think  it  proper  to  recite  particularly  the  name 
of  those  families,  that  I  may  not  take  off  the  mind 
of  my  readers  from  the  connexion  of  the  historical 
facts,  and  make  it  hard  for  them  to  follow  the  co- 
herence   of    mv    narrations;    but    the    sum    of    those 

Chap.  III.  OF  THE  JEWS.  147 

that  went  up,  above  the  age  of  twelve  years,  of 
the  tribes  of  Judah  and  Benjamin,  was  ^  four  hun- 
dred sixty-two  myriads  and  eight  thousand;  the 
Levites  were  seventy-four:  the  number  of  the  women 
and  children  mixed  together  was  forty  thousand 
seven  hundred  and  forty-two;  and  besides  these, 
there  were  singers  of  the  Levites  one  hundred  and 
twenty-eight,  and  porters  one  hinidred  and  ten; 
and  of  the  sacred  ministers  three  hundred  and  ninety- 
two;  there  were  also  others  besides  these,  who  said 
they  were  of  the  Israelites,  but  were  not  able  to 
show  their  genealogies,  six  hundred  and  sixty-two; 
some  there  were  also,  who  were  expelled  out  of  the 
number  and  honoiu'  of  the  priests,  as  having  married 
wives  whose  genealogies  they  could  not  produce, 
nor  were  they  found  in  the  genealogies  of  the  Levites 
and  priests:  they  were  about  five  hundred  and  twenty- 
five;  the  multitude  also  of  servants  that  followed 
those  that  went  up  out  of  Jerusalem  were  seven 
thousand  three  hundred  and  thirty-seven;  tlie  singing 
men  and  singing  women  were  two  hundred  and 
forty-five;  the  camels  were  four  hundred  and  thirty- 
five;  the  beasts  used  to  the  yoke  were  five  thousand 
five  hundred  and  twenty-five;  and  the  governors  of 
all    this    multitude    thus    numbered    were    Zorobabel, 

'  Tliis  strange  reading  in  Josephus'  present  copies  of  i,()00,()00  instead 
of  40,000,  is  one  of  the  grossest  errors  that  is  in  them,  and  ouglit  to  he 
rorreeted  from  Ezra  ii.  ()4,  1  Esd.  v.  1-0,  and  Neh.  vii.  66,  who  all  ag"e" 
the  general  snm  was  hut  ahout  4:2,3()().  It  is  also  very  plain,  that  Joseplm,, 
thought,  that  when  Esdras  afterwards  hrought  up  another  company  out 
of  Bahylon  and  Persia,  in  the  days  of  Xerxes  they  were  also,  as  well 
as  these  of  the  two  trihes,  and  out  of  them  only,  and  were  in  all  no 
more  than  a  need  and  a  remnant,  ^hile  an  immenne  number  of  the  ten 
tribes  never  returned,  but  as  he  believed,  continued  then  beyond  Euphrates, 
ch.  V.  sect.  3,  3.  Of  which  nndtitude,  the  Jews  beyond  Euphrates,  he 
speaks  frequently  elsewhere;  though,  by  the  way,  he  never  takes  them 
to  be  idolaters,  but  looks  on  them  still  as  observers  of  the  laws  of  Moses. 
The  certain  part  of  the  people  that  now  came  up  from  Babylon,  at  the 
end  of  this  ehaj)ter,  imply  the  same  smaller  number  of  Jews  that  now 
came  up,  and  will  no  way  agree  with  the  4,000,000. 

148  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

the  son  of  Salathiel,  of  the  posterity  of  David,  and 
of  the  tribe  of  Judah,  and  Jeshua,  the  son  of  Josedek 
the  high  j^riest;  and  besides  these  there  were  Mor- 
decai  and  Serebeus,  who  were  distinguished  from 
the  multitude,  and  were  rulers,  who  also  contributed 
a  hundred  pounds  of  gold,  and  five  thousand  of 
silver.  By  this  means  therefore  the  priests  and  the 
Levites,  and  a  certain  part  of  the  entire  people  of 
the  Jews  that  were  in  Babylon,  came  and  dwelt  in 
Jerusalem,  but  the  rest  of  the  multitude  returned 
every  one  to  their  own  countries. 


Hoxo  the  temple  was  built,  while  the  Cutheans  endeav- 
oured in  vain  to  obstruct  the  work. 

1.  Xow  in  the  seventh  month,  after  they  were 
departed  out  of  Babylon,  both  Jeshua  the  high  priest, 
and  Zorobabel  the  governor,  sent  messengers  every 
way  round  about:  and  gathered  those  that  were  iii 
the  country  together  to  Jerusalem  universally,  who 
came  very  gladly  thither.  He  then  built  the  altar 
on  the  same  place  it  had  formerly  been  built,  that  they 
might  offer  the  appointed  sacrifices  upon  it  to  God, 
according  to  the  laws  of  Moses.  But\vhile  they  did 
this,  they  did  not  please  the  neighbouring  nations, 
who  all  of  tliem  bare  an  ill  will  to  them.  They  also 
celebi-ated  the  feast  of  tabernacles  at  that  tinie,  as 
the  legislator  had  ordained  concerning  it.  and  after 
they  offered  sacrifices,  and  what  were  called  tlie  daily 
sacrifices,  and  the  oblations  proper  for  the  Sabbaths, 
and  for  all  the  holy  festivals.  Those  also  that  had 
made  vows  performed  them,   and  offered  their   sacri- 

Chap.  IV.  OF  THE  JEWS.  149 

fices,  from  the  first  day  of  the  seventh  month.  They 
also  began  to  build  the  temple,  and  gave  a  great  deal 
of  money  to  the  masons  and  to  the  carpenters,  and 
what  was  necessary  for  the  maintenance  of  the  work- 
men. The  Sidonians  also  were  very  willing  and  ready 
to  bring  the  cedar  trees  from  Libanus,  to  bind  them 
together,  and  to  make  an  united  float  of  them,  and 
to  bring  them  to  the  port  of  Joppa,  for  that  was 
what  Cyrus  had  commanded  at  first,  and  what  was 
now  done  at  the  command  of  Darius. 

2.  In  the  second  year  of  this  coming  to  Jerusalem, 
as  the  Jews  were  there  in  the  second  month,  the 
building  of  the  temple  went  on  apace;  and  when  they 
had  laid  its  foundations  on  the  first  day  of  the  second 
month,  of  that  second  year,  they  set,  as  overseers  of 
the  work,  such  Levites,  as  were  full  twenty  years  old; 
and  Jeshua  and  his  sons  and  brethren,  and  Codmiel 
the  brother  of  Judas,  the  son  of  Aminidab,  with  his 
sons,  and  the  temple,  by  the  gi;eat  diligence  of  those 
that  had  the  care  of  it,  was  finished  sooner  than  any 
one  would  have  expected.  And  when  the  temple  was 
finished,  the  jDriests,  adorned  with  their  accustomed 
garments,  stood  with  their  trumjDcts,  while  the  Levites, 
and  the  sons  of  Asaph,  stood  and  sung  hymns  to  God, 
according  as  David  first  of  all  appointed  them  to  bless 
God.  Now  the  priests  and  Levites,  and  the  elder 
part  of  the  families,  recollecting  with  themselves  how 
much  greater  and  more  sumptuous  the  old  temple 
had  been,  seeing  that  now  made,  how  much  inferior 
it  was,  on  account  of  their  poverty,  to  that  which  had 
been  built  of  old,  considered  with  themselves  how 
much  their  happy  state  was  sunk  below  what  it  had 
been  of  old,  as  well  as  their  temple.  Hereupon  they 
were  disconsolate  and  not  a])le  to  contain  their  grief, 
and  proceeded  so  far  as  to  lament  and  shed  tears  on 
those  accounts;  but  the  people  in  general  were  con- 

150  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

tented  with  their  present  condition,  and  because  they 
were  allowed  to  build  them  a  temple,  they  desired  no 
more,  and  neither  regarded  nor  remembered,  nor 
indeed  at  all  tormented  themselves  with  the  compari- 
son of  that  and  the  former  temple,  as  if  this  were 
below  their  expectations;  but  the  wailing  of  the  old 
men,  and  of  the  priests,  on  account  of  tlie  deficiency 
of  this  temple,  in  their  opinion,  if  compared  with  that 
which  had  been  demolished,  o^'ercame  the  sounds  of 
the   trumpets   and    the    rejoicing   of    the    people. 

3.  But  when  the  Samaritans,  Mdio  were  still 
enemies  to  the  tribes  of  Judah  and  Benjamin,  heard 
the  sound  of  the  trumpets,  they  came  running  to- 
gether, and  desired  to  know  what  was  the  occasion 
of  this  tumult?  and  when  they  perceived  that  it  was 
from  the  Jews,  who  had  been  carried  captive  to 
Babylon,  and  were  rebuilding  their  temple,  they 
came  to  Zorobabel  and  to  Jeshua,  and  to  the  heads 
of  the  families,  and  desired  that  they  would  give 
them  leave  to  build  the  temple  with  them,  and  to 
be  partners  with  them  in  building  it;  for  they  said, 
"We  worship  your  God,  and  especially  pray  to  him, 
and  are  desirous  of  your  religious  settlement,  and 
this  ever  since  Shalmaneser,  the  king  of  Assyria, 
transplanted  us  out  of  C'uthah  and  Media  to  this 
place."  When  they  said  thus,  Zorobabel  and  Jeshua 
the  high  priest,  and  the  heads  of  the  families  of 
the  Israelites,  replied  to  them,  that  "it  was  impos- 
sible for  them  to  permit  them  to  be  their  partners, 
while  they  [only]  had  been  appointed  to  build  that 
temple  at  first  by  Cyrus,  and  now  by  Darius,  al- 
tliough  it  was  indeed  lawful  for  them  to  come  and 
worshi])  there  if  they  pleased,  and  that  they  could 
allow  them  nothing  but  that  in  common  with  them, 
which  was  common  to  them  with  all  other  men,  to 
come  to  their  tem])le  and  worship  God  there." 

Chap.  IV.  OF  THE  JEWS.  151 

4.  AVheii  the  Cutheaiis  lieard  this,  for  the  Samari- 
tans have  that  apj^ellation,  they  had  iruhgnation  at 
it,  and  persuaded  the  nations  of  Syria  to  desire  of 
the  governors,  in  the  same  manner  as  they  had  done 
formerly  in  the  days  of  Cyrus,  and  again  in  the 
days  of  Camhyses  afterwards,  to  put  a  stop  to  the 
building  of  the  temple,  and  to  endeavour  to  delay 
and  protract  the  Jews  in  their  zeal  about  it.  Xow 
at  this  time  Sisinnes,  the  governor  of  Syria  and 
Phenicia,.  and  Sathrabuzanes,  with  certain  others, 
came  up  to  Jerusalem,  and  asked  the  riders  of  the 
Jews,  "By  whose  grant  it  was  that  they  built  the 
temple  in  this  manner,  since  it  was  more  like  to  a 
citadel  than  a  temple?  and  for  what  reason  it  M^as 
that  they  built  cloisters  and  walls,  and  tliose  strong 
ones  too,  about  t!ie  cityT'  To  wliich  Zorobabel  and 
Jeshua  tlie  high  priest  replied,  "that  they  were  the 
servants  of  God  Almighty:  that  this  temple  was 
built  for  him  ])y  a  king  of  theirs,  that  lived  in  great 
prosperity,  and  one  that  exceeded  all  men  in  virtue, 
and  that  it  continued  a  long  time,  but  that  because 
of  their  fathers'  impiety  towards  God,  Nebuchad- 
nezzar, king  of  the  Babylonians,  and  of  the  Chal- 
deans, took  their  city  by  force,  and  destroyed  it 
and  pillaged  the  temple,  and  burnt  it  down,  and 
transplanted  the  people  whom  he  had  made  captives, 
and  removed  them  to  Ba})ylon:  that  Cyrus,  who 
after  him  was  king  of  Babylonia  and  Persia,  wrote 
to  them  to  build  the  temple,  and  committed  the 
gifts  and  vessels,  and  wliatsoever  Xebuchadnezzar 
had  carried  out  of  it,  to  Zorobabel  and  Mithridates 
the  treasurer;  and  gave  order  to  have  them  carried 
to  Jerusalem,  and  to  have  them  restored  to  their 
own  temple,  when  it  was  built;  for  lie  had  sent  to 
them  to  have  done  speedily,  and  commanded  Sana- 
bassar  to  go  up   to  .Jerusalem,   and   to   take   care   of 

152  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

the  building  of  the  temple;  who,  upon  receiving 
that  epistle  from  Cyrus,  came,  and  immediately  laid 
its  foundations:  and  although  it  hath  been  in  build- 
ing from  that  time  to  this,  it  hath  not  yet  been  fin- 
ished, by  reason  of  the  malignity  of  our  enemies. 
If  therefore  you  have  a  mind,  and  think  it  proper, 
write  this  account  to  Darius,  that  when  he  hath 
consulted  the  records  of  the  kings,  he  may  find 
that  we  have  told  you  nothing  that  is  false  about 
this  matter." 

5.  When  Zorobabel  and  the  high  priest  had  made 
this  answer,  Sisinnes,  and  those  that  were  with  him, 
did  not  resolve  to  hinder  the  building,  until  they 
had  informed  king  Darius  of  all  this.  So  they  im- 
mediately wrote  to  him  about  these  affairs;  but  as 
the  Jews  were  now  under  terror,  and  afraid  lest 
the  king  should  change  his  resolutions  as  to  the 
building  of  Jerusalem,  and  of  the  temple,  there  were 
two  prophets  at  that  time  among  them,  Haggai  and 
Zechariah,  who  encouraged  them,  and  bid  them  be 
of  good  cheer,  and  to  suspect  no  discouragement  from 
the  Persians,  for  that  God  foretold  this  to  them.  So, 
in  dependence  on  those  prophets,  they  applied  them- 
selves earnestly  to  building,  and  did  not  intermit 
one  day. 

6.  Xow  Darius,  when  the  Samaritans  had  written 
to  him,  and  in  their  ej^istle  had  accused  the  Jews, 
how  they  fortified  the  city,  and  built  the  temple 
more  like  to  a  citadel  than  to  a  temple;  and  said, 
that  their  doings  were  not  expedient  for  the  king's 
affairs;  and  besides,  they  showed  the  epistle  of 
Cambyses,  wherein  he  forbade  them  to  build  the 
temple;  and  when  Darius  thereby  luiderstood  that 
the  restoration  of  Jerusalem  was  not  expedient  for 
his  affairs,  and  when  he  had  read  the  epistle  that 
was  brought  him  from  Sisinnes,  and  those  that  were 

Chap.  IT.  OF  THE  JEWS.  153 

with  him,  he  gave  order  that  what  concerned  these 
matters  should  be  sought  for  among  the  royal  records. 
Whereupon  a  book  was  found  at  Ecbatana,  in  the 
tower  that  was  in  ]\Iedia,  wherein  was  written  as 
follows:  "Cyrus  the  king,  in  the  first  year  of  his 
reign,  commanded  that  the  temple  should  be  built 
in  Jerusalem;  and  the  altar  in  height  threescore 
cubits,  and  its  breadth  of  the  same,  with  three  edifices 
of  polished  stone,  and  one  edifice  of  stone  of  their 
own  country:  and  he  ordained  that  the  exj)enses  of 
it  should  be  paid  out  of  the  king's  revenue.  He 
also  commanded  that  the  vessels  which  Xebuchad- 
nezzar  had  pillaged  [out  of  the  temple],  and  had 
carried  to  Babylon,  should  be  restored  to  the  people 
of  Jerusalem,  and  that  the  care  of  these  things 
should  belong  to  Sanabassar  the  governor  and  presi- 
dent of  Syria  and  Phenicia,  and  to  his  associates, 
that  they  may  not  meddle  with  that  place,  but  may 
permit  the  servants  of  God,  the  Jews  and  their 
rulers,  to  build  the  temple.  He  also  ordained  that 
they  should  assist  them  in  the  work:  and  that  they 
should  pay  to  the  Jews,  out  of  the  tribute  of  the 
country  where  they  were  governors,  on  account  of 
the  sacrifices,  bulls  and  rams,  and  lambs  and  kids 
of  the  goats,  and  fine  flour  and  oil,  and  wine,  and 
all  other  things  that  the  priests  should  suggest  to 
them;  and  that  they  should  pray  for  the  preservation 
of  the  king,  and  of  the  Persians,  and  that  for  such 
as  transgressed  any  of  these  orders  thus  sent  to 
them,  he  commanded  that  they  should  be  caught, 
and  hung  upon  a  cross,  and  their  substance  confis- 
cated to  the  king's  use.  He  also  prayed  to  God 
against  them,  that  if  any  one  attempted  to  hinder 
the  building  of  the  temple,  God  would  strike  him 
dead,  and  thereby  restrain  his  wickedness." 

7.     When  Darius  had  found  this  book  among  the 

154  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

records  of  Cja-us,  he  wrote  an  answer  to  Sisinnes 
and  his  associates,  whose  contents  were  these:  "King 
Darius  to  Sisinnes  the  governor,  and  to  Sathrabuzanes, 
sendeth  greeting:  Having  found  a  copy  of  this 
epistle  among  tlie  records  of  Cyrus,  I  have  sent  it 
you;  and  I  will  that  all  things  be  done  as  is  therein 
written.  Fare  ye  well."  So  when  Sisinnes,  and 
those  that  were  with  him,  understood  the  intention 
of  the  king,  they  resolved  to  follow  his  directions 
entirely  for  the  time  to  come.  So  they  forwarded 
the  sacred  works,  and  assisted  the  elders  of  the  Jews, 
and  the  princes  of  the  sanhedrim,  and  the  structure 
of  the  temple  was  with  great  diligence  brought  to  a 
conclusion,  by  the  prophecies  of  Haggai  and  Zech- 
ariah,  according  to  God's  commands,  and  by  the 
injunctions  of  Cyrus  and  Darius  the  kings.  Xow 
the  temple  was  built  in  seven  years'  time:  And  in 
the  ninth  year  of  the  reign  of  Darius,  on  the  twenty- 
third  day  of  the  twelfth  month,  which  is  by  us 
called  Adar,  but  by  the  INIacedonians  Difstnis,  the 
priests  and  Levites,  and  the  other  multitude  of  the 
Israelites,  offered  sacrifices,  as  the  renovation  of 
their  former  prosperity  after  their  ca])tivity,  and 
because  they  had  now  the  temple  rebuilt,  a  hundred 
bulls,  two  hundred  rams,  four  hundred  lambs,  and 
twelve  kids  of  the  goats,  according  to  the  number 
of  their  tribes,  (for  so  many  are  the  tribes  of  the 
Israelites,)  and  this  last  for  the  sins  of  every  tribe. 
The  priests  also  and  the  Levites  set  the  porters  at 
every  gate,  according  to  the  laws  of  Moses.  The 
•Jews  also  built  the  cloisters  of  the  inner  temple,  that 
were  round  about  the  temple  itself. 

8.  And  as  the  feast  of  unleavened  bread  was  at 
hand,  in  the  first  month,  which,  according  to  tlie 
Macedonians,  is  called  XantJiicus,  but  according  to 
us   Nisan,   all   the   people   ran   together    out   of   the 

Chap.  IV.  OF  THE  JEWS.  155 

villages  to  the  city,  and  celebrated  the  festival,  having 
purified  themselves,  with  their  wives  and  children, 
according  to  the  law  of  their  country;  and  they 
offered  the  sacrifice  which  was  called  the  Passover, 
on  the  fourteenth  day  of  the  sanfl  month,  and  feasted 
seven  days,  and  spared  for  no  cost,  but  offered 
whole  burnt-offerings  to  God,  and  performed  sacri- 
fices of  thanksgiving,  because  God  had  led  them 
again  to  the  land  of  their  fathers,  and  to  the  laws 
tliereto  belonging,  and  had  rendered  the  mind  of 
the  king  of  Persia  favourable  to  them.  So  these 
men  offered  the  largest  sacrifices  on  these  accounts, 
and  used  great  magnificence  in  the  worship  of  God, 
and  dwelt  in  Jerusalem,  and  made  use  of  a  form  of 
government  that  was  aristocratical,  but  mixed  with 
an  oligarchy,  for  the  high  priests  were  at  the  head 
of  their  affairs,  until  the  posterity  of  the  Asamoneans 
set  up  kingly  government;  for  before  their  captivity, 
and  the  dissolution  of  their  polity,  they  at  first  had 
kingly  government  from  Saul  and  David,  for  five 
hundred  and  thirty-two  years,  six  months,  and  ten 
days;  but  before  those  kings,  such  rulers  governed 
them  as  were  called  Judges  and  Monarchs.  Under 
this  form  of  government  they  continued  for  more 
than  five  hundred  years,  after  the  death  of  jNIoses, 
and  of  Joshua  their  commander.  And  this  is  the 
account  I  had  to  give  of  the  Jews  who  had  been 
carried  into  captivity,  but  were  delivered  from  it 
in  the  times  of  Cyrus  and  Darius. 

9.  ^  But  the  Samaritans,  being  evil  and  enviously 
disposed  to  the  Jews,  wrought  them  many  mischiefs, 
by  reliance  on  their  riches,  and  by  their  pretence 
that  they  were  allied  to  the  Persian.s,  on  account  that 
thence  they  came;   and  whatsoever   it  M^as  that   they 

'  The  history  contained  in  this  section  is  entirely  wanting  in  all  our 
otiier  conies   both   of  Ezra   and    Esdras. 

156  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

were  enjoined  to  pay  the  Jews  by  the  king's  order 
out  of  their  tributes,  for  the  sacrifices,  they  woukl 
not  pay  it.  They  had  also  the  governors  favourable 
to  them  and  assisting  them  for  that  purpose;  nor 
did  they  spare  to  hurt  them,  either  by  themselves, 
or  by  others;  as  far  as  they  were  able.  So  the  Jews 
determined  to  send  an  embassage  to  king  Darius, 
in  favour  of  the  people  of  Jerusalem,  and  in  order 
to  accuse  the  Samaritans.  The  ambassadors  were 
Zorobabel,  and  four  others  of  the  rulers:  and  as 
soon  as  the  king  knew  from  the  ambassadors  the 
accusations  and  complaints  they  brought  against  the 
Samaritans,  he  gave  them  an  epistle  to  be  carried 
to  the  governors  and  council  of  Samaria.  The  con- 
tents of  which  epistle  were  these:  "King  Darius  to 
Tanganas  and  Sambabas,  the  governors  of  the  Sa- 
maritans, to  Sadraces  and  Bobelo,  and  the  rest  of 
their  fellow-servants  that  are  in  Samaria;  Zorobabel, 
Ananias,  and  Mordecai,  the  ambassadors  of  the 
Jews,  complain  of  you,  that  you  obstruct  them  in 
the  building  of  the  temple,  and  do  not  supply  them 
with  the  expenses  which  I  commanded  you  to  do 
for  the  offering  their  sacrifices.  My  will  therefore 
is  this,  that  upon  the  reading  of  this  epistle,  you 
supply  them  with  whatsoever  they  want  for  their 
sacrifices,  and  that  out  of  the  royal  treasury,  of  the 
tributes  of  Samaria,  as  the  priest  shall  desire,  that 
they  may  not  leave  off  offering  their  daily  sacrifices, 
nor  praying  to  God  for  me  and  the  Persians."  And 
these  Avere  the  contents  of  that  epistle. 

Chap.  V.  OF  THE  JEWS.  157 


How  Xei'oces,  the  son  of  Darius,  teas  tcell  disposed 
to  the  Jews:  As  also  concerning  Esdras  and 

1.  Upon  the  death  of  Darius,  Xerxes  his  son 
took  the  kingdom,  who,  as  he  inherited  his  father's 
kingdom,  so  did  he  inherit  his  piety  towards  God, 
and  honour  of  him;  for  he  did  all  things  suitably  to 
his  father  relating  to  divine  worship,  and  he  was 
exceeding  friendly  to  the  Jews.  A^ow  about  this 
time,  a  son  of  Jeshua,  whose  name  was  Joacim,  was 
the  high  priest.  JNIoreover,  there  was  now  in  Baby- 
lon a  righteous  man,  and  one  that  enjoyed  a  great 
reputation  among  the  multitude;  He  was  the  prin- 
cipal priest  of  the  j)eople,  and  his  name  w\as  Esdras. 
He  was  very  skilful  in  the  laws  of  Moses,  and  was 
well  acquainted  with  king  Xerxes.  He  had  de- 
termined to  go  up  to  Jerusalem,  and  to  take  with 
him  some  of  those  Jews  that  were  in  Babylon,  and 
he  desired  that  the  king  would  give  him  an  epistle 
to  the  governors  of  Syria,  by  which  they  might  know 
who  he  was.  Accordingly,  the  king  wrote  the  fol- 
lowing epistle  to  those  governors:  "Xerxes,  king 
of  kings,  to  Ezra  the  priest,  and  reader  of  the  divine 
law,  greeting:  I  think  it  agreeable  to  that  love  which 
I  bear  to  mankind,  to  permit  those  of  the  Jewish 
nation  that  are  so  disposed,  as  well  as  those  of  the 
priests  and  Levites  that  are  in  our  kingdom,  to  go 
together  to  Jerusalem.  Accordingly,  I  have  given 
command  for  that  purpose  r  and  let  every  one  that 
hath  a  mind  go,  according  as  it  hath  seemed  good 
to  me,  and  to  my  seven  counsellors,  and  this  in  order 

158  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

to  their  review  of  the  affairs  of  Judea,  to  see  whether 
they  be  agreeable  to  the  law  of  God.  Let  them 
also  take  with  them  those  j^resents  which  I  and  my 
friends  have  vowed,  with  all  that  silver  and  gold 
that  is  found  in  the  country  of  the  Babylonians,  as 
dedicated  to  God,  and  let  all  this  be  carried  to 
Jerusalem,  to  God  for  sacrifices.  Let  it  also  be 
lawful  for  thee  and  thy  brethren  to  make  as  many 
vessels  of  silver  and  gold  as  thou  pleasest.  Thou 
shalt  also  dedicate  those  holy  vessels  which  have  been 
given  thee,  and  as  many  more  as  thou  hast  a  mind 
to  make,  and  shalt  take  the  expenses  out  of  the 
king's  treasury.  I  have  moreover  written  to  the 
treasurers  of  Syria  and  Phenicia,  that  they  take 
care  of  those  affairs  that  Esdras  the  priest,  and 
reader  of  the  laws  of  God,  is  sent  about.  And  that 
God  may  not  be  at  all  angry  with  me,  or  with  my 
children,  I  grant  all  that  is  necessary  for  sacrifices 
to  God,  according  to  the  law,  as  far  as  a  hundred 
cori  of  wheat.  And  I  enjoin  you  not  to  lay  any 
treacherous  imposition,  or  any  tributes,  upon  their 
priests  or  Levites,  or  sacred  singers,  or  porters,  or 
sacred  servants,  or  scribes  of  the  temple.  And  do 
thou,  O  Esdras,  appoint  Judges  according  to  the 
wisdom  [given  thee]  of  God,  and  those  such  as 
understand  the  law,  that  they  may  judge  in  all 
Syria  and  Phenicia;  and  do  thou  instruct  those  also 
who  are  ignorant  of  it,  that  if  any  one  of  thy  country- 
men transgress  the  law  of  God,  or  that  of  the  king, 
he  may  be  punished,  as  not  transgressing  it  out  of 
ignorance,  but  as  one  that  knows  it  indeed,  but 
boldly  despises  and  contemns  it;  and  such  may  be 
punished  by  death,  or  by  ])aying  fines.  Farewell." 
2.  Wlien  Esdriis  had  received  this  epistle,  he 
was  very  joyful,  and  began  to  worship  God,  and 
confessed  that  lie  had   lieeii   the   cause   of  the   king's 

Chap.  V.  OF  THE  JEWS.  159 

great  favour  to  him,  and  tliat  for  the  same  reason 
he  gave  all  the  thanks  to  God.  So  he  read  the 
epistle  at  Babylon  to  those  Jews  that  were  there, 
but  he  kept  the  epistle  itself,  and  sent  a  copy  of  it 
to  all  those  of  his  own  nation  that  were  in  Media. 
And  when  these  Jews  had  understood  what  piety 
the  king  had  towards  God,  and  what  kindness  he 
had  for  Esdras,  they  were  all  greatly  pleased;  nay, 
many  of  them  took  their  effects  with  them,  and  came 
to  Babylon,  as  very  desirous  of  going  down  to 
Jerusalem;  but  then  the  entire  body  of  the  people 
of  Israel  remained  in  that  country,  wherefore  there 
are  but  two  tribes  in  Asia  and  Europe  subject  to 
the  Romans,  while  the  ten  tribes  are  beyond  Eu- 
phrates till  now,  and  are  an  immense  multitude,  and 
not  to  be  estimated  by  numbers.  Now  there  came 
a  great  number  of  priests,  and  Levites,  and  porters, 
and  sacred  singers,  and  sacred  servants,  to  Esdras. 
So  he  gathered  those  that  were  in  the  captivity  to- 
gether beyond  Euphrates,  and  stayed  there  three 
days,  and  ordained  a  fast  for  them,  that  they  might 
make  their  prayers  to  God  for  their  preservation, 
that  they  might  suffer  no  misfortunes  by  the  way, 
either  from  their  enemies,  or  from  any  other  ill 
accident;  for  Esdras  had  said  beforehand,  that  he 
had  told  the  king  how  God  would  preserve  them, 
and  so  he  had  not  thought  fit  to  request  that  he 
would  send  horsemen  to  conduct  them.  So  when 
they  had  finished  their  prayers,  they  removed  from 
Euphrates  on  the  twelfth  day  of  the  first  month  of 
the  seventh  year  of  the  reign  of  Xerxes,  and  they 
came  to  Jerusalem  on  the  fifth  month  of  the  same 
year.  Now  Esdras  presented  the  sacred  money,  of 
the  treasurers,  who  were  of  the  family  of  the  priests, 
of  silver  six  hundred  and  fifty  talents,  vessels  of 
silver  one  hundred   talents,   vessels   of   gold,   twenty 

160  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

talents,  vessels  of  brass,  that  was  ^  more  precious 
than  gold,  twelve  talents  by  weight,  for  these  presents 
had  been  made  by  the  king  and  his  counsellors,  and 
by  all  the  Israelites  that  stayed  at  Babylon.  So 
when  Esdras  had  delivered  these  things  to  the  priests, 
he  gave  to  God,  as  the  appointed  sacrifices  of  whole 
burnt-offerings,  twelve  bulls  on  account  of  the 
common  preservation  of  the  people,  ninety  rams, 
and  _  seventy-two  lambs,  twelve  kids  of  the  goats,  for 
the  remissioif  of  sins.  He  also  delivered  the  king's 
epistle  to  the  king's  officers,  and  to  the  governors 
of  Celesyria  and  Phenicia;  and  as  they  were  under 
a  necessity  of  doing  what  was  enjoined  by  him,  they 
honoured  our  nation,  and  were  assistant  to  them 
in  all  their  necessities. 

3.  Now  these  things  were  truly  done  under  the 
conduct  of  Esdras,  and  he  succeeded  in  them,  be- 
cause God  esteemed  him  worthy  of  the  success  of 
his  conduct,  on  account  of  his  goodness  and  righteous- 
ness. But  some  time  afterward  there  came  some 
persons  to  him,  and  brought  an  accusation  against 
certain  of  the  multitude,  and  of  the  priests  and 
Levites,  who  had  transgressed  their  settlement,  and 
dissolved  the  laws  of  their  country,  by  marrying 
strange  wives,  and  had  brought  the  family  of  the 
priests  into  confusion.  These  persons  desired  him 
to  support  the  laws,  lest  God  should  take  up  a 
general  anger  against  them  all,  and  reduce  them 
to  a  .calamitous  condition  again.  Hereupon  he  rent 
his  garment  immediately  out  of  grief,  and  pulled 
off  the  hair  off  his  head  and  beard,  and  cast  himself 
upon  the  ground,  because  this  crime  had  reached 
the  principal  men  among  the  people,  and  considering 

*  Dr.  Hudson  takes  notice  here,  that  this  kind  of  brass  or  copper, 
or  rather  mixture  of  gold  and  brass  or  copper,  was  called  aurichalcum, 
and  that  this  was   of  old  esteemed  the  most  precious   of  all  metals. 

Chap.  Y.  OF  THE  JEWS.  161 

that  if  he  should  enjoin  them  to  cast  out  their  wives, 
and  the  children  they  had  by  them,  he  should  not 
be  hearkened  to,  he  continued  lying  upon  the  ground. 
However,  all  the  better  sort  came  running  to  him, 
who  also  themselves  wept,  and  partook  of  the  grief 
he  was  under  for  what  had  been  done.  So  Esdras 
rose  up  from  the  ground,  and  stretched  out  his 
hands  towards  heaven,  and  said,  that  "he  was  ashamed 
tj  look  towards  it,  because  of  the  sins  which  the 
people  had  committed,  while  they  had  cast  out  of 
their  memories  what  their  fathers  had  inidergone 
on  account  of  their  wickedness:  and  he  besought 
God,  who  had  saved  a  seed  and  a  remnant  out  of 
the  calamity  and  captivity  they  had  been  in,  and 
had  restored  them  again  to  Jerusalem  and  to  their 
own  land,  and  had  obliged  the  kings  of  Persia  to 
have  compassion  on  them,  that  he  would  also  for- 
give them  their  sins  they  had  now  committed,  which, 
though  they  deserved  death,  yet  it  was  agreeable 
to  the  mercy  of  God,  to  remit  even  to  these  the 
punijshment  due  to  them." 

4.  After  Esdras  had  said  this,  he  left  off  praying; 
and  when  all  those  that  came  to  him  with  their  wives 
and  children  were  under  lamentation,  one  whose  name 
was  Jechonias,  a  principal  man  in  Jerusalem,  came 
to  him,  and  said,  that  they  had  sinned  in  marrying 
strange  wives;  and  he  persuaded  him  to  adjure  them 
all  to  cast  those  wives  out,  and  the  children  born 
of  them,  and  that  those  should  be  punished  who 
would  not  obey  the  law.  So  Esdras  hearkened  to 
this  advice,  and  made  the  heads  of  the  priests,  and 
of  the  Levites,  and  of  the  Israelites,  swear  that  they 
would  put  away  those  wives  and  children;  according 
to  the  advice  of  Jechonias.  And  when  he  had  re- 
ceived their  oaths,  he  went  in  haste  out  of  the  temple 
into   the    chamber    of    Johanai^    the    son    of    Eliasib, 

162  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

and  as  he  had  hitherto  tasted  nothing  at  all  for 
grief,  so  he  abode  there  that  day.  And  when 
proclamation  was  made,  that  all  those  of  the  cap- 
tivity should  gather  themselves  together  to  Jeru- 
salem, and  those  that  did  not  meet  there*  in  two  or 
three  days  should  be  banished  from  the  multitude, 
and  that  their  substance  should  be  appropriated  to 
the  uses  of  the  temple,  according  to  the  sentence 
of  the  elders,  those  that  were  of  the  tribes  of  Judah 
and  Benjamin  came  together  in  three  days,  viz.  on 
the  twentieth  day  of  the  ninth  month,  which  ac- 
cording to  the  Hebrews,  is  called  Tchcth,  and  ac- 
cording to  the  jVIacedonians,  ApcUcus.  Now,  as  they 
were  sitting  in  the  uj^per  room  of  the  temple,  where 
the  elders  also  were  present,  but  were  uneasy  be- 
cause of  the  cold,  Esdras  stood  up,  and  accused 
them,  and  told  them  that  they  had  sinned  in  marry- 
ing wives  that  were  not  of  their  own  nation;  but 
that  now  they  would  do  a  thing  both  pleasing  to 
God,  and  advantageous  to  themselves,  if  they  would 
put  those  wives  away.  Accordingly  they  all  cried 
out,  that  "they  would  do  so.  That  however  the 
multitude  was  great,  and  that  the  season  of  the 
year  was  winter,  and  that  this  work  would  require 
more  than  one  or  two  days.  Let  their  rulers,  there- 
fore, [said  they],  and  those  that  have  married  strange 
wives,  come  hither  at  a  proper  time,  while  the  elders 
of  every  place,  that  are  in  common  to  estimate  the 
number  of  those  that  have  thus  married,  are  to  be 
there  also."  Accordingly,  this  was  resolved  on  by 
them,  and  they  began  the  inquiry  after  those  that 
had  married  strange  wives  on  the  first  day  of  the 
next  month,  and  continued  the  inquiry  to  the  first 
day  of  the  tenth  montli,  and  found  a  great  many 
of  the  posterity  of  Jeshua  the  high  priest,  and  of 
the    priests,    and    Eevites,    and    Israelites,    who    had 

Chap.  Y.  OF  THE  JEWS.  1G3 

a  greater  regard  to  the  observation  of  the  law  than 
to  their  natural  affection,  and  immediately  cast  out 
their  wives,  and  the  children  which  were  born  of 
them.  And  in  order  to  appease  God,  they  off'ered 
sacrifices,  and  slew  rams,  as  oblations  to  him;  but 
it  does  not  seem  to  me  t^  be  necessary  to  set  down 
the  names  of  these  men.  So  when  Esdras  had  re- 
formed this  sin  al)out  the  marriages  of  the  fore- 
mentioned  persons,  lie  reduced  that  practice  to  purity, 
so  that  it  continued  in  that  state  for  tlie  time  to 

5.  Now  when  they  kept  tlie  ^  feast  of  tabernacles 
in  the  seventh  month,  and  almost  all  the  people  were 
come  together  to  it,  they  went  up  to  the  open  part 
of  the  temple,  to  the  gate  which  looked  eastward, 
and  desired  of  Esdras  that  the  laws  of  Moses  might 
be  read  to  them.  Accordingly  he  stood  in  the  midst 
of  the  multitude  and  read  them;  and  this  he  did 
from  morning  to  noon.  Xow,  by  hearing  the  laws 
read  to  them,  they  were  instructed  to  be  righteous 
men  for  the  present  and  for  the  future;  but  as  for 
their  past  offences,  they  were  displeased  at  them- 
selves, and  proceeded  to  shed  tears  on  their  account, 
as  considering  with  themselves,  that  if  they  had 
kept  tlie  law,  tliey  had  endured  none  of  these  miseries 
which  tliey  had  experienced.  But  w^hen  Esdras  saw 
them  in  that  disposition,  he  bade  them  go  home  and 
not  weep,  for  that  it  was  a  festival,  and  that  they 
ought  not  to  weep  thereon,  for  that  it  was  not  lawful 
so  to  do.  He  exhorted  them  rather  to  proceed  im- 
mediately to  feasting,  and  to  do  what  was  suital)le 
to  a  feast,  and  what  was  agreeable  to  a  day  of  joy. 
but    to    let    their    repentance    and    sorrow    for    their 

'  This  Jewish  feast  of  tabernacles  was  imitated  in  several  lieathcn 
solemnities,  as  Spanhelm  here  observes  and  proves.  He  also  farther 
observes  ))resently,  what  great  regard  many  heathens  had  to  the  monu- 
ments  of  their    forefaHiers,   as    Xehemiah    had    here.    sect.    (i. 

164  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

former  sins  be  a  security  and  a  guard  to  them,  that 
they  fall  no  more  into  the  like  offences.  So  upon 
Esdras'  exhortation  they  began  to  feast;  and  when 
they  had  so  done  for  eight  days,  in  their  tabernacles, 
they  departed  to  their  own  homes,  singing  hymns 
to  God,  and  returning  thanks  to  Esdras,  for  his 
reformation  of  wliat  corruptions  had  been  introduced 
into  their  settlement.  So  it  came  to  pass,  that  after 
he  had  obtained  this  reputation  among  the  people, 
he  died  an  old  man,  and  Avas  buried  in  a  magnificent 
manner  at  Jerusalem.  About  the  same  time  it  hap- 
pened also,  that  Joachim  the  high  priest  died;  and 
his  son  Eliasib  succeeded  in  the  high  priesthood. 

6.  Now  there  was  one  of  those  Jews  that  had 
been  carried  captiA^e,  who  was  cup-bearer  to  king 
Xerxes;  his  name  was  Nehemiah.  As  this  man  was 
walking  before  Susa,  the  metropolis  of  the  Persians, 
he  heard  some  strangers  that  were  entering  the  city 
after  a  long  journey,  speaking  to  another  in  the 
Hebrew  tongue,  so  he  went  to  them  and  asked  them 
whence  they  came^  And  when  their  answer  was, 
that  they  came  from  Judea,  he  began  to  inquire 
of  them  again  in  what  state  the  multitude  was?  and 
in  what  condition  Jerusalem  was;  and  when  they 
replied,  that  they  were  in  a  '  bad  state,  for  that 
their  walls  were  thrown  down  to  the  ground,  and 
that  the  neighbouring  nations  did  a  great  deal  of 
mischief  to  the  Jews,  while  in  the  day  time  they 
overran  the  country,  and  pillaged  it,  and  in  the 
night  did  tliem  mischief,  insomuch  that  not  a  few 
were  led  away  captive   out  of  the  country,   and  out 

'  This  miserable  condition  of  the  Jews,  and  their  capital,  must  have 
been  after  the  death  of  Ezra,  their  former  governor,  and  before  Xehemiah 
came  with  his  commission  to  build  the  walls  of  Jerusalem.  Xor  is  that 
at  all  disagreeable  to  these  histories  in  Josephus,  since  Ezra  came  on 
the  7th,  and  Xehemiah  not  till  the  2,5th  of  Xerxes,  at  the  interval  of  18 

Chap.  V.  OF  THE  JEWS.  165 

of  Jerusalem  itself,  and  that  the  roads  were  in  the 
day  time  found  full  of  dead  men.  Hereupon  Ne- 
hemiah  shed  tears,  out  of  commiseration  for  the 
calamities  of  his  countrymen:  and  looking  up  to 
heaven  he  said,  "How  long,  O  Lord,  wilt  thou  over- 
look oui'  nation,  while  it  suffers  so  great  miseries, 
and  while  we  are  made  the  prey  and  spoil  of  all 
men?"  And  while  he  stayed  at  the  gate  and  lamented 
thus,  one  told  him  that  the  king  was  going  to  sit 
down  to  supper;  so  he  made  haste,  and  went  as 
he  was,  without  washing  himself,  to  minister  to 
the  king  in  his  office  of  cup-bearer:  But  as  the  king 
was  very  pleasant  after  supper,  and  more  cheerful 
than  usual,  he  cast  his  eyes  on  Xehemiah,  and  seeing 
him  look  sad,  he  asked  him,  wh}^  lie  was  sad?  Where- 
upon he  prayed  to  God  to  give  him  favour,  and 
afford  him  the  power  of  j^ersuading  by  his  words, 
and  said,  "How  can  I,  O  king,  appear  otherwise 
than  thus,  and  not  be  in  trouble,  while  I  hear  that 
the  walls  of  Jerusalem,  the  city  where  are  the 
sepulchres  of  my  fathers,  are  thrown  down  to  the 
ground,  and  that  its  gates  are  consumed  by  fire; 
but  do  thou  grant  me  the  favour  to  go  and  build 
its  wall,  and  to  finish  the  building  of  the  temple." 
Accordingly  the  king  gave  him  a  signal,  that  he 
freely  granted  him  what  he  asked;  and  told  him  that 
he  should  carry  an  epistle  to  the  governors,  that 
they  might  pay  him  due  honour,  and  afford  him 
whatsoever  assistance  he  wanted,  and  as  he  pleased. 
"Leave  off  thy  sorrow  then,  said  the  king,  and  be 
cheerful  in  the  performance  of  thy  office  hereafter." 
So  Xehemiah  worshipped  God;  and  gave  the  king 
thanks  for  his  promise,  and  cleared  up  his  sad  and 
cloudy  countenance,  by  the  pleasure  he  had  from 
the  king's  promises.  Accordingly,  the  king  called 
for   him   the   next   day,   and   gave   him   an   epistle   to 

166  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

be  carried  to  Adeus,  the  governor  of  Syria,  and 
Phenicia,  and  Samaria;  wherein  he  sent  to  him  to 
pay  due  honour  to  Xehemiah,  and  to  supply  him 
with  what  he  wanted  for  his  building. 

7.  Now  when  he  was  come  to  Babylon  and  had 
taken  with  him  many  of  his  countrymen,  wh(5  volun- 
tarily followed  him,  he  came  to  Jerusalem  in  the 
twenty  and  fifth  year  of  the  reign  of  Xerxes:  And 
when  he  had  shown  the  '  epistles  to  God,  he  gave 
them  to  Adeus,  and  to  the  other  governors.  He 
also  called  together  all  the  people  to  Jerusalem,  and 
stood  in  the  midst  of  the  temple,  and  made  the 
following  speech  to  them:  "You  know,  O  Jews, 
that  God  hath  kept  our  fathers  Abraham,  and  Isaac, 
and  Jacob,  in  mind  continually;  and  for  the  sake 
of  their  righteousness  hath  not  left  off  the  care 
of  you:  Indeed  he  hath  assisted  me  in  gaining  this 
authority  of  the  king  to  raise  up  our  wall,  and 
finish  what  is  wanting  of  the  temple.  I  desire  you, 
therefore,  who  well  know  the  ill-will  our  neighbour- 
ing nations  bear  to  us;  and  that  when  once  they 
are  made  sensible  that  we  are  in  earnest  about  build- 
ing, they  will  come  upon  us,  and  contrive  many 
ways  of  obstructing  our  works,  that  you  will,  in  tlie 
first  place,  put  your  trust  in  God,  as  in  him  that 
will  assist  us  against  their  hatred,  and  to  intermit 
building  neither  night  nor  day,  but  to  use  all  diligence, 
and  to  hasten  on  the  work;  now  we  have  this  especial 
opportunity  for  it."  When  he  had  said  this,  he 
gave  order  that  the  rulers  should  measure  the  wall, 
and  part  the  work  of  it  among  the  peoj)le,  according 

*  This  showing  king-  Xerxes'  epistles  to  God,  or  laying  them  open 
before  God  in  the  temple,  is  very  like  the  laying  open  the  epistles  of 
Sennacherib  before  him  also  by  HeKekiah,  2  Kings  xix.  14,  Isa.  xxxvii. 
14,  although  this  last  was  for  a  memorial,  to  put  him  in  mind  of  the 
enemies,  in  order  to  move  that  divine  compassion,  and  the  present  as  a 
token  of  grntitude  for  mercies  already  received,  as  Ilavercamp  well 
observes  on  this   place. 

Chap.  y.  OF  THE  JEWS.  107 

to  their  villages  and  cities,  as  every  one's  a])ihties 
should  require.  And  when  he  had  added  this  promise, 
that  he  himself,  with  his  servants,  would  assist  them, 
he  dissolved  the  assembly.  So  the  Jews  prepared 
for  the  work:  That  is  the  name  they  are  called  by 
from  the  day  that  they  came  up  from  Babylon,  which 
is  taken  from  the  tribe  of  Judah,  which  came  first 
to  these  places,  and  thence  both  they  and  the  country 
gained  that  appellation. 

8.  But  now  when  the  Ammonites,  and  ^loabites, 
and  Samaritans,  and  all  that  inhabited  Celesyria, 
heard  that  the  building  went  on  apace,  they  took 
it  heinously,  and  proceeded  to  lay  snares  for  them, 
and  to  hinder  their  intentions.  They  also  slew  many 
of  the  Jews,  and  sought  how  they  might  destroy 
Xehemiah  himself,  by  hiring  some  of  the  foreigners 
to  kill  him.  They  also  put  the  Jews  in  fear,  and 
disturbed  them,  and  spread  abroad  rumours,  as  if 
many  nations  were  ready  to  make  an  expedition 
against  them,  by  which  means  they  were  harassed, 
and  had  almost  left  off  the  building:  But  none  of 
these  things  could  deter  Xehemiah  from  being  dili- 
gent about  the  work,  he  only  set  a  number  of  men 
about  him  as  a  guard  to  his  body,  and  so  unweariedly 
persevered  therein,  and  was  insensible  of  any  trouble 
out  of  his  desire  to  perfect  this  work.  And  thus 
did  he  attentively,  and  with  great  forecast  take  care 
of  his  own  safety,  not  that  he  feared  death,  but  of 
this  persuasion,  that  if  he  were  dead,  the  walls  for 
his  citizens  would  never  be  raised.  He  also  gave 
orders,  that  the  builders  should  keep  their  ranks, 
and  have  their  armour  on  while  they  were  building. 
Accordingly,  the  mason  had  his  sword  on,  as  well 
as  he  that  brought  the  materials  for  building.  He 
also  appointed  that  their  shields  should  lie  very 
near  them;   and  he   placed   trumpeters   at   every  five 

168  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

hundred  feet,  and  charged  them  that  if  their  enemies 
appeared,  they  should  give  notice  of  it  to  the  people, 
that  they  might  fight  in  their  armour,  and  their 
enemies  might  not  fall  upon  them  naked.  He  also 
went  about  the  compass  of  the  city  by  night,  being 
never  discouraged,  neither  about  the  work  itself,  nor 
about  his  own  diet  and  sleep,  for  he  made  no  use 
of  those  things  for  his  pleasure,  but  out  of  necessity. 
And  this  trouble  he  imderwent  for  ^  two  years  and 
four  months:  for  in  so  long  time  was  the  wall  built, 
in  the  twenty-eighth  year  of  tlie  reign  of  Xerxes,  in 
the  ninth  month.  Xow  when  the  walls  were  finished, 
Nehemiah  and  the  multitude  offered  sacrifices  to 
God  for  the  building  of  them,  and  they  continued 
in  feasting  eight  days.  However,  when  the  nations 
which  dwelt  in  Syria  heard  that  the  building  of 
the  wall  was  finished,  they  had  indignation  at  it: 
But  when  Nehemiah  saw  that  the  city  was  thin 
of  people,  he  exhorted  the  priests  and  the  Levites, 
that  they  would  leave  the  country,  and  remove  them- 
selves to  the  city,  and  there  continue:  and  he  built 
them  houses  at  his  own  expense:  and  he  commanded 
that  part  of  the  people  which  were  employed  in 
cultivating  the  land  to  bring  the  tithes  of  their  fruits 
to  Jerusalem,  that  the  priests  and  I^evites  having 
whereof  they  might  live  perpetually,  and  might  not 
leave    the    divine    worship;    who    willingly    hearkened 

'  It  may  not  be  very  improper  to  remark  here,  with  what  an  unusual 
accuracy])Iius  determines  these  years  of  Xerxes,  in  which  the  walls 
of  Jerusalem  were  built,  viz.  that  Xehemiah  came  with  his  commission 
on  the  25th  of  Xerxes;  that  the  walls  were  two  years  four  months  in 
building,  and  that  they  were  finished  on  the  28th  of  Xerxes,  sect.  7,  8. 
It  may  be  also  remarked  farther,  that  Josephus  liardly  ever  mentions 
more  than  one  infallible  astronomical  character,  I  mean  an  eclipse  of 
the  moon,  and  this  a  little  before  the  death  of  Herod  the  Great,  Antiq. 
B.  XVII.  ch.  vi.  sect.  4,  Vol.  III.  Xow  on  these  two  chronological 
characters  in  a  great  measure  dejiend  some  of  tlie  most  important  points 
belonging  to  Christianity,  viz.  the  explication  of  Daniel's  TO  weeks,  and 
the  duration  of  Jesus'  ministry,  and  the  time  of  his  death,  in  corre- 
spondence to  those  70  weeks. 

Chap.  VI.  OF  THE  JEWS.  169 

to  the  constitutions  of  Nehemiali,  by  which  means 
the  city  Jerusalem  came  to  be  fuller  of  people  than 
it  was  before.  So  when  Xehemiah  had  done  many 
other  excellent  things,  and  things  worthy  of  com- 
mendation in  a  glorious  manner,  he  came  to  a  great 
age,  and  then  died.  He  was  a  man  of  a  good  and 
righteous  disposition,  and  very  ambitious  to  make 
his  own  nation  happy:  and  he  hath  left  the  walls 
of  Jerusalem  as  an  eternal  monument  for  himself. 
Now  this  was  done  in  the  days  of  Xerxes. 


Concerning  Esther,  and  Mordecai,  and  Haman:  and 
hoxo  in  the  reign  of  Artaoceroces,  the  whole  nation 
of  the  Jews  was  in  danger  of  perishing. 

1.  After  the  death  of  Xerxes,  the  kingdom  came 
to  be  transferred  to  his  son  Cyrus,  whom  the  Greeks 
called  Artaccercces.  When  this  man  had  obtained 
the  government  over  the  Persians,  the  whole  ^  nation 

*  Since  some  sceptical  persons  are  willing  to  discard  this  book  of 
Esther  as  no  true  history,  I  shall  venture  to  say,  that  almost  all  the 
objections  against  this  booii  of  Esther  are  gone  at  once,  if,  as  we 
certainly  ought  to  do,  and  as  Dean  Prideaux.has  justly  done,  we  place 
this  history  under  Artaxerxes  Longimanus,  as  doth  both  the  Septuagint 
interpreters  and  Josephus.  The  learneil  Dr.  Lee,  in  his  posthumous 
dissertation  on  the  second  book  of  Esdras,  p.  25,  also  says.  That 
"the  truth  of  this  history  is  demonstrated  by  the  feast  of  Purim,  kept 
up  from  that  time  to  this  very  day.  And  this  surprising  providential 
revolution  in  favour  of  a  captive  people,  thereby  constantly  commem- 
orated, standeth  even  upon  a  firmer  l)asis  than  that  there  ever  was  such 
a  man  as  king  Alexander  [the  Great]  in  the  world,  of  whose  reign  there 
is  no  such  abiding  monument  at  this  day  to  be  found  any  where.  Xor 
will  they,  I  dare  say,  who  quarrel  at  this  or  any  other  of  the  sacred 
histories,  find  it  a  very  easy  matter  to  reconcile  the  different  accounts 
which  were  given  by  historians  of  tiie  affairs  of  this  king,  or  to  confirm 
any  one  fact  of  his  whatever  with  the  same  evidence  which  is  here  given 
for  the  principal  fact  in  the  saered  hook,  or  even  so  much  as  to  prove 
the  existence  of  such  a  person,  of  whom  so  great  things  are  related,  but 

170  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

of  the  Jews,  with  their  wives  and  children,  were 
in  danger  of  perishing:  the  occasion  whereof  we 
shall  declare  in  a  little  time,  for  it  is  proper,  in  the 
first  place,  to  explain  somewhat  relating  to  this  king, 
and  how  -he  came  to  marry  a  Jewish  wife,  who  was 
herself  of  the  royal  family  also,  and  who  is  related 
to  have  saved  our  nation;  for  when  Artaxerxes  had 
taken  the  kingdom,  and  had  set  governors  over  the 
hundred  and  twenty  and  seven  provinces,  from 
India  even  unto  Ethiopia,  in  the  third  year  of  his 
reign,  he  made  a  costly  feast  for  his  friends,  and 
for  the  nations  of  Persia,  and  for  their  governors, 
such  an  one  as  was  j^roper  for  a  king  to  make,  when 
he  had  a  mind  to  make  a  public  demonstration  of 
his  riches,  and  this  for  a  hundred  and  fourscore  days; 
after  which  he  made  a  feast  for  other  nations,  and 
for  their  ambassadors  at  Shushan,  for  seven  days. 
Now  this  feast  was  ordered  after  the  manner  fol- 
lowing: he  caused  a  tent  to  be  pitched,  which  was 
supported  by  pillars  of  gold  and  silver,  with  curtains 
of  linen  and  purple  spread  over  them,  that  it  might 
afford  room  for  many  ten  thousands  to  sit  down. 
The  cups  with  which  the  waiters  ministered  were 
of  gold,  and  adorned  with  precious  stones,  for  pleas- 
ure, and  for  sight.  He  also  gave  order  to  the 
servants  that  they  should  not  force  them  to  drink, 
by  bringing  them  wine  continually,  as  is  the  practice 
of  the  Persians,  but  to  permit  every  one  of  the 
guests  to  enjoy  himself  according  to  his  own  in- 
clination. Moreover,  he  sent  messengers  through 
the  country,  and  gave  order  that  they  should  have 
a  remission  of  their  labours,  and  should  keep  a 
festival  many  days,  on  account  of  his  kingdom.     In 

upon  ;,'r;iiitin^-  lliis  hook  of  lOsUicr,  or  sixtli  of  K^sdras,  (as  it  is  placed 
ill  some  of  the  most  ancient  copies  of  the  Vulgate,)  to  he  a  most  true 
and  certain  history,"  etc. 

Chap.  Yi.  OF  THE  JEWS.  171 

like  manner,  did  Vashti  the  queen  gather  her  guests 
together,  and  made  them  a  feast  in  the  pahice.  Now 
the  king  was  desirous  to  show  her,  who  exceeded 
all  other  women  in  beauty,  to  those  that  feasted 
with  him,  and  he  s*ent  some  to  command  her  to  come 
to  his  feast.  But  slie  out  of  regard  to  the  laws  of 
the  Persians,  which  ^  forl)id  the  wives  to  be  seen  by 
strangers,  did  not  go  to  the  king;  and  though  he 
oftentimes  sent  the  eunuchs  to  her,  she  did  never- 
theless stay  away,  and  refused  to  come,  till  the  king 
was  so  much  irritated,  tliat  he  broke  up  the  enter- 
tainment, and  rose  up  and  called  for  those  seven 
who  had  the  interpretation  of  tlie  laws  committed 
to  them,  and  accused  his  wife,  and  said,  that  he 
had  been  affronted  by  her,  because  that  when  she 
was  frequently  called  by  him  to  his  feast,  she  did  not 
obey  him  once.  He  therefore  gave  order,  that  they 
should  inform  him  what  could  be  done  by  the  law 
against  her.  So  one  of  them,  whose  name  was 
Memucan,  said.  That  "this  affront  was  offered  not 
to  him  alone,  but  to  all  the  Persians,  who  were  in 
danger  of  leading  their  lives  very  ill  with  their  wives, 
if  they  must  be  thus  despised  by  them;  for  that  none 
of  their  wives  would  have  any  reverence  for  their 
husbands,  if  they  had  such  an  example  of  arrogance 
in  tlie  queen  towards  thee,  who  rulest  over  all."  Ac- 
cordingly, he  exhorted  him  to  punish  her,   who  had 

^  If  the  Chaldee  paraphrase  be  in  the  right,  that  Artaxerxes  intended 
to  show  \'ashti  to  his  guests  nai<ed,  it  is  no  wonder  at  all  that  she  would 
not  submit  to  such  an  indignity;  but  still  if  it  were  not  so  gross  as 
that,  yet  it  might,  in  the  king's  cups,  be  done  in  a  way  so  indecent,  as 
the  Persian  laws  would  not  then  bear,  no  more  than  the  common  laws 
of  modesty.  And  that  the  king  had  some  such  design,  seems  not  im- 
probable, for  otherwise  the  principal  of  these  royal  guests  could  be  no 
strangers  to  the  q>ieen,  nor  unap]irized  of  her  beauty,  so  far  as  decency 
admitted.  However,  since  Providence  was  now  paving  the  way  for  the 
introduction  of  a  Jewess  into  the  king's  affections,  in  order  to  bring 
about  one  of  the  most  wonderful  deliverances  which  the  Jewish  or  any 
nation  ever  had,  we  need  not  be  farther  solicitous  about  the  motives  by 
which   the   king  was   induced   to   divorce    A'ashti,   and   marry    Esther. 

172  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

been  guilty  of  so  great  an  affront  to  him,  after  a 
severe  manner;  and  when  he  had  so  done,  to  pubHsh 
to  the  nations  what  had  been  decreed  about  the 
queen.  So  the  resohition  was  to  put  Vashti  away, 
and  to  give  her  dignity  to  another  woman. 

2.  But  the  king  having  been  fond  of  her,  did 
not  well  bear  a  separation,  and  yet  by  the  law  he 
could  not  admit  of  a  reconciliation,  so  he  was  under 
trouble,  as  not  having  it  in  his  power  to  do  what 
he  desired  to  do.  But  when  his  friends  saw  him 
so  uneasy,  they  advised  him  to  cast  the  memory  of 
his  wife,  and  his  love  for  her,  out  of  his  mind,  but 
to  send  abroad  over  all  the  habitable  earth,  and  to 
search  out  for  comely  virgins,  and  to  take  her  whom 
he  should  like  best  for  a  wife,  because  his  passion 
for  his  former  wife  would  be  quenched  by  the  in- 
troduction of  another,  and  the  kindness  he  had  to 
Vashti  would  be  withdrawn  from  her,  and  be  placed 
on  her  that  was  with  him.  Accordingly,  he  was 
persuaded  to  follow  this  advice,  and  gave  order  to 
certain  persons  to  choose  out  of  the  virgins  that 
were  in  his  kingdom  those  that  were  esteemed  the 
most  comely.  So  when  a  great  number  of  these 
virgins  were  gathered  together,  there  was  found  a 
damsel  in  Babylon,  both  whose  parents  were  dead, 
and  she  was  brought  up  with  her  uncle  Mordecai, 
for  that  was  her  uncle's  name.  This  uncle  was  of 
the  tribe  of  Benjamin,  and  was  one  of  the  principal 
persons  among  the  Jews.  Now  it  proved  that  this 
damsel,  whose  name  was  Esther,  was  the  most  beauti- 
ful of  all  the  rest,  and  that  the  grace  of  her  coun- 
tenance drew  the  eyes  of  the  spectators  principally 
upon  her;  So  she  was  committed  to  one  of  the 
eunuchs  to  take  tlie  care  of  her:  and  she  was  very 
exactly  provided  with  sweet  odours,  in  great  plenty, 
and  with  costly  ointments,  such  as  her  body  required 

Chap.  Yi.  OF  THE  JEWS.  173 

to  be  anointed  ^vithal:  and  this  was  used  for  six- 
months  by  the  virgins,  who  were  in  number  four 
hundred.  And  when  the  eunuch  thought  the  virgins 
had  been  sufficiently  purified,  in  the  forementioned 
time,  and  were  now  fit  to  go  to  the  king's  bed,  he 
sent  one  to  be  with  the  king  every  day.  So  when 
he  had  accompanied  with  her,  he  sent  her  back  to 
the  eunuch:  and  when  Esther  had  come  to  him,  he 
was  pleased  with  her,  and  fell  in  love  with  the  damsel, 
and  married  her,  and  made  her  his  lawful  wife, 
and  kept  a  wedding  feast  for  her  on  the  twelfth 
month  of  the  seventh  year  of  his  reign,  which  was 
called  Adar.  He  also  sent  angari,  as  they  are  called, 
or  messengers,  unto  every  nation,  and  gave  orders 
that  they  should  keep  a  feast  for  his  marriage,  while 
he  himself  treated  the  Persians  and  the  Medes,  and 
the  principal  men  of  the  nations,  for  a  whole  month, 
on  account  of  this  his  marriage.  Accordingly,  Esther 
came  to  his  royal  palace,  and  he  set  a  diadem  on 
her  head:  And  thus  was  Esther  married,  without 
making  known  to  the  king  what  nation  she  was 
derived  from.  Her  uncle  also  removed  from  Babylon 
to  Shushan,  and  dwelt  there,  being  every  day  about 
the  palace,  and  inquiring  how  the  damsel  did,  for 
he  loved  her  as  though  she  had  been  his  own  daughter. 
3.  Now  the  king  had  made  ^  a  law,  that  none  of 
his  own  peoj^le  should  approach  him  unless  he  were 
called,  when  he  sat  upon  his  throne;  men,  with  axes 
in  their  hands,  stood  round  about  his  throne,  in  order 
to  punish  such  as  approached  to  him  without  being 
called.     However,  the  king  sat  with  a  golden  sceptre 

'  Herodotus  says,  that  this  law  [against  any  one's  coming  uncalled 
to  the  kings  of  Persia  when  they  were  sitting  on  their  thrones]  was  first 
enacted  hy  Deioces,  i.  e.  (hy  him  who  first  withdrew  tiie  Medes  from 
the  dominion  of  the  Assyrians,  and  himself  first  reigned  over  tliem.) 
Thus  also,  says  Spanheini, "stood  guards,  with  their  axes,  jihout  the  throne 
of  Tenus,  Tenudus,  that  the  offender  might  hy  them  be  punished  im- 

174  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

in  his  hand,  which  he  held  out  when  he  had  a  mind 
to  save  any  one  of  those  that  approached  to  him 
witkout  being  called:  and  he  who  touched  it  was 
free  from  danger.  But  of  this  matter  we  have 
discoursed  sufficiently. 

4.  Some  time  after  this  [two  eunuchs]  Bigthan 
and  Teresh  plotted  against  the  king;  and  Barnabazus, 
the  servant  of  one  of  the  eunuclis,  being  by  birth 
a  Jew,  was  acquainted  with  their  conspiracy,  and 
discovered  it  to  the  queen's  uncle;  and  Mordecai, 
by  the  means  of  Esther,  made  the  conspirators  known 
to  the  king.  This  troubled  the  king,  but  he  dis- 
covered the  truth,  and  hanged  the  eunuchs  upon  a 
cross,  while  at  that  time  he  gave  no  reward  to  Mor- 
decai, who  had  been  the  occasion  of  his  preservation. 
He  only  bid  the  scribes  to  set  down  his  name  in 
the  records,  and  ])id  him  stay  in  the  palace,  as  an 
intimate  friend  of  the  king's. 

5.  Xow  there  was  one  Haman,  the  son  of  Amed- 
atha,  by  birth  an  Amalekite,  that  used  to  go  in  to 
the  king;  and  the  foreigners  and  Persians  worshipped 
him,  as  Artaxerxes  had  commanded  that  such  honour 
should  be  paid  to  him;  but  Mordecai  was  so  wise, 
and  so  observant  of  his  own  country's  laws,  that 
he  would  not  ^  worship  the  man.  When  Haman  ob- 
served this,  he  inquired  whence  he  came?  and  when 
he  understood  that  he  was  a  Jew,  he  had  indigna- 
tion at  him,  and  said  within  himself.  That  "whereas 
the  Persians,  who  were  free  men,  worshipped  him, 
this  man,  who  was  no  better  than  a  slave,  does  not 

'  Whether  this  adoration  required  of  Mordecai  to  Haman  were  by 
him  deemed  too  like  the  adoration  due  only  to  God,  as  Josephus  seems 
here  to  think,  as  well  as  the  Septuagint  iiiter]ireters  also,  by  their  trans- 
lation of  Esth.  xiii.  13,  13,  1  i,  or  whether  he  thouglit  he  ought  to  pay 
no  sort  of  adoration  to  an  Amalekite,  which  nation  had  Iiecn  such  great 
siimers  as  to  have  been  iniiversally  devoted  to  destruction  by  God  himself, 
Exod.  xvii.  14,  1,5,  IG,  2  Sam.  xv.  18,  or  whether  botii  causes  concurred, 
cannot   now,    1    doubt,  be  ccrtainlv   determined. 

Chap.  VI.  OF  THE  JEWS.  175 

vouchsafe  to  do  so."  And  when  he  desired  to  punish 
jNIordecai,  he  thought  it  too  small  a  thing  to  request 
of  the  king  that  he  alone  might  be  punished:  he 
rather  determined  to  abolish  the  whole  nation,  for 
he  was  naturally  an  enemy  to  the  Jews,  because  the 
nation  of  the  Amalekites,  of  which  he  was,  had  been 
destroyed  by  them.  Accordingly  he  came  to  the 
king,  and  accused  them,  saying,  "There  is  a  certain 
wicked  nation,  and  it  is  dispersed  over  all  the  habit- 
able earth  that  is  under  thy  dominion;  a  nation 
separate  from  others,  unsociable,  neither  admitting 
the  same  sort  of  divine  worship  that  others  do,  nor 
using  laws  like  to  the  laws  of  others:  at  enmitj^  with 
thy  people,  and  with  all  men,  both  in  their  manners 
and  practices.  Xow,  if  thou  wilt  be  a  benefactor 
to  thy  subjects,  thou  wilt  give  order  to  destroy  them 
utterly,  and  not  leave  the  least  remains  of  them, 
nor  preserve  any  of  them  either  for  slaves,  or  for 
captives."  But  that  the  king  might  not  be  damni- 
fied by  the  loss  of  the  tributes  which  the  Jews  paid 
him,  Haman  promised  to  give  him  out  of  his  own 
estate  forty  thousand  talents  whensoever  he  pleased; 
and  he  said,  he  would  pay  this  money  very  willingly, 
that  the  kingdom  might  be  freed  from  such  a  mis- 

6.  When  Haman  had  made  this  petition,  the 
king  both  forgave  him  the  money,  and  granted  him 
the  men,  to  do  what  he  would  with  them.  So  Haman 
having  gained  what  he  desired,  sent  out  immediately 
a  decree,  as  from  the  king,  to  all  nations,  the  con- 
tents whereof  were  these:  "Artaxerxes,  the  great 
king,  to  the  rulers  of  the  hundred  twenty  and  seven 
provinces,  from  India  to  Ethiopia,  sends  this  writing: 
Whereas  I  have  governed  many  nations,  and  obtained 
the  dominions  of  all  the  habitable  earth,  according 
to  my  desire,  and  have  not   been  obliged  to  do  any 

176  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

thing  that  is  insolent  or  cruel  to  my  subjects  by 
such  my  power,  but  have  showed  myself  mild  and 
gentle,  by  taking  care  of  their  peace  and  good  order, 
and  have  sought  how  they  might  enjoy  those  blessings 
for  all  time  to  come.  And  whereas  I  have  been 
kindly  informed  by  Haman,  who  on  account  of  his 
prudence  and  justice,  is  the  first  in  my  esteem,  and 
in  dignity,  and  only  second  to  myself  for  his  fidelity 
and  constant  good  will  to  me,  that  there  is  an  ill 
natured  nation  intermixed  with  all  mankind,  that 
is  averse  to  our  laws,  and  not  subject  to  kings,  and 
of  a  different  conduct  of  life  from  others,  that  hateth 
monarchy,  and  of  a  disposition  that  is  pernicious 
to  our  affairs,  I  give  order  that  all  these  men,  of 
whom  Haman,  our  second  father,  hath  informed  us, 
be  destroyed,  with  their  wives,  and  children,  and 
that  none  of  them  be  spared,  and  that  none  prefer 
pity  to  them  before  obedience  to  this  decree.  And 
this  I  will  to  be  executed  on  the  fourteenth  day  of 
the  twelfth  month  of  the  present  year,  that  so  when 
all  that  have  enmity  to  us  are  destroyed,  and  this 
in  one  day,  we  may  ])e  allowed  to  lead  the  rest  of 
our  lives  in  peace  hereafter."  Now  when  this  decree 
was  brought  to  the  cities,  and  to  the  country,  all 
were  ready  for  the  destruction  and  entire  abolishment 
of  the  Jews,  against  the  day  before  mentioned;  and 
they  were  very  hasty  about  it  at  Shushan,  in  par- 
ticular. Accordingly,  the  king  and  Haman  spent 
their  time  in  feasting  together  with  good  cheer  and 
wine,  but  the  city  was  in  disorder. 

7.  Now  when  Mordecai  was  informed  of  what 
was  done,  he  rent  his  clothes  and  put  on  sackcloth, 
and  sprinkled  ashes  upon  his  head,  and  went  about 
the  city,  crying  out,  That  "a  nation  tliat  had  been 
injurious  to  no  man,  was  to  be  destroyed."  And 
he  went  on  saying  thus  as  far  as  to  the  king's  palace. 

Chap.  Yi.  OF  THE  JEWS.  177 

and  there  he  stood,  for  it  was  not  lawful  for  him 
to  go  into  it  in  that  habit.  The  same  thing  was 
done  by  all  the  Jews  that  were  in  the  several  cities 
wherein  this  decree  was  published,  with  lamentation 
and  mourning,  on  account  of  the  calamities  de- 
nounced against  them.  But  as  soon  as  certain  per- 
sons had  told  the  queen  that  Mordecai  stood  before 
the  court  in  a  mourning  habit,  she  was  disturbed 
at  this  report,  and  sent  out  such  as  should  change 
his  garments;  but  when  he  could  not  be  induced  to 
put  off  his  sackcloth,  because  the  sad  occasion  that 
forced  him  to  put  it  on  was  not  yet  ceased,  she 
called  the  eunuch  Acratheus,  for  he  was  then  present, 
and  sent  him  to  Mordecai,  in  order  to  know  of  him 
what  sad  accident  had  befallen  him,  for  which  he 
was  in  mourning,  and  would  not  put  off  the  habit 
he  had  put  on  at  her  desire.  Then  did  Mordecai 
inform  the  eunuch  of  the  occasion  of  his  mourning, 
and  of  the  decree  which  was  sent  by  the  king  into 
all  the  country,  and  of  the  promise  of  money  whereby 
Haman  bought  the  destruction  of  their  nation.  He 
also  gave  him  a  copy  of  what  was  proclaimed  at 
Shushan,  to  be  carried  to  Esther;  and  he  charged 
her  to  petition  the  king  about  this  matter,  and  not 
to  think  it  a  dishonourable  thing  in  her  to  put  on 
a  humble  habit,  for  the  safety  of  her  nation,  wherein 
she  might  deprecate  the  ruin  of  the  Jews,  who  were 
in  danger  of  it;  for  that  Haman,  whose  dignity  was 
only  inferior  to  that  of  the  king,  had  accused  the 
Jews,  and  had  irritated  the  king  against  them.  When 
she  was  informed  of  this,  she  sent  to  Mordecai  again, 
and  told  him  that  she  was  not  called  by  the  king, 
rnd  that  he  who  goes  in  to  him  without  being  called, 
is  to  be  slain,  unless  when  he  is  wilHng  to  save  any 
one,  he  holds  out  his  golden  sceptre  to  him;  but  that 
to  whomsoever  he  does  so,  although  he  go  in  without 

178  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

being  called,  that  person  is  so  far  from  being  slain, 
that  he  obtains  pardon,  and  is  entirely  preserved. 
Now  when  the  eunuch  carried  this  message  from 
Esther  to  Mordecai,  he  bade  him  also  tell  her  that 
she  must  not  only  provide  for  her  own  preservation, 
but  for  the  common  preservation  of  her  nation,  for 
that  if  she  now  neglected  this  opportunity,  there 
would  certainly  arise  help  to  them  from  God  some 
other  way,  but  she  and  her  father's  house  would 
be  destroyed  by  those  whom  she  now  despised.  But 
Esther  sent  the  very  same  eunuch  back  to  Mordecai 
[to  desire  him]  to  go  to  Shushan,  and  to  gather 
the  Jews  that  were  there  together  to  a  congregation, 
and  to  fast  and  abstain  from  all  sorts  of  food,  on 
her  account,  and  [to  let  him  know  that]  she  with 
her  maidens  would  do  the  same;  and  then  she  prom- 
ised that  she  would  go  to  the  king,  though  it  were 
against  the  law,  and  that  if  she  must  die  for  it,  she 
would  not  refuse  it. 

8.  Accordingly,  Mordecai  did  as  Esther  had  en- 
joined him,  and  made  the  people  fast;  and  he  be- 
sought God,  together  with  them,  "Not  to  overlook 
his  nation,  particularly  at  this  time,  wJien  it  was 
going  to  be  destroyed;  but  that,  as  he  had  often 
before  provided  for  them,  and  forgiven,  when  they 
had  sinned,  so  he  would  now  deliver  them  from 
that  destruction  which  was  denounced  against  them; 
for  although  it  was  not  all  the  nation  that  had 
offended,  yet  must  they  so  ingloriously  be  slain,  and 
that  he  was  himself  the  occasion  of  the  wrath  of 
Haman,  because,  said  he,  I  did  not  worship  him, 
nor  could  I  endure  to  pay  that  lionour  to  him  whicli 
I  used  to  pay  to  thee,  O  Lord,  for  upon  that  his 
anger  hath  he  contrived  this  present  miscliief  against 
those  that  have  not  transgressed  thy  laws."  The 
same    supphcations    did    the    multitude    put    up;    anc[ 

Chap.  VI.  OF  THE  JEWS.  179 

entreated  that  God  would  provide  for  their  de- 
liverance, and  free  the  Israelites  that  were  in  all 
the  earth  from  this  calamity  which  was  now  coming 
upon  them,  for  they  had  it  before  their  eyes,  and 
expected  its  coming.  Accordingly  Esther  made  sup- 
plication to  God  after  the  manner  of  her  country, 
by  casting  herself  down  upon  the  earth,  and  putting 
on  her  mourning  garments,  and  bidding  farewell 
to  meat  and  drink,  and  all  delicacies,  for  three  days' 
time;  and  she  entreated  God  to  have  mercy  upon 
her,  and  make  her  words  appear  persuasive  to  the 
king,  and  render  her  countenance  more  beautiful 
than  it  was  before,  that  both  by  her  words  and  beauty 
she  might  succeed,  for  the  averting  of  the  king's 
anger,  in  case  he  were  at  all  irritated  against  her, 
and  for  the  consolation  of  those  of  her  own  country, 
now  they  were  in  the  utmost  danger  of  f)erishing; 
as  also  that  he  would  excite  a  hatred  in  the  king 
against  tlie  enemies  of  the  Jews,  and  those  that  had 
contrived  tlieir  future  destruction,  if  they  be  proved- 
to  be  contemned  by  him. 

9.  When  Esther  had  used  this  supplication  for 
three  days,  she  put  off  those  garments,  changed  her 
habits,  and  adorned  herself  as  became  a  queen,  and 
took  two  of  her  hand-maids  with  her,  the  one  of 
which  supported  her,  as  she  gently  leaned  upon 
her,  and  the  other  followed  after,  and  lifted  up  her 
large  train  (which  swept  along  the  ground,)  with 
the  extremities  of  her  fingers:  And  thus  she  came 
to  the  king,  having  a  blushing  redness  in  her  coun- 
tenance, with  a  pleasant  agreeableness  in  her  be- 
haviour, yet  did  she  go  in  to  him  with  fear;  and 
as  soon  as  she  was  come  over  against  him,  as  he 
was  sitting  on  his  throne,  in  his  royal  apparel,  which 
was  a  garment  interwoven  with  gold  and  ])recious 
stones,   which   made   him   seem   to   her   more   terrible. 

180  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

especially  when  lie  looked  at  her  somewhat  severely, 
and  with  a  countenance  on  fire  with  anger,  her  joints 
failed  her  immediately,  out  of  the  dread  she  was  in, 
and  she  fell  down  sideways  in  a  swoon:  but  the  king 
changed  his  mind,  which  happened,  as  I  suppose, 
by  the  will  of  God,  and  was  concerned  for  his  wife, 
lest  her  fear  should  bring  some  very  ill  thing  upon 
her,  and  he  leaped  from  his  throne  and  took  her 
in  his  arms,  and  recovered  her,  by  embracing  her, 
and  speaking  comfortably  to  her,  and  exhorting 
her  to  be  of  good  cheer,  and  not  to  suspect  any 
thing  that  was  said  on  account  of  her  coming  to 
him  without  being  called,  because  that  law  was  made 
for  subjects,  but  that  she,  who  was  a  queen,  as  well 
as  he  a  king,  might  be  entirely  secure:  and  as  he 
said  this,  he  put  the  sceptre  into  her  hand,  and 
laid  his  rod  uj^on  her  neck,  on  account  of  the  law; 
and  so  freed  her  from  her  fear.  And  after  she  had 
recovered  herself  by  these  encouragements,  she  said, 
"My  lord,  it  is  not  easy  for  me,  on  the  sudden,  to 
saj"  what  hath  happened,  for  as  soon  as  I  saw  thee 
to  be  great,  and  comely,  and  terrible,  my  spirit 
departed  from  me,  and  I  had  no  soul  left  in  me." 
And  while  it  was  with  difficulty,  and  in  a  low  voice, 
that  she  could  say  thus  much,  the  king  was  in  a 
great  agony  and  disorder,  and  encouraged  Esther 
to  be  of  good  cheer,  and  to  expect  better  fortune, 
since  he  was  ready,  if  occasion  should  require  it,  to 
grant  to  her  the  half  of  his  kingdom.  Accordingly, 
Esther  desired  that  he  and  his  friend  Haman  would 
come  to  her  to  a  banquet,  for  she  said  she  had  pre- 
pared a  supper  for  him.  He  consented  to  it;  and 
when  they  were  there,  as  they  were  drinking,  he 
bid  Esther  to  "let  him  know  what  she  desired;  for 
that  she  should  not  be  disappointed,  though  she 
should    desire    the    half    of    his    kingdom."     But    she 

Chap.  Yi.  OF  THE  JEWS.  181 

put  off  the  discovery  of  her  petition  till  the  next 
day,  if  he  would  come  again,  together  with  Haman, 
to  her  banquet. 

10.  Now  when  the  king  had  promised  so  to  do, 
Haman  went  awaj'  very  glad,  because  he  alone  had 
the  honour  of  supping  with  the  king  at  Esther's 
banquet,  and  because  no  one  else  partook  of  the 
same  honour  with  kings  but  himself;  yet  when  he 
saw  JNIordecai  in  the  court,  he  was  very  much  dis- 
pleased, for  he  paid  him  no  manner  of  respect  when 
he  saw  him.  So  he  went  home  and  called  for  his 
wife  Zeresh,  and  his  friends,  and  when  they  were 
come,  he  showed  them  what  honour  he  enjoyed  not 
only  from  the  king,  but  from  the  queen  also,  for 
as  he  alone  had  that  day  supped  with  her,  together 
with  the  king,  so  was  he  also  invited  again  for  the 
next  day;  yet,  said  he,  am  I  not  pleased  to  see  JNIor- 
decai the  Jew  in  the  court.  Hereupon  his  wife 
Zeresh  advised  him  to  give  order  that  a  gallows 
should  be  made  fifty  cubits  high,  and  that  in  the 
morning  he  should  ask  it  of  the  king,  that  Mordecai 
might  be  hanged  thereon.  So  he  commended  her 
advice,  and  gave  order  to  his  servants  to  prepare 
the  gallows,  and  to  place  it  in  the  court,  for  the 
punishment  of  JNIordecai  thereon,  which  was  accord- 
ingly prepared.  But  God  laughed  to  scorn  the 
wicked  expectations  of  Haman;  and  as  he  knew 
what  the  event  would  be,  was  delighted  at  it,  for 
that  night  he  took  away  the  king's  sleep;  and  as 
the  king  ^vas  not  w^illing  to  lose  the  time  of  his 
lying  awake,  but  to  spend  it  in  something  that  might 
be  of  advantage  to  his  kingdom,  he  commanded  the 
scribe  to  bring  him  the  chronicles  of  the  former 
kings,  and  the  records  of  his  own  actions;  and  when 
he  had  brought  them  and  was  reading  them,  one 
was   found   to   have   received    a    countrv   on    account 

182  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

of  his  excellent  management  on  a  certain  occasion, 
and  the  name  of  the  country  was  set  down ;  another 
was  found  to  have  had  a  present  made  him  on 
account  of  his  fidelity:  then  the  scrihe  came  to  Big- 
than  and  Teresh,  the  eunuchs  that  had  made  a 
conspiracy  against  the  king,  which  INIordecai  had 
discovered,  and  when  the  scrihe  said  no  more  hut 
that,  and  was  going  on  to  another  history,  the  king 
stopped  him,  and  inquired  "Whether  it  was  not 
added  that  JMordecai  had  a  reward  given  himf  and 
when  he  said  there  was  no  such  addition,  he  bid 
him  leave  off,  and  he  inquired  of  those  that  were 
appointed  for  that  purpose,  what  hour  of  the  night 
it  was?  and  when  he  was  informed  that  it  was  al- 
ready day,  he  gave  order,  that  if  they  found  any 
one  of  his  friends  already  come,  and  standing  before 
the  court,  they  should  tell  him.  Xow  it  happened 
that  Haman  was  found  there,  for  he  was  come 
sooner  than  ordinary  to  petition  the  king  to  have 
Mordecai  put  to  death;  and  when  tlie  servants  said, 
that  Haman  was  before  the  court,  he  bid  them  call 
him  in;  and  wlien  he  was  come  in,  he  said,  "Because 
I  know  that  thou  art  my  only  fast  friend,  I  desire 
thee  to  give  me  advice,  how  I  may  honour  one  that 
I  greatly  love,  and  that  after  a  manner  suitable  to 
my  magnificence."  Now  Haman  reasoned  with  him- 
self, that  what  opinion  he  should  give  it  would  be 
for  liimself,  since  it  was  he  alone  who  was  beloved 
by  the  king:  so  he  gave  that  advice  which  he  thought 
of  all  other  the  best;  for  he  said,  "If  thou  wouldest 
truly  honour  a  man  whom  tliou  sayest  thou  dost 
love,  give  order  that  he  may  ride  on  horseback,  with 
the  same  garment  on  which  thou  wearest,  and  with 
a  gold  chain  about  his  neck,  and  let  one  of  thy 
intimate  friends  go  })efore  him,  and  proclaim  through 
the  whole   city,   that   whosoever   the   king   honoureth, 

Clmp.  VI.  OF  THE  JEWS.  183 

obtaineth  this  mark  of  his  honour."  This  was  the 
advice  which  Haman  gave,  out  of  a  supposal  that 
such  a  reward  would  come  to  himself.  HereujDon 
the  king  was  pleased  with  the  advice,  and  said,  "Go 
thou,  therefore,  for  thou  hast  the  horse,  the  garment, 
and  the  chain,  ask  for  Mordecai  the  Jew,  and  give 
him  those  things,  and  go  before  his  horse,  and  pro- 
claim accordingly;  for  thou  art,  said  he,  my  intimate 
friend,  and  hast  given  me  good  advice;  be  thou  then 
the  minister  of  what  thou  hast  advised  me  to.  This 
shall  be  his  reward  from  us,  for  preserving  my  life." 
When  he  heard  this  order,  which  was  entirely  un- 
exj^ected,  he  was  confounded  in  his  mind,  and  knew 
not  what  to  do.  However,  he  went  out  and  led 
the  horse,  and  took  the  purple  garment,  and  the 
golden  chain  for  the  neck,  and  finding  Mordecai 
before  the  court,  clothed  in  sackcloth,  he  bid  him 
put  that  garment  off,  and  put  the  purple  garment 
on:  But  jNIordecai,  not  knowing  the  truth  of  the 
matter,  but  thinking  that  it  was  done  in  mockery, 
said,  "O  thou  wretch,  the  vilest  of  all  mankind,  dost 
thou  thus  laugh  at  our  calamities?"  But  when  he 
was  satisfied  that  the  king  bestowed  this  honour 
upon  him,  for  the  deliverance  he  had  procured  him, 
when  he  convicted  the  eunuchs  who  had  conspired 
against  him,  he  2:)ut  on  that  purple  garment  which 
the  king  always  wore,  and  put  the  chain  about  his 
neck,  and  got  on  horseback,  and  went  round  the 
city,  while  Haman  went  before,  and  proclaimed, 
"This  shall  be  the  reward  which  the  king  will  bestow 
on  every  one  whom  he  loves,  and  esteems  worthy 
of  honour."  And  when  they  had  gone  round  the 
city,  Mordecai  went  in  to  the  king,  but  Haman 
went  home,  out  of  shame,  and  informed  his  wife 
and  friends  of  what  had  happened,  and  this  with 
tears:   who   said,   that    "he   would    be   able   to    be   re- 

184  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

venged  of  Mordecai,  for  that  God  was  with  him." 
11.  Now  while  these  men  were  thus  talking  one 
to  another,  Esther's  eunuchs  hastened  Haman  away 
to  come  to  supper;  but  one  of  the  evmuchs,  named 
Sabuchadas,  saw  the  gallows  'that  was  fixed  in 
Haman's  house,  and  inquired  of  one  of  his  servants, 
for  what  purpose  they  had  prepared  it?  So  he  knew 
that  it  was  for  the  queen's  uncle,  because  Haman 
was  about  to  petition  the  king  that  he  might  be 
punished,  but  at  present  he  held  his  peace.  Now 
when  the  king,  with  Haman,  were  at  the  banquet, 
he  desired  the  queen  to  tell  him  what  gift  she  desired 
to  obtain,  and  assured  her  that  she  should  have  what- 
sqever  she  had  a  mind  to.  She  then  lamented  the 
danger  her  people  were  in;  and  said,  that  "she  and 
her  nation  were  given  up  to  be  destroyed,  and  that 
she,  on  that  account,  made  this  her  petition:  that 
she  would  not  have  troubled  him  if  he  had  only  given 
order  that  they  should  be  sold  into  bitter  servitude, 
for  such  a  misfortune  would  not  have  been  intolerable; 
but  she  desired  that  they  might  be  delivered  from 
such  a  destruction."  And  when  the  king  inquired 
of  her  who  was  the  author  of  this  misery  to  them? 
she  then  openly  accused  Haman,  and  convicted  him, 
that  he  had  been  the  wicked  instrument  of  this,  and 
had  formed  his  plot  against  them.  When  the  king 
was  hereupon  in  disorder,  and  was  gone  hastily  out 
of  the  banquet  into  the  gardens,  Haman  began  to 
intercede  with  Esther,  and  to  beseech  her  to  forgive 
him,  as  to  what  he  had  offended,  for  he  perceived 
that  he  was  in  a  very  bad  case.  And  as  he  had 
fallen  upon  the  queen's  bed,  and  was  making  sup- 
plication to  her,  tlie  king  came  in,  and  being  still 
more  provoked  at  what  he  saw,  "O  thou  wretch, 
said  he,  thou  vilest  of  all  mankind,  dost  thou  aim 
to  force  my  wife?"     And  when   Haman  was  aston- 

From  the  Paintinc 

by  W.   Hamilton,  R.  A.      Engraved  by   F.   Bartolozzi,   R.   A. 

Chap.  vi.  OF  THE  JEWS.  185 

ished  at  this,  and  not  able  to  speak  one  word  more, 
Sabuchadas  the  eunuch  came  in,  and  accused  Haman 
and  said,  "He  found  a  gallows  at  his  house  prepared 
for  Mordecai,  for  that  the  servant  told  him  so  much 
upon  his  inquiry,  when  he  was  sent  to  him  to  call 
him  to  supper."  He  said  farther,  "that  the  gallows 
was  fifty  cubits  high."  Which  when  the  king  heard, 
he  determined  that  Haman  should  be  punished  after 
no  other  manner  than  that  which  had  been  devised 
by  him  against  Mordecai:  so  he  gave  order  immedi- 
ately that  he  should  be  hung  upon  this  gallows,  and 
be  put  to  death  after  that  manner.  And  from  hence 
I  cannot  forbear  to  admire  God,  and  to  learn  hence 
his  wisdom  and  his  justice,  not  only  in  punishing 
the  wickedness  of  Haman,  but  in  so  disposing  it, 
that  he  should  undergo  the  very  same  punishment 
which  he  had  contrived  for  another;  as  also,  because 
lie  thereby  teaches  others  this  lesson,  that  what  mis- 
chiefs any  one  prepares  against  another,  he  without 
knowing  of  it,  first  contrives  it  against  himself. 

12.  Wherefore  Haman,  who  had  immoderately 
abused  the  honour  he  had  from  the  king,  was  de- 
stroyed after  this  manner,  and  the  king  granted  his 
estate  to  the  queen.  He  also  called  for  Mordecai, 
(for  Esther  had  informed  him  that  she  was  akin  to 
him)  and  gave  that  ring  to  Mordecai  which  he  had 
before  given  to  Haman.  The  queen  also  gave  Ha- 
man's  estate  to  Mordecai;  and  prayed  the  king 
to  deliver  the  nation  of  the  Jews  from  the  fear  of 
death,  and  showed  him  what  had  been  written  over 
all  the  country  by  Haman  the  son  of  Ammedatha: 
for  that  if  her  country  were  destroyed,  and  her  coun- 
trymen were  to  perish,  she  could  not  bear  to  live 
herself  any  longer.  So  the  king  promised  her,  that 
he  could  not  do  any  thing  that  should  be  disagreeable 
to  her,   nor  contradict  what   she  desired,   but  he   bid 

186  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

her  write  what  she  pleased  about  the  Jews,  in  the 
king's  name,  and  seal  it  with  his  seal,  and  send  it 
to  all  his  kingdom,  for  that  those  who  read  epistles 
whose  authority  is  secured  by  having  the  king's  seal 
to  them,  would  no  way  contradict  what  was  written 
therein.  So  he  commanded  the  king's  scribes  to  be 
sent  for,  and  to  write  to  the  nations  on  the  Jews' 
behalf,  and  to  his  lieutenants  and  governors,  that 
were  over  his  hundred  twenty  and  seven  provinces, 
from  India  to  Ethiopia.  Now  the  contents  of  this 
epistle  were  these:  "  '  The  great  king  Artaxerxes 
to  our  rulers,  and  those  that  are  our  faithful  subjects, 
sendetli  greeting:  many  men  there  are,  who,  on  ac- 
count of  the  greatness  of  the  benefits  bestowed  on 
them,  and  because  of  the  honour  wliich  they  have 
obtained  from  the  wonderful  kind  treatment  of  those 
that  bestowed  it,  are  not  only  injurious  to  their  in- 
feriors, but  do  not  scruple  to  do  evil  to  those  that 
have  been  their  benefactors,  as  if  they  would  take 
away  gratitude  from  among  men,  and  by  their  in- 
solent abuse  of  such  benefits  as  they  never  expected, 
they  turn  the  abundance  they  have  against  those 
that  are  the  authors  of  it,  and  suppose  they  shall 
lie  concealed  from  God  in  that  case,  and  avoid  that 
vengeance  which  comes  from  him.  Some  of  these 
men,  when  they  have  had  tlie  management  of  affairs 
committed  to  them  by  their  friends,  and  bearing 
private  malice  of  their  own  against  some  others,   by 

*  The  true  reason  why  king  Artaxerxes  did  not  here  properly  revoke 
his  former  harbarous  decree  for  the  universal  slaughter  of  the  Jews, 
hut  only  empowered  and  encouraged  the  Jews  to  fight  for  their  lives, 
to  kill  their  enemies,  if  they  attempted  their  destruction,  seems  to  have 
heen  that  old  law  of  the  Medes  and  Persians,  not  yet  laid  aside,  that 
whatever  decree  was  signed  both  by  the  king  and  his  lords,  could  not 
be  chcuKjed,  but  I'emained  unalterable,  Daniel  vi.  7,  8,  9,  \2,  15,  17,  Esther 
i,  19,  and  viii.  8.  And  Hauutn  having  engrossed  the  royal  favour,  might 
perhaps  have  himself  signed  this  decree  for  the  Jews'  slaughter  instead 
of  the  ancient  lords,  and  so  might  have  rendered  it  by  their  rules  irrev- 

Chap.  VI.  OF  THE  JEWS.  187 

deceiving  those  that  have  the  power,  persuade  them 
to  be  angry  at  such  as  have  done  them  no  harm,  till 
they  are  in  danger  of  perishing,  and  thus  by  laying 
accusations  and  calumnies:  Xor  is  this  state  of  things 
to  be  discovered  by  ancient  examples,  or  such  as  we 
have  learned  by  report  only;  but  by  some  examples 
of  such  impudent  attempts  under  our  own  eyes,  so 
that  it  is  not  fit  to  attend  any  longer  to  calumnies 
and  accusations,  nor  to  the  persuasions  of  others, 
but  to  determine  what  any  one  knows  of  himself  to 
have  been  really  done,  and  to  j^unish  what  justly 
deserves  it,  and  to  grant  favours  to  such  as  are  in- 
nocent. This  hath  been  the  case  of  Haman,  the 
son  of  Ammedatha,  by  birth  an  Amalekite,  and 
alien  from  the  blood  of  the  Persians,  who,  when 
he  was  hospitably  entertained  by  us,  and  partook 
of  that  kindness  which  w^e  bear  to  all  men,  to  so 
great  a  degree,  as  to  be  called  my  father,  and  to 
be  all  along  worshipped,  and  to  have  honour  paid 
him  by  all  in  the  second  rank  after  the  royal  honour 
due  to  ourselves,  he  could  not  bear  his  good  fortune, 
nor  govern  the  magnitude  of  his  prosperity  with 
sound  reason;  nay,  he  made  a  conspiracy  against 
me  and  my  life,  who  gave  him  his  authority,  by  en- 
deavouring to  take  away  iNIordecai,  my  })enefactor, 
and  my  saviour,  and  by  basely  and  treacherously  re- 
quiring to  have  Esther,  the  partner  of  my  life,  and 
of  my  dominion,  ])rough.t  to  destruction;  for  he  con- 
trived by  this  means  to  ^  deprive  me  of  my  faithful 

^  These  words  give  an  intimation  as  if  Artaxerxes  suspected  a  deejier 
design  in  Hanian  ttian  openly  apjieared,  viz.  That  knowhig  the  Jews 
would  be  faithful  to  him,  and  that  he  could  never  transfer  the  crown 
to  his  own  familv,  who  was  an  Agagite,  Ksth.  iii.  1,  10,  or  of  the  pos- 
terity of  Agag,  the  old  king  of  th.e  Ainalekites,  1  Sam.  xv.  8,  32,  33, 
wiiile  they  were  alive,  and  S])read  oxer  all  his  dominions,  he  therefore 
endeavoured  to  destroy  them.  Xor  is  il  to  me  iujprobahle,  that  those 
73,800  of  the  Jews'  enemies  which  were  soon  destroyed  by  the  Jews, 
on  the  permission  of  the  king,  which  must  l)e  on  some  great  occasion, 
were    Anudckitcs,    Ihcir    old    and    hereditary    enemies,    p^xod.    xvii.    II,    13, 

188  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

friends,  and  transfer  the  government  to  others:  But 
since  I  perceived  that  these  Jews,  that  were  by  this 
pernicious  fellow  devoted  to  destruction,  were  not 
wicked  men,  but  conducted  their  lives  after  the  best 
manner,  and  were  men  dedicated  to  the  worship  of 
that  God  who  hath  preserved  the  kingdom  to  me 
and  to  my  ancestors,  I  do  not  only  free  them  from 
the  punishment  which  the  former  epistle,  which  was 
sent  by  Haman,  ordered  to  be  inflicted  on  them,  to 
which  if  you  refuse  obedience,  you  shall  do  well, 
but  I  will  that  they  have  all  honour  paid  to  them. 
Accordingly,  I  have  hanged  up  the  man  that  con- 
trived such  things  against  them,  with  his  family, 
before  the  gates  of  Shushan,  that  punishment  being 
sent  upon  him  by  God,  who  seeth  all  things.  And 
I  give  you  in  charg-e,  that  you  publicly  propose  a 
copy  of  this  epistle  through  all  my  kingdom,  that 
the  Jews  may  be  permitted  peaceably  to  use  their 
own  laws,  and  that  j^ou  assist  them,  that  at  the  same 
season  whereto  their  miserable  estate  did  belong, 
they  may  defend  themselves  the  very  same  day  from 
unjust  violence,  the  thirteenth  day  of  the  twelfth 
month,  which  is  Adar,  for  God  hath  made  that  day 
a  day  of  salvation  instead  of  a  day  of  destruction 
to  them;  and  may  it  be  a  good  day  to  those  that 
wish  us  well,  and  a  memorial  of  the  punishment  of 
the  conspirators  against  us!  and  I  will  that  you 
take  notice,  that  every  city,  and  every  nation,  that 
shall  disobey  any  thing  that  is  contained  in  this 
epistle,  shall  be  destroyed  by  fire  and  sword.  How- 
ever, let  this  e2:)istle  be  published  through  all  the 
country  that  is  under  our  obedience,  and  let  all  the 
Jews,  by  all  means  be  ready  against  the  day  before 

and  that  thereby  was  fulfilled  Balaam's  prophecy,  "Amalek  was  the 
first  of  the  nations,  but  his  latter  end  shall  be,  that  he  perish  for  ever," 
Xuui.  xxiv.  20. 

Chap.  VI.  OF  THE  JEWS.  189 

mentioned,    that   they   may   avenge    themselves    upon 
their  enemies." 

13.  Accordingly,  the  horsemen  who  carried  the 
epistles,  proceeded  on  the  ways  which  they  were  to 
go  with  speed:  but  as  for  ^lordecai,  as  soon  as 
he  had  assumed  the  royal  garment,  and  the  crown 
of  gold,  and  had  put  the  chain  about  his  neck,  he 
went  forth  in  a  public  procession;  and  when  the 
Jews,  who  were  at  Shushan,  saw  him  in  so  great 
honour  with  the  king,  they  thought  his  good  fortune 
was  common  to  themselves  also;  and  joy,  and  a 
beam  of  salvation  encompassed  the  Jews,  both  those 
that  were  in  the  cities,  and  those  that  were  in  the 
countries,  upon  the  publication  of  the  king's  letters, 
insomuch,  that  many  even  of  other  nations  circum- 
cised their  foreskin  for  fear  of  the  Jews,  that  they 
might  procure  safety  to  themselves  thereby;  for  on 
the  thirteenth  day  of  the  twelfth  month,  which  ac- 
cording to  the  Hebrews  is  called  Adar,  but  according 
to  the  JNIacedonians,  Dystrus,  those  that  carried  the 
king's  epistle  gave  them  notice,  that  the  same  day 
wherein  their  danger  was  to  have  been,  on  that  very 
day  should  they  destroy  their  enemies.  But  now  the 
rulers  of  the  provinces,  and  the  tyrants,  and  the 
kings,  and  the  scribes,  had  the  Jews  in  esteem;  for 
the  fear  they  were  in  of  Mordecai  forced  them  to 
act  with  discretion.  Now  when  the  royal  decree 
was  come  to  all  the  country  that  was  subject  to 
the  king,  it  fell  out  that  the  Jews  at  Shushan  slew 
five  hundred  of  their  enemies:  and  when  the  king 
had  told  Esther  the  number  of  those  that  were  slain 
in  that  city,  but  did  not  well  know  what  had  been 
done  in  the  provinces,  he  asked  her,  whether  she 
would  have  any  thing  farther  done  against  them? 
for  that  it  should  be  done  accordingly:  Upon  which 
she    desired    that    the    Jews    might    be    permitted    to 

190  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

treat  their  remaining  enemies  in  the  same  manner 
the  next  day;  as  also  that  they  might  hang  ten  sons 
of  Haman  upon  the  gallows.  So  the  king  permitted 
the  Jews  so  to  do,  as  desirous  not  to  contradict  Esther. 
So  they  gathered  themselves  together  again  on  the 
fourteenth  day  of  the  month  Dystrus,  and  slew 
ahout  three  hundred  of  tlieir  enemies,  but  touched 
nothing  of  what  riches  they  had.  Now  there  were 
slain  by  the  Jews  that  wxre  in  the  country,  and  in 
the  other  cities,  seventy-five  thousand  of  their  enemies, 
and  these  were  slain  on  the  thirteenth  day  of  the 
month,  and  the  next  day  they  kept  as  a  festival.  In 
like  manner  the  Jews  that  were  in  Shushan  gathered 
themselves  together,  and  feasted  on  the  fourteenth 
day  and  that  which  followed  it;  whence  it  is,  that 
even  now  all  the  Jews  that  are  in  the  habitable  earth 
keep  these  days  festival,  and  send  portions  to  one 
another.  Mordecai  also  wrote  to  those  Jews  that 
lived  in  the  kingdom  of  Artaxerxes  to  observe  these 
days,  and  celebrate  them  as  festivals,  and  to  deliver 
them  down  to  posterity,  that  this  festival  might  con- 
tinue for  all  time  to  come,  and  that  it  might  never 
be  buried  in  oblivion,  for  since  they  were  about  to 
be  destroyed  on  these  days  by  Haman,  they  would 
do  a  right  thing,  upon  escaping  the  danger  in  them, 
and  on  them  inflicting  punishments  on  their  enemies, 
to  observe  those  days,  and  give  thanks  to  God  on 
them:  for  which  cause  the  Jews  still  keep  the  fore- 
mentioned  days,  and  call  them  '  days  of  Phiirim 
[or    Purim.^     And    Mordecai    became    a    great    and 

^  Take  here  part  of  Reland's  note  on  this  disputed  passage:  "In 
Josephus'  copies  these  Hehrew  words  days  of  I'lirini  or  Lots,  as  in  the 
(Ireck  copies  of  Esther,  eh.  ix.  26,  28-3^,  is  read  dni/s  of  phiirim,  or 
(lai/s  of  protfctiov.  hut  oiifjlit  to  road  dai/s  of  piirim.  as  in  the  Hehrew; 
than  which  emendation,  says  lie,  nothing  is  more  certain."  And  had  we 
any  assurance  tiiat  .foscphus'  copy  mentioned  the  casthif/  of  lots,  as  our 
other  copies  do,  Esth.  iii.  7,  I  should  fidly  agree  witli  Reland,  but  as 
it  now  stands  it  seems  to  inc  by  no  means  certain. 

Chap.  VII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  191 

illustrious  person  with  the  king,  and  assisted  him 
in  the  government  of  the  people.  He  also  lived  with 
the  queen:  so  that  the  affairs  of  the  Jews  were  by 
their  means,  better  than  they  could  ever  have  hoped 
for.  And  this  was  the  state  of  the  Jews  under  the 
reign  of  Artaxerxes.^ 


Hori)  John  slew  his  brother  Jesus  in  the  temple;  and 
hozc  Bagoses  offered  many  injuries  to  the  Jews,  and 
what  Sanhallat  did. 

1.  When  Eliashab  the  high  priest  was  dead,  his 
son  Judas  succeeded  in  the  high  priesthood:  and  when 
he  was  dead,  his  son  John  took  that  dignity;  on  whose 
account  it  was  also  that  Bagoses,  the  general  of  -another 

*  As  to  this  whole  book  of  Estliei-  in  the  present  Hebrew  copy,  it  is 
so  very  imperfect,  in  a  case  where  the  providence  of  God  was  so  very 
remarliahle,  and  the  Se])tuaaint  and  Josephus  have  so  nnich  of  religion, 
that  it  lias  not  so  much  as  the  name  of  God  once  in  it;  and  it  is  hard 
to  say  who  made  that  epitome  which  the  Masorites  have  given  lis  for 
the  genuine  book  itself;  no  religious  Jews  could  well  be  the  authors 
of  it,  whose  education  obliged  them  to  have  a  constant  regard  to  God 
and  whatsoever  related  to  his  worship;  nor  do  we  know  that  there  ever 
was  so  imperfect  a  copy  of  it  in  the  world  till  after  the  days  of  Barcho- 
cab,  in  the  second  century. 

^  Concerning  this  other  Artaxerxes,  called  Mnemoii,  and  the  Persian 
affliction  and  captivity  of  the  Jews  under  him  occasioned  by  the  murder 
of  the  high  priest's  brother  in  the  holy  house  itself,  see  Authent.  Rec. 
at  large,  p.  W.  And  if  any  wonder  why  Josejihus  wholly  omits  the 
rest  of  the  kings  of  Persia  after  Artaxerxes  Mnenum,  till  he  came  to 
their  last  king  Darius,  who  was  conquered  by  Alexander  the  Great,  I 
shall  give  them  ^'ossius'  and  Dr.  Hudson's  answer,  though  in  my  own 
words,  viz.  That  Josephus  did  not  do  ill  in  omitting  those  kings  of  Persia 
with  whom  the  Jews  had  no  concern;  because  he  was  giving  the  history 
of  the  Jews,  and  not  of  the  Persians:  [which  is  a  sufficient  reason  also 
why  he  entirely  omits  the  history  and  the  book  of  Job,  as  not  particu- 
larly relating  to  that  nation.]  He  justly,  therefore,  returns  to  the  Jewish 
affairs  after  the  death  of  Longimanus^  without  any  mention  of  Darius 
II.  before  Artaxerxes  .Mnemon,  or  of  the  Oclius  or  Arogus,  as  the  Canon 
of  Ptolemy  names  them  after  him,     Nor  had  he  probably  mentioned  thi^ 

192  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

Artaxerxes'  army,  polluted  the  temple,  and  imposed 
tributes  on  the  Jews,  that  out  of  the  public  stock, 
before  they  offered  the  daily  sacrifices,  they  should 
pay  for  every  lamb  fifty  shekels.  Now  Jesus  was  the 
brother  of  John,  and  was  a  friend  of  Bagoses,  who 
had  promised  to  procure  him  the  high  priesthood.  In 
confidence  of  whose  support,  Jesus  quarrelled  with 
John  in  the  temple,  and  so  provoked  his  brother,  that 
in  his  anger  his  brother  slew  him.  Now  it  was  a 
horrible  thing  for  John,  when  he  was  high  priest,  to 
perpetrate  so  great  a  crime;  and  so  much  the  more 
horrible,  that  there  never  was  so  cruel  and  impious  a 
thing  done,  neither  by  the  Greeks  nor  Barbarians. 
However,  God  did  not  neglect  its  punishment,  but 
the  people  were  on  that  very  account  enslaved  and 
the  temple  was  polluted  by  the  Persians.  Now  when 
Bagoses,  the  general  of  Artaxerxes'  army,  knew  that 
John,  the  high  priest  of  the  Jews,  had  slain  his  own 
brother  Jesus  in  the  temple,  he  came  upon  the  Jews 
immediately,  and  began  in  anger  to  say  to  them, 
"Have  you  had  the  impudence  to  perpetrate  a  murder 
in  your  temple!"  And  as  he  was  aiming  to  go  into 
the  temple,  they  forbade  him  so  to  do;  but  he  said  to 
them,  "Am  not  I  purer  than  he  that  was  slain  in  the 
temple?"  And  when  he  had  said  these  words,  he 
went  into  the  temple.  Accordingly,  Bagoses  made 
use  of  this  pretence,  and  punished  the  Jews  seven 
years  for  the  murder  of  Jesus. 

2.  Now  when  John  had  departed  this  life,  his  son 
Jaddua  succeeded  in  the  high  priesthood.  He  had 
a  brother,  whose  name  was  Manasseh.  Now  there 
was  one  Scmhallat,  who  was  sent  by  Darius,  the  last 
king  [of  Persia,]  into  Samaria.     He  was  a  Cuthean 

other  Artaxerxes  unless  Bagoses,  one  of  the  governors  and  commanders 
under  him,  had  occasioned  the  pollution  of  the  Jewish  temple,  and  had 
greatly  distressed  the  Jews  upon  that  pollution. 

Chai^.  Yiii.  OF  THE  JEWS.  193 

by  birth;  of  which  stock  were  the  Samaritans  also. 
This  man  knew  that  the  city  Jerusalem  was  a  famous 
city,  and  that  their  kings  had  given  a  great  deal  of 
trouble  to  the  Assyrians,  and  the  people  of  Celesyria; 
so  that  he  willingly  gave  his  daughter,  whose  name 
was  Nicaso,  in  marriage  to  Manasseh,  as  thinking  this 
alliance  by  marriage  would  be  a  pledge  and  security 
that  the  nation  of  the  Jews  should  continue  their  good 
will  to  him. 


Concerning  SanhaUat  and  Manasseh,  and  the  temple 
which  they  huilt  on  mount  Gerizzim;  as  also  how 
Alexander  made  his  entry  into  the  city  Jerusalem; 
and  what  benefits  he  bestowed  on  the  Jews. 

1.  About  this  time  it  was  that  Philip,  king  of 
JNIacedon,  was  treacherously  assaulted  and  slain  at 
Eg«  by  Pausanias,  the  son  of  Cerastes,  who  was  de- 
rived from  the  family  of  Orests,  and  his  son  Alexander 
succeeded  him  in  the  kingdom,  who  passing  over  the 
Hellespont,  overcame  the  generals  of  Darius'  army 
in  a  battle  fought  at  Granicum.  So  he  marched  over 
Lydia,  and  subdued  Ionia,  and  overran  Caria,  and  fell 
upon  the  places  of  Pamphylia,  as  has  been  related 

2.  But  the  elders  of  Jerusalem  being  very  uneasy 
that  the  brother  of  Jaddua  the  high  priest,  though 
married  to  a  foreigner,  should  be  a  partner  with  him 
in  the  high  priesthood,  quarrelled  with  him;  for  they 
esteemed  this  man's  marriage  a  step  to  such  as  should 
be  desirous  of  transgressing  about  the  marriage  of 
[strange]  wives,  and  that  this  would  be  the  beginning 
of  a  mutual  society  with  foreigners,  although  the  of- 

194  '  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

fence  of  some  about  marriages,  and  their  having  mar- 
ried wives  that  were  not  of  their  own  country,  had 
been  an  occasion  of  their  former  captivity,  and  of 
the  miseries  they  then  underwent;  so  they  commanded 
iNIanasseh  to  divorce  his  wife,  or  not  to  approach  the 
altar,  the  high  priest  himself  joining  with  the  people 
in  their  indignation  against  his  brother,  and  driving 
him  away  from  the  altar.  Whereupon  Manasseh 
came  to  his  father-in-law,  Sanballat,  and  told  him. 
That  "although  he  loved  his  daughter  Nicaso,  yet  he 
was  not  willing  to  be  deprived  of  his  sacerdotal  dignity 
on  her  account,  which  was  the  principal  dignity  in 
their  nation,  and  always  continued  in  the  same  family." 
And  when  Sanballat  promised  him  not  only  to  preserve 
to  him  the  honour  of  his  priesthood,  but  to  procure 
for  him  the  power  and  dignity  of  a  high  priest,  and 
would  make  him  governor  of  all  the  places  he  him- 
self now  ruled,  if  he  would  keep  his  daughter  for 
his  wife.  He  also  told  him  farther,  that  he  would 
build  him  a  temple  like  to  that  at  Jerusalem,  upon 
mount  Gerizzim  which  is  the  highest  of  all  the  moun- 
tains that  are  in  Samaria,  and  he  promised  that  he 
would  do  this  with  the  approbation  of  Darius  the  king. 
jNIanasseh  was  elevated  with  these  promises,  and  stayed 
with  Sanballat,  upon  a  supposal  that  he  should  gain 
a  high  priesthood,  as  bestowed  on  him  by  Darius,  for 
it  hajDpened  that  Sanballat  was  then  in  years.  But 
there  was  now  a  great  disturbance  among  the  people 
of  Jerusalem,  because  many  of  those  priests  and 
Levites  were  entangled  in  sucli  matches;  for  they  all 
revolted  to  INIanasseh,  and  Sanballat  afforded  them 
money,  and  divided  among  them  land  for  tillage,  and 
habitations  also,  and  all  this  in  order  every  way  to 
gratify  his  son-in-law. 

3.     About  this  time  it  was  that  Darius  heard  how 
Alexander  had  passed  over  the  IIclles2)ont,  and  had 

Chap.  VIII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  19a 

beaten  his  lieutenants  in  the  battle  of  Granicum,  and 
was  proceeding  farther;  whereupon  he  gathered  to- 
gether an  army  of  horse  and  foot,  and  determined 
that  he  would  meet  the  ^Macedonians  before  they 
should  assault  and  conquer  all  Asia.  So  he  passed 
over  the  river  Euphrates,  and  came  over  Taurus,  the 
Cilician  mountain,  and  at  Issus  of  Cilicia  he  waited 
for  the  enemy,  as  ready  there  to  give  him  battle. 
Upon  which  Sanballat  was  glad  that  Darius  was 
come  down;  and  told  Manasseh  that  he  would  sud- 
denly perform  his  promises  to  him,  and  this  as  soon 
as  ever  Darius  should  come  back;  after  he  had  beaten 
his  enemies;  for  not  he  only,  but  all  those  that  were 
in  Asia  also,  were  persuaded  that  the  JNIacedonians 
would  not  so  much  as  come  to  a  battle  with  the 
Persians,  on  account  of  their  multitude.  But  the 
event  proved  otherwise  than  they  expected,  for  the 
king  joined  battle  with  the  jNIacedonians,  and  was 
beaten,  and  lost  a  great  part  of  his  army.  His  mother 
also,  and  his  wife  and  children,  were  taken  captives, 
and  he  fled  into  Persia.  So  Alexander  came  into 
Syria,  and  took  Damascus;  and  when  he  had  obtained 
Sidon,  he  besieged  Tyre,  when  he  sent  an  epistle  to 
the  Jewish  high  priest,  "To  send  him  some  auxiliaries, 
and  to  supply  his  army  w4th  provisions;  and  that  what 
presents  he  formerly  sent  to  Darius,  he  would  now 
send  to  him,  and  choose  the  friendship  of  the  JNIace- 
donians and  that  he  should  never  repent  of  so  doing." 
But  the  high  priest  answered  the  messengers,  That 
"he  had  given  his  oath  to  Darius  not  to  bear  arms 
against  him;  and  he  said,  that  he  would  not  transgress 
this  while  Darius  was  in  the  land  of  the  living." 
Upon  hearing  this  answer,  Alexander  was  very  angry; 
and  though  he  determined  not  to  leave  Tyre,  which 
was  just  ready  to  be  taken,  yet  as  soon  as  he  had 
taken  it,  he  threatened  that  he  would  make  an  expcdi- 

196  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

tion  against  the  Jewish  high  priest,  and  through  him 
teach  all  men  to  whom  they  must  keep  their  oaths. 
So  when  he  had  with  a  good  deal  of  pains,  during 
the  siege,  .taken  T\Te,  and  had  settled  its  affairs,  he 
came  to  the  city  of  Gaza,  and  besieged  both  the  city, 
and  him  who  was  governor  of  the  garrison,  whose 
name  was  Babemeses. 

4.  But  Sanballat  thought  he  had  now  gotten  a 
proper  opportunity  to  make  his  attempt,  so  he  re- 
nounced Darius,  and,  taking  with  him  seven  thousand 
of  his  own  subjects,  he  came  to  Alexander;  and  find- 
ing him  beginning  the  siege  of  Tyre,  he  said  to  him, 
that  he  delivered  up  to  him  these  men,  who  came  out 
of  places  under  his  dominion,  and  did  gladly  accept 
of  him  for  his  lord,  instead  of  Darius.  So  w^hen 
Alexander  had  received  him  kindly,  Sanballat  there- 
upon took  courage,  and  spake  to  him  about  his  present 
affair.  He  told  him.  That  "he  had  a  son-in-law, 
Manasseh,  who  was  brother  to  the  high  priest  Jaddua: 
and  that  there  were  many  others  of  his  own  nation, 
now  with  him,  that  were  desirous  to  have  a  temple 
in  the  same  places  subject  to  him:  that  it  would  be 
for  the  king's  advantage  to  have  the  strength  of  the 
Jews  divided  into  two  parts,  lest  when  the  nation  is 
of  one  mind,  and  united,  upon  any  attempt  for  in- 
novation, it  prove  troublesome  to  kings,  as  it  had 
formerly  proved  to  the  kings  of  Assyria."  Where- 
upon Alexander  gave  Sanballat  leave  so  to  do,  who 
used  the  utmost  diligence,  and  built  the  temple,  and 
made  JNIanasseh  the  priest,  and  deemed  it  a  great 
reward,  that  his  daughter's  children  should  have  that 
dignity:  but  when  tlie  seven  months  of  the  siege  of 
Tyre  were  over,  and  the  two  months  of  the  siege  of 
Gaza,  wSanballat  died.  Now  Alexander,  when  he  had 
taken  Gaza,  made  haste  to  go  up  to  Jerusalem:  and 
Jaddua  the  high  priest,  when  he  heard  that,  was  in 

Chap.  viii.  OF  THE  JEWS.  197 

an  agony,  and  under  terror,  as  not  knowing  how  he 
should  meet  the  ^lacedonians,  since  the  king  was 
displeased  at  his  foregoing  disobedience.  He  there- 
fore ordained  that  the  j^eople  should  make  supplica- 
tions, and  should  join  with  him  in  offering  sacrifice 
to  God,  whom  he  besought  to  protect  that  nation, 
and  to  deliver  them  from  the  perils  that  were  coming 
upon  them:  Whereupon  God  warned  him  in  a  dream, 
which  came  upon  hhn  after  he  had  offered  sacrifice. 
That  "he  should  take  courage,  and  adorn  the  city, 
and  open  the  gates;  that  the  rest  should  appear  in 
white  garments,  but  that  he  and  the  priests  should 
meet  the  king  in  the  habits  proper  to  their  order, 
without  the  dread  of  any  ill  consequences,  which  the 
providence  of  God  would  prevent."  Upon  which, 
when  he  rose  from  his  sleep,  he  greatly  rejoiced;  and 
declared  to  all  the  warning  he  had  received  from  God. 
According  to  which  dream  he  acted  entirely,  and  so 
waited  for  the  coming  of  the  king. 

5.  And  when  he  understood  that  he  was  not  far 
from  the  city,  he  went  out  in  j^i'ocession,  with  the 
priests  and  the  multitude  of  the  citizens.  The  pro- 
cession was  venerable,  and  the  manner  of  it  different 
from  that  of  other  nations.  It  reached  to  a  place 
called  Sapha,  which  name  translated  into  Greek, 
signifies  a  prospect,  for  you  have  thence  a  prospect 
both  of  Jerusalem  and  of  the  temple;  and  when  the 
Phenicians  and  the  Chaldeans  that  followed  him, 
thought  they  should  have  liberty  to  j^lunder  the  city, 
and  torment  tlie  high  priest  to  death,  which  the  king's 
displeasure  fairly  promised  them,  the  very  reverse  of 
it  happened;  for  Alexander,  when  he  saw  the  nmlti- 
tude  at  a  distance,  in  white  garments,  while  the  priest 
stood  clothed  with  fine  linen,  and  the  high  priest  in 
purple  and  scarlet  clothing,  with  his  mitre  on  his  head, 
having  the  golden  plate  whereon  the  name  of  God  was 

198  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

engraved,  he  approached  hy  himself,  and  adored 
that  name,  and  first  saluted  the  high  priest.  The 
Jews  also  did  altogether,  with  one  voice,  salute  Alex- 
ander, and  encompass  him  about:  Whereupon  the 
king  of  Syria,  and  the  rest,  were  surprised  at  what 
Alexander  had  done,  and  supposed  him  disordered  in 
his  mind.  However,  Parmenio  alone  went  up  to 
him,  and  asked  him,  "How  it  came  to  pass,  that  when 
all  others  adored  him,  he  should  adore  the  high  priest 
of  the  Jews?"  To  whom  he  replied,  "I  did  not  adore 
him,  but  that  God  who  hath  honoured  him  with  his 
high  priesthood;  for  I  saw  this  very  person  in  a 
dream,  in  this  very  habit,  when  I  was  at  Dios  in 
JNIacedonia,  who,  when  I  was  considering  with  my- 
self how  I  might  obtain  the  dominion  of  Asia,  ex- 
horted me  to  make  no  delay,  but  boldly  to  pass  over 
the  sea  thither,  for  that  he  would  conduct  my  army, 
and  would  give  me  the  dominion  over  the  Persians; 
whence  it  is,  that  having  seen  no  other  in  that  habit, 
and  now  seeing  this  person  in  it,  and  remembering 
that  vision,  and  the  exhortation  which  I  had  in  my 
dream,  I  believe  that  I  bring  this  army  under  the 
divine  conduct,  and  shall  therewith  conquer  Darius, 
and  destroy  the  power  of  the  Persians,  and  that  all 
things  will  succeed  according  to  what  is  in  my  own 
mind."  And  when  he  had  said  this  to  Parmenio, 
and  had  given  the  high  priest  his  right  hand,  the 
priests  ran  along  by  him,  and  he  came  into  the  city. 
And  when  he  went  up  into  the  temple,  he  offered 
sacrifice  to  Cxod,  according  to  the  high  priest's  direc- 
tion; and  magnificently  treated  both  the  high  priest 
and  the  priests.  And  when  the  ^  book  of  Daniel  was 
showed  him,  wherein  Daniel  declared  that  one  of  the 

^  'I'hc  ()l;icp  sliowcd  .\lcx;in<l<T,  mifrlit  he  Dmii.  vii.  .'i-H,  JO,  2\,  -2,  xi. 
'.i,  some  or  all  of  them  very  plain  predictions  of  Alexander's  conquests 
and   successors. 

Chap.  VIII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  199 

Greeks  should  destroy  the  empire  of  tlie  Persians, 
he  supposed  that  himself  was  the  person  intended: 
And  as  he  was  then  glad,  he  dismissed  the  multitude 
for  the  present,  but  the  next  daj^  he  called  them  to 
him,  and  bid  them  ask  what  favours  they  pleased  of 
him;  whereupon  the  high  priest  desired  that  they 
might  enjoy  the  laws  of  their  forefathers,  and  might 
pay  no  tribute  on  the  seventh  year.  He  granted  all 
they  desired.  And  when  they  entreated  him  that  he 
would  permit  the  Jews  in  Babylon  and  Media  to 
enjoy  their  own  laws  also,  he  willingly  promised  to 
do  hereafter  what  they  desired.  And  when  he  said 
to  the  multitude,  that  if  any  of  them  would  list  them- 
selves in  his  army,  on  this  condition  that  they  should 
continue  under  the  laws  of  their  forefathers,  and  live 
according  to  them,  he  was  willing  to  take  them  w^ith 
him,  many  were  ready  to  accompany  him  in  his  wars. 
6.  So  when  Alexander  had  thus  settled  matters 
at  Jerusalem,  he  led  his  army  into  the  neighbouring 
cities;  and  when  all  the  inhabitants,  to  whom  he  came, 
received  him  with  great  kindness,  the  Samaritans, 
wdio  had  then  Shechem  for  their  metropolis  (a  city 
situate  at  mount  Gerizzim,  and  inliabited  by  apostates 
of  the  Jewish  nation,)  seeing  that  Alexander  had  so 
greatly  honoured  the  Jews,  determined  to  profess 
themselves  Jews,  for  such  is  the  disposition  of  the 
Samaritans,  as  we  have  already  elsewhere  declared, 
that  when  the  Jews  are  in  adversity  they  deny  that 
they  are  of  kin  to  them,  and  then  they  confess  the 
truth;  but  when  they  perceive  that  some  good  fortune 
hath  befallen  them,  they  immediately  pretend  to  have 
communion  with  them,  saying,  that  they  belong  to 
them,  and  derive  their  genealogy  from  the  posterity 
of  Joseph,  Ephraim,  and  Manasseh.  Accordingly, 
they  made  their  address  to  the  king  with  splendour, 
and  showed  great  alacrity  in  meeting  him  at  a  little 

200  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xi. 

distance  from  Jerusalem.  And  when  Alexander  had 
commanded  them,  the  Shechemites  approached  to  him, 
taking  with  them  the  troops  that  Sanballat  had  sent 
him,  and  they  desired  that  he  would  come  to  their 
city,  and  do  honour  to  their  temple  also.  To  whom 
he  promised,  that  when  he  returned  he  would  come 
to  them.  And  when  they  petitioned  that  he  would 
remit  the  tribute  of  the  seventh  year  to  them,  because 
they  did  not  sow  thereon,  he  asked  who  they  were 
that  made  such  a  petition,  and  when  they  said  that 
they  were  Hebrews,  but  had  the  name  of  Sidonians, 
living  at  Shechem;  he  asked  them  again,  whether 
they  were  Jews,  and  when  they  said  they  were  not 
Jews,  "It  was  to  the  Jews,  said  he,  that  I  granted 
that  privilege;  however,  when  I  return,  and  am 
thoroughly  informed  by  you  of  this  matter,  .1  will  do 
what  I  shall  think  proper."  And  in  this  manner  he 
took  leave  of  the  Shechemites;  but  ordered  that  the 
troops  of  Sanballat  should  follow  him  into  Egypt, 
because  there  he  designed  to  give  them  lands,  which 
he  did  a  little  after  in  Thebais,  when  he  ordered  them 
to  guard  that  country. 

7.  Xow  when  Alexander  was  dead,  the  govern- 
ment was  parted  among  his  successors,  but  the  temple 
upon  mount  Gerizzim  remained.  And  if  any  one 
were  accused  by  those  of  Jerusalem,  of  having  eaten 
things  common,  or  of  having  broken  the  Sabbath, 
or  of  any  other  crime  of  the  like  nature,  he  fled  away 
to  the  Shechemites,  and  said  that  he  was  accused 
unjustly.  About  this  time  it  was  that  Jaddua  the 
high  priest  died;  and  Onias  his  son  took  the  high 
priesthood.  This  was  the  state  of  the  affairs  of  the 
people  of  Jerusalem  at  this  time. 






How  Ptolemy,  the  son  of  Lagus,  took  Jerusalem  and 
Judea  by  deceit  and  treachery,  and  carried  many 
of  the  Jews  thence,  and  planted  them  in  Egypt. 

1.  Xow  when  Alexander,  king  of  ]\Iacedon,  had 
put  an  end  to  the  dominion  of  the  Persians,  and  had 
settled  the  affairs  in  Judea  after  the  forementioned 
manner,  he  ended  his  life.  And  as  his  government 
fell  among  many,  Antigonus  obtained  Asia;  Seleucus, 
Babylon;  and  of  the  otlier  nations  which  were  there, 
Lysimachus  governed  the  Hellespont,  and  Cassander 
possessed  ^Macedonia;  as  did  Ptolemy,  the  son  of 
Lagus,  seize  upon  Egypt.  And  while  these  princes 
ambitiously  strove  one  against  another,  every  one 
for  his  own  principality,  it  came  to  pass  that  there 
were  continual  wars,  and  tliose  lasting  wars  too;  and 
the  cities  were  sufferers,  and  lost  a  great  many  of 
their  inhabitants  in  these  times  of  distress,  insomuch 
that  all  Syria,  by  the  means  of  Ptolemy,  the  son  of 


202  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

Lagus,  underwent  the  reverse  of  that  denomination 
of  Saviour,  which  he  then  had.  He  also  seized  upon 
Jerusalem,  and  for  that  end  made  use  of  deceit  and 
treachery:  for  as  he  came  into  the  city  on  a  Sabbath- 
day,  as  if  he  would  offer  sacrifices,  he  without  any 
trouble,  gained  the  city  while  the  Jews  did  not  oppose 
him,  for  they  did  not  suspect  him  to  be  their  enemy; 
and  he  gained  it  thus,  because  they  were  free  from 
suspicion  of  him,  and  because  on  that  day  they  were 
at  rest  and  quietness;  and  when  he  had  gained  it, 
he  ruled  over  it  in  a  cruel  manner.  Xay,  Agathar- 
chides  of  Cnidus,  who  wrote  the  acts  of  Alexander's 
successors,  reproaches  us  with  superstition,  as  if  we, 
by  it,  had  lost  our  liberty;  where  he  says  thus;  "There 
is  a  nation  called  the  nation  of  the  Jcics,  who  inhabit 
a  city  strong  and  great,  named  Jerusalem.  These 
men  took  no  care,  but  let  it  come  into  the  hands  of 
Ptolemy,  as  not  willing  to  take  arms,  and  thereby 
they  submitted  to  be  under  a  hard  master,  by  rea- 
son of  their  unseasonable  superstition."  This  is 
what  Agathai'chides  relates  of  our  nation.  But  when 
Ptolemy  had  taken  a  great  many  captives,  both  from 
the  mountainous  parts  of  Judea,  and  from  the  places 
about  Jerusalem  and  Samaria,  and  the  places  near 
mount   Gerizzim,   he  led   them   all   into   ^  Egypt,   and 

*  The  great  number  of  the  Jews  and  Samaritans  that  were  formerly 
carried  into  Eg>'pt  by  Alexander,  and  now  by  Ptolemy  the  son  of 
Lagus,  appear  afterwards  in  the  vast  multitude,  who,  as  we  shall  see 
presently,  were  soon  ransomed  by  Philadcliihus,  and  by  him  made  free, 
before  he  sent  for  the  seventy-two  interi)reters:  in  the  many  garrisons, 
and  other  soldiers  of  that  nation  in  Egypt;  in  the  famous  settlement 
of  Jews,  and  the  number  of  their  synagogues  at  Alexandria,  long  after- 
ward; and  in  the  vehement  contention  Iietween  the  Jews  and  Samaritans 
under  Philometer,  about  the  place  a^ipointed  for  public  worship  in  the 
law  of  Moses:  whether  at  the  Jewish  temple  at  Jerusalem,  or  at  the 
Samaritans'  temple  at  Gerizzim:  of  all  which  our  author  treats  hereafter. 
And  as  to  the  Samaritans  carried  into  Egyyit  under  the  same  princes, 
Scaliger  supposes,  tliat  tliese  wlio  have  a  great  synagogue  at  Cairo,  as 
also  those  whom  the  Araliic  geogra])hcr  sjieaks  of,  as  having  seized  on 
an  island  in  the  Red  Sea,  are  remains  of  thera  at  this  very  day,  as  the 
notes  here  inform  us. 

Chap.  II.  OF  THE  JEWS.  203 

settled  them  there.  And  as  he  knew  that  the  people 
of  Jerusalem  were  ^  most  faithful  in  the  observation 
of  oaths  and  eovenants;  and  this  from  the  answer 
thej"  made  to  Alexander,  when  he  sent  an  ambassage 
to  them,  after  he  had  beaten  Darius  in  battle;  so  he 
distributed  many  of  them  into  garrisons,  and  at  Alex- 
andria gave  them  equal  privileges  of  citizens  with  the 
JNIacedonians  themselves;  and  required  of  them  to 
take  their  oaths,  that  they  would  keep  their  fidelity 
to  the  posterity  of  those  who  committed  these  places 
to  their  care.  Xay,  there  were  not  a  few  other  Jews, 
who,  of  their  own  accord,  went  into  Egypt,  as  invited 
by  the  goodness  of  the  soil,  and  by  the  liberality  of 
Ptolemy  I.  However,  there  were  disorders  among  their 
posterity,  with  relation  to  the  Samaritans,  on  account 
of  their  resolution  to  preserve  that  conduct  of  life 
which  was  delivered  to  them  by  their  forefathers,  and 
they  thereupon  contended  one  with  another;  while 
those  of  Jerusalem  said,  that  their  temple  was  holy, 
and  resolved  to  send  their  sacrifices  thither;  hut  the 
Samaritans  were  resolved  that  they  should  be  sent  to 
mount  Gerizzim. 


Hotv  Ptolemi/  Ph'iJadclplius  procured  the  laws  of  the 
Jeics  to  be  translated  into  the  Greek  tongue;  and 
set  many  captives  free;  and  dedicated  many  gifts 
to  God. 

1.     When    Alexander    had    reigned    twelve    years, 
and  after  him  Ptolemy  Soter  forty  years,  Pliiladelphus 

'  Of  the   sacredness   of   oaths    anion-   the   Jews    in    the   Old   Testament, 
see  Scripture  Politics,  pp.  5i,  Ct3. 

204  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

then  took  the  kingdom  of  Egypt,  and  held  it  forty 
years  within  one.  He  procured  the  ^  law  to  he  inter- 
preted; and  set  free  those  that  were  come  from  Jeru- 
salem into  Egypt,  and  were  in  slavery  there,  who 
were  an  hundred  and  twenty  thousand.  The  occa- 
sion was  this:  Demetrius  Phalerius,  who  was  lihrary 
keeper  to  the  king,  was  now  endeavouring,  if  it  were 
possible,  to  gather  together  all  the  books  that  were 
in  the  habitable  earth,  and  buying  whatsoever  was 
any  where  valuable,  or  agreeable  to  the  king's  inclina- 
tion, (who  was  very  earnestly  set  upon  collecting  of 
books;)  to  which  inclination  of  his  Demetrius  was 
zealously  subservient.  And  when  once  Ptolemy  asked 
him,  How  many  ten  thousands  of  books  he  had  col- 
lected? he  replied.  That  he  had  already  about  twenty 
times  ten  thousand,  but  that,  in  a  little  time,  he  should 
have  fifty  times  ten  thousand.  But  he  said,  he  had 
been  informed  that  there  were  many  books  of  laws 
among  the  Jews,  worthy  of  inquiring  after,  and 
worthy  of  the  king's  library,  but  which  being  written 
in  characters  and  in  a  dialect  of  their  own,  will  cause 
no  small  pains  in  getting  them  translated  into  the 
Greek  tongue;  that  the  character  in  which  they  are 
written  seems  to  be  like  to  that  which  is  the  proper 
character  of  the  Syrians,  and  that  its  sound,  when 
pronounced,  is  like  theirs  also;  and  that  this  sound 
appears  to  be  peculiar  to  themselves.  Wherefore  he 
said,  that  nothing  hindered,  why  they  might  not  get 
those  books  to  be  translated  also,  for  while  nothing 
is  wanting  that  is  necessary  for  that  purpose,  we  may 
have   their   books   also   in   tliis   library.     So   the   king 

'  Of  the  translation  of  the  other  parts  of  the  Old  Testament  by 
seventy  Egyjitian  Jews,  in  tlie  reijrn  of  Ptolemy  the  son  of  lyagus,  and 
Philadclplnis;  as  also  of  the  translation  of  the  Pentateuch  by  seventy-two 
Jernsaiem  Jews,  in  the  seventh  year  of  Philadelphus  at  Alexandria,  as 
given  us  an  aeeount  of  hy  Aristeus,  and  thence  by  Philo  and  Josephus, 
with  a  vindication  of  Aristeus'  history,  see  the  Apj)endix  to  Lit.  Accomp. 
of  Pro])h.   at   larfTc,   j)]).    117-152. 

Chap.  II.  OF  THE  JEWS.  205 

thought  that  Demetrius  was  very  zealous  to  procure 
him  abundance  of  books,  and  that  he  suggested  what 
was  exceeding  proper  for  him  to  do;  and  therefore 
he  wrote  to  the  Jewish  high  priest,  that  he  should  act 

2.  Now  there  was  one  Aristeus,  who  was  among 
the  king's  most  intimate  friends,  and  on  account 
of  his  modesty  very  acceptable  to  him.  This  Aris- 
teus resolved  frequently,  and  that  before  now,  to 
petition  the  king,  that  he  would  set  all  the  captive 
Jews  in  his  kingdom  free;  and  he  thought  this  to 
be  a  convenient  opportunity^  for  the  making  that 
petition.  So  he  discoursed,  in  the  first  place,  with 
the  captains  of  the  king's  guards,  Sosibius  of  Taren- 
tum,  and  Andreas;  and  ^^ersuaded  them  to  assist 
him  in  what  he  was  going  to  intercede  with  the 
king  for:  Accordingly  Aristeus  embraced  the  same 
opinion  with  those  that  have  been  before  mentioned; 
and  went  to  the  king,  and  made  the  following  speech 
to  him:  "It  is  not  fit  for  us,  O  king,  to  overlook 
things  hastily,  or  to  deceive  ourselves,  but  to  lay 
the  truth  open;  For  since  we  have  determined  not 
only  to  get  the  laws  of  the  Jews  transcribed,  but 
interpreted  also,  for  thy  satisfaction,  by  wliat  means 
can  we  do  this,  while  so  many  of  the  Jews  are  now 
slaves  in  thy  kingdom?  Do  thou  then  what  will  be 
agreeable  to  thy  magnanimity,  and  to  thy  good 
nature;  free  them  from  the  miserable  condition  they 
are  in,  because  that  God,  who  supporteth  thy  king- 
dom, was  the  author  of  their  laws,  as  I  have  learned 
by  particular  inquiry;  for  both  these  people,  and 
we  also,  worship  the  same  God,  the  framer  of  all 
things.  We  call  him,  and  that  truly,  })y  the  name 
of  Zrjva^  [or  life,  or  Jupiter,]  because  he  breathes  life 
into  all  men.  Wherefore  do  thou  restore  tliese  men 
to  their  own  country  and  this   do   to   the  honour   of 

206  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

God,  because  these  men  pay  a  peculiarly  excellent 
worship  to  him.  And  know  this  farther,  that  though 
I  be  not  of  kin  to  them  by  birth,  nor  one  of  the 
same  country  with  them,  yet  do  I  desire  these  favours 
to  be  done  them,  since  all  men  are  tlie  workmanship 
of  God;  and  I  am  sensible  that  he  is  well  pleased 
with  those  that  do  good.  I  do  therefore  put  up 
this  petition  to  thee,  to  do  good  to  them." 

3.  When  Aristeus  was  saying  thus,  the  king  looked 
upon  him  *with  a  cheerful  and  joyful  countenance, 
and  said,  ''How  many  ten  thousands  dost  thou  sup- 
pose there  are  of  such  as  want  to  be  made  free?" 
To  which  Andreas  replied,  as  he  stood  by,  and  said, 
"A  few  more  than  ten  times  ten  thousand."  The 
king  made  answer,  "And  is  this  a  small  gift  that 
thou  askest,  Aristeus?"  But  Sosibius,  and  the  rest 
that  stood  by,  said.  That  "he  ought  to  offer  such  a 
thank-offering,  as  was  worthy  of  his  greatness  of 
soul,  to  that  God  who  had  given  him  his  kingdom." 
With  this  answer  he  was  much  pleased;  and  gave 
order,  that  when  they  paid  the  soldiers  their  wages, 
they  should  lay  down  [a  ^  hundred  and]  twenty 
drachmae  for  every  one  of  the  slaves.  And  he  prom- 
ised to  publish  a  magnificent  decree,  about  what  they 
requested,  which  should  confirm  what  Aristeus  had 
proposed,  and  especially  what  God  willed  should  be 
done;  whereby  he  said,  he  would  not   only  set  those 

'  Although  this  number  130  drachmae  (of  Alexandria,  or  60  Jewish 
shekels)  be  here  three  times  rejieated,  and  tliat  in  all  Jose])hus'  copies, 
Greek  and  Latin,  yet  since  all  the  copies  of  Aristeus,  whence  Josephus 
took  his  relation,  have  this  sinn  several  times,  and  still  as  no  more  than 
20  drachmae,  or  10  Jewish  shekels;  and  since  the  sum  of  the  talents,  to 
be  set  down  presently,  which  is  little  above  4G0,  for  somewhat  more 
than  100,000  slaves,  and  is  nearly  the  same  in  Josephus  and  Aristeus, 
does  better  agree  to  30  than  to  130  draciimae:  and  since  the  value  of  a 
slave  of  old  was,  at  the  utmost  l)iit  SO  shekels,  or  fiO  drachmae,  see  Exod. 
xxi.  32,  while  in  the  present  circumstances  of  these  Jewish  slaves,  and 
those  so  very  numerous,  Phiiadelplius  would  rather  redeem  them  at  a 
cheaper,  than  at  a  dearer  rate,  tliere  is  great  reason  to  prefer  here 
Aristeus'   copies    Ijcfore   Joscj)luis, 

Chap.  11.  OF  THE  JEWS.  207 

free  who  had  been  led  away  captive  by  his  father, 
and  his  army,  but  those  who  were  in  this  kingdom 
before,  and  those  also,  if  any  such  there  were,  who 
had  been  brought  away  since.  And  when  they  said 
that  their  redemption  money  would  amount  to  above 
four  hundred  talents,  he  granted  it.  A  copy  of 
which  decree  I  have  determined  to  preserve,  that  the 
magnanimity  of  this  king  may  be  made  known.  Its 
contents  were  as  follows:  "Let  all  those  who  were 
soldiers  under  our  father,  and  who,  when  they  over- 
ran Syria  and  Phenicia,  and  laid  waste  Judea,  took 
the  Jews  captives,  and  made  them  slaves,  and  brought 
them  into  our  cities,  and  into  this  country,  and  then 
sold  them;  as  also  all  those  that  were  in  my  king- 
dom before  them,  and  if  there  be  any  that  have  been 
lately  brought  thither,  be  made  free  by  those  that 
possess  them;  and  let  them  accept  of  [an  hundred 
and]  twenty  drachmae  for  every  slave.  And  let  the 
soldiers  receive  this  redemption  money  with  their 
pay,  but  the  rest  out  of  the  king's  treasury:  for  I 
suppose  that  they  were  made  captives  without  our 
father's  consent,  and  against  equity;  and  that  their 
country  was  harassed  by  the  insolence  of  the  soldiers, 
and  that,  by  removing  them  into  Egypt,  the  soldiers 
have  made  a  great  profit  by  them.  Out  of  regard 
therefore  to  justice,  and  out  of  pity  to  those  that 
have  been  tyrannized  over,  contrary  to  equity,  I 
enjoin  those  that  have  such  Jews  in  their  service  to 
set  them  at  liberty,  upon  the  receipt  of  the  before- 
mentioned  sum;  and  that  no  one  use  any  deceit  about 
them,  but  obey  what  is  here  commanded.  And  I 
will,  that  they  give  in  their  names  within  three  days, 
after  the  publication  of  this  edict,  to  such  as  are 
appointed  to  execute  the  same,  and  to  produce  the 
slaves  before  them  also,  for  I  think  it  will  be  for 
the  advantage  of  my  affairs:  And  let  every  one  that 

208  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

will,  inform  against  those  that  do  not  obey  this  de- 
cree: and  I  will  that  their  estates  be  confiscated  into 
the  king's  treasury."  When  this  decree  was  read 
to  the  king,  it  at  first  contained  the  rest  that  is  here 
inserted,  and  omitted  only  those  Jews  that  had  for- 
merly been  brought,  and  those  brought  afterwards, 
which  had  not  been  distinctly  mentioned,  so  he  added 
these  clauses  out  of  his  humanity,  and  with  great 
generosity.  He  also  gave  order,  that  the  payment, 
wiiich  was  likely  to  be  done  in  a  hurry,  should  be 
divided  among  the  king's  ministers,  and  among  the 
officers  of  his  treasury.  When  this  was  over,  what 
the  king  had  decreed  was  quickly  brought  to  a  con- 
clusion; and  this  in  no  more  than  seven  days'  time, 
the  number  of  the  talents  paid  for  the  captives  being 
above  four  hundred  and  sixty,  and  this,  because  their 
masters  required  the  [hundred  and]  twenty  drachmae 
for  the  children  also,  the  king  having,  in  effect,  com- 
manded, that  these  should  be  paid  for,  when  he  said 
in  his  decree,  that  they  should  receive  the  foremen- 
tioned  sum  for  every  slave. 

4.  Now  when  this  had  been  done  after  so  mag- 
nificent a  manner,  according  to  the  king's  inclinations, 
he  gave  order  to  Demetrius  to  give  him  in  writing 
his  sentiments  concerning  the  transcribing  of  the 
Jewish  books,  for  no  part  of  the  administration  is 
done  rashly  by  these  kings,  but  all  things  are  man- 
aged with  great  circumspection.  On  which  account 
I  have  subjoined  a  copy  of  these  epistles,  and  set 
down  the  multitude  of  the  vessels  sent  as  gifts  [to 
Jerusalem]  and  the  construction  of  every  one,  that 
the  exactness  of  tlie  artificer's  workmanship,  as  it 
appeared  to  those  that  saw  them,  and  which  work- 
man made  every  vessel,  may  be  made  manifest,  and 
this  on  account  of  the  excellency  of  the  vessels  them- 
selves.    Now    the    copy    of    the    epistle    w^as    to    this 

Chap.  II.  OF  THE  JEWS.  209 

purpose;  "Demetrius  to  the  great  king:  When  thou, 
O  king,  gavest  me  a  charge  concerning  the  collection 
of  books  that  were  wanting  to  fill  your  library,  and 
concerning  the  care  that  ought  to  be  taken  about 
■*  such  as  are  imperfect,  I  have  used  the  utmost  dili- 
gence about  those  matters.  And  I  let  you  know, 
that  we  want  the  books  of  the  Jewish  legislation, 
with  some  others;  for  they  are  written  in  the  Hebrew 
characters,  and  being  in  the  language  of  that  na- 
tiorf,  are  to  us  unknown.  It  hath  also  happened  to 
them,  that  they  have  been  transcribed  more  care- 
lessly than  they  ought  to  have  been,  because  they 
have  not  had  hitherto  royal  care  taken  about  them. 
Now  it  is  necessary  that  thou  shouldest  have  accurate 
copies  of  them.  And  indeed  this  legislation  is  full 
of  hidden  wisdom,  and  entirely  blameless,  as  being 
the  legislation  of  God:  For  which  cause  it  is,  as 
Hecateus  of  Abdera  says,  that  the  poets  and  his- 
torians make  no  mention  of  it,  nor  of  those  men 
who  lead  their  lives  according  to  it,  since  it  is  a 
holy  law,  and  ought  not  to  be  published  by  profane 
mouths.  If  then  it  please  thee,  O  king,  thou  mayest 
write  to  the  high  priest  of  the  Jews,  to  send  six  of 
the  elders  out  of  every  tribe,  and  those  such  as  are 
most  skilful  of  the  laws,  that  by  their  means  we 
may  learn  the  clear  and  agreeing  sense  of  these 
books;  and  may  obtain  an  accurate  interpretation 
of  their  contents,  and  so  may  have  such  a  collection 
of  these  as  may  be  suitable  to  thy  desire." 

5.  When  this  epistle  was  sent  to  the  king,  he 
commanded  that  an  epistle  should  be  drawn  up 
for  Eleazar,  the  Jewish  high  priest,  concerning  these 
matters;  and  that  they  should  inform  him  of  the 
release  of  the  Jews  that  had  been  in  slavery  among 
them.  He  also  sent  fifty  talents  of  gold  for  the 
making  of  large  basons,  and  vials,  and  cups,  and  an 

210  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

immense  quantity  of  precious  stones.  He  also  gave 
orders  to  those  v.ho  Jiad  the  custody  of  the  chest 
that  contained  these  stones,  to  give  the  artificers 
leave  to  choose  out  what  sorts  of  them  they  pleased. 
He  withal  appointed,  that  a  hundred  talents  in  money  * 
should  be  sent  to  the  temple,  for  sacrifices,  and  for 
other  uses.  Now  I  will  give  a  description  of  these 
vessels,  and  the  manner  of  their  construction,  but 
not  till  after  I  have  set  down  a  copy  of  the  epistle 
which  was  written  to  Eleazar  the  high  priest,  ^ho 
had  obtained  that  dignity  on  the  occasion  following: 
when  Onias  the  high  priest  was  dead,  his  son  Simon 
became  his  successor.  He  was  called  '  Simon  the 
Just,  because  of  both  his  piety  towards  God,  and 
his  kind  disposition  to  those  of  his  own  nation.  When 
he  was  dead,  and  had  left  a  young  son,  who  was 
called  Onias,  Simon's  brother  Eleazar,  of  whom 
we  are  speaking,  took  the  high  priesthood;  and  he 
it  was  to  whom  Ptolemy  wrote,  and  that  in  the 
manner  following:  "King  Ptolemy  to  Eleazar  the 
high  priest,  sendeth  greeting:  There  are  many  Jews 
who  now  dwell  in  my  kingdom,  whom  the  Persians, 
when  they  were  in  power,  carried  captives.  These 
were  honoured  by  my  father;  some  of  them  he  placed 
in  the  army,  and  gave  them  greater  pay  than  ordi- 
nary: to  others  of  them,  when  they  came  with  him 
into  Egypt,  he  committed  his  garrisons,  and  the 
guarding  of  them,  that  they  might  be  a  terror  to  the 
Egyptians.  And  when  I  had  taken  the  govern- 
ment, I  treated  all  men  with  humanity,  and  especially 
those  that  are  thy  fellow  *  citizens,  of  whom  I  have 
set  free  above  a  hundred  thousand  tliat  were  slaves, 
and  paid  the  price  of  their  redemption  to  their  mas- 

■*  We  have  a  very  great  encomium  of  this  Simon  the  Jiixf.  the  son  of 
Onias  I.,  in  the  fiftieth  (•lia))ter  of  the  Ecclesiasticiis,  through  the  whole 
chapter.  Nor  is  it  inijiroper  to  consult  that  chapter  itself  upon  this 

Chap.  II.  OF  THE  JEWS.  211 

ters  out  of  my  own  revenues;  and  those  that  are 
of  a  fit  age,  I  have  admitted  into  the  number  of 
my  soldiers.  And  for  such  as  are  capable  of  being 
faithful  to  me,  and  proper  for  my  court,  I  have  put 
them  in  such  a  post,  as  thinking  this  [kindness  done 
to  them]  to  be  a  very  great  and  an  acceptable  gift, 
which  I  devote  to  God  for  his  providence  over  me. 
And  as  I  am  desirous  to  do  what  will  be  grateful 
to  these,  and  to  all  the  other  Jews  in  the  habitable 
earth,  I  have  determined  to  procure  an  interpretation 
of  your  law,  and  to  have  it  translated  out  of  Hebrew 
into  Greek,  and  to  be  reposited  in  my  library.  Thou 
wilt  therefore  do  well  to  choose  out  and  send  to 
me  men  of  a  good  character,  who  are  now  elders  in 
age,  and  six  in  number  out  of  every  tribe.  These, 
by  their  age,  must  be  skilful  in  the  laws,  and  of 
abilities  to  make  an  accurate  interpretation  of  them: 
and  when  this  shall  be  finished,  I  shall  think  that  I 
have  done  a  work  glorious  to  myself.  And  I  have 
sent  to  thee  Andreas,  the  caj)tain  of  my  guard,  and 
Aristeus,  men  whom  I  have  in  very  great  esteem; 
by  whom  I  have  sent  those  first  fruits  which  I  have 
dedicated  to  the  temple,  and  to  the  sacrifices,  and  to 
other  uses,  to  the  value  of  a  hundred  talents.  And 
if  thou  wilt  send  to  us,  to  let  us  know  what  thou 
wouldest  have  farther,  thou  wilt  do  a  thing  acceptable 
to  me." 

6.  When  this  epistle  of  the  king's  was  brought 
to  Eleazar,  he  wrote  an  answer  to  it  with  all  the 
respect  possible:  "Eleazar  the  high  priest,  to  king 
Ptolemy,  sendeth  greeting:  If  thou  and  thy  ^  queen 

'  When  we  have  here  and  presently  mention  made  of  Philadelphus' 
queen,  and  sister  Arsinoe,  we  are  to  remember,  witli  Spanheim,  that 
Arsinoc  was  hotli  his  sister  and  his  wife,  accordlnfj  to  tlic  ohl  custom 
of  Persia,  and  of  Egypt  at  this  very  time;  nay,  of  tlic  Assyrians  long 
afterward.  Sec  Antic].  B.  XX.  ch.  ii.  sect.  1,  ^V)1.  III.  Wlicncc  we  liavc, 
upon  the  coins  of  Philndelphus,  this  known  inscription,  the  divine  brother 
and  sister. 

212  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

Arsinoe,  and  thy  children,  be  well,  we  are  entirely 
satisfied.  When  we  received  thy  epistle,  we  greatly 
rejoiced  at  thy  intentions:  And  when  the  multitude 
were  gathered  together,  we  read  it  to  them,  and 
thereby  made  them  sensible  of  the  piety  thou  hast 
towards  God.  We  also  showed  them  the  twenty 
vials  of  gold,  and  thirty  of  silver,  and  the  five  large 
basons,  and  the  table  for  the  show-bread;  as  also  the 
hundred  talents  for  the  sacrifices,  and  for  the  making 
what  shall  be  needful  at  the  temple.  Which  things 
Andreas  and  Aristeus,  those  most  honoured  friends 
of  thine,  have  brought  us:  and  truly  they  are  persons 
of  an  excellent  character,  and  of  great  learning,  and 
worthy  of  thy  virtue.  Know  then,  that  we  will 
gratify  thee  in  what  is  for  thy  advantage,  though 
we  do  what  we  used  not  to  do  before,  for  we  ought 
to  make  a  return  for  the  numerous  acts  of  kindness 
which  thou  hast  done  to  our  countrymen.  We  im- 
mediately, therefore,  offered  sacrifices  for  thee  and 
thy  sister,  with  thy  children,  and  friends;  and  the 
multitude  made  prayers,  that  thy  affairs  may  be 
to  thy  mind,  and  that  thy  kingdom  may  be  preserved 
in  peace,  and  that  the  translation  of  our  law  may 
come  to  the  conclusion  thou  desirest,  and  be  for 
thy  advantage.  We  have  also  chosen  six  elders  out 
of  every  tribe,  whom  we  have  sent,  and  the  law  with 
them.  It  will  be  thy  part,  out  of  thy  piety  and 
justice,  to  send  back  the  law,  when  it  hath  been 
translated;  and  to  return  those  to  us  that  bring  it 
in  safety.     Farewell." 

7.  This  was  the  reply  which  the  high  priest  made. 
But  it  does  not  seem  to  me  to  be  necessary  to  set 
down  the  names  of  the  seventy  [two]  elders  who 
were  sent  by  Eleazar,  and  carried  the  law,  which 
yet  were  subjoined  at  the  end  of  the  epistle.  How- 
ever, I  thought  it  not  improper  to  give  an  account  of 

Chap.  II.  OF  THE  JEWS.  213 

those  very  valuable  and  artificially  contrived  vessels 
which  the  king  sent  to  God,  that  all  may  see  how 
great  a  regard  the  king  had  for  God;  for  the  king 
allowed  a  vast  deal  of  expenses  for  these  vessels: 
and  came  often  to  the  workmen,  and  viewed  their 
works,  and  suffered  nothing  of  carelessness  or  negli- 
gence to  be  any  damage  to  their  operations.  And 
I  will  relate  how  rich  they  were  as  well  as  I  am 
able,  although  perhaps  the  nature  of  this  history 
may  not  require  such  a  description,  but  I  imagine 
I  shall  thereby  recommend  the  elegant  taste  and 
magnanimity  of  this  king  to  those  that  read  this 

8.  And  first  I  will  describe  what  belongs  to  the 
table.  It  was  indeed  in  the  king's  mind  to  make 
this  table  vastly  large  in  its  dimensions;  but  then 
he  gave  orders  that  they  should  learn  what  was  the 
magnitude  of  the  table  which  was  already  at  Jeru- 
salem, and  how  large  it  was,  and  whether  there  were 
a  possibility  of  making  one  larger  than  it.  And 
when  he  was  informed  how  large  that  was  which  was 
already  there,  and  that  nothing  hindered  but  a 
larger  might  l)e  made,  he  said.  That  "he  was  willing 
to  have  one  made  that  should  be  five  times  as  large 
as  the  present  table,  Init  his  fear  was,  that  it  might 
be  then  useless  in  their  sacred  ministrations,  by  its 
too  great  largeness;  for  he  desired  that  the  gifts  he 
presented  them,  should  not  only  be  there  for  show, 
but  should  be  useful  also  in  their  sacred  ministra- 
tions." According  to  which  reasoning,  that  the 
former  table  was  made  of  so  moderate  a  size  for 
use,  and  not  for  want  of  gold,  he  resolved  that  he 
would  not  exceed  the  former  table  in  largeness;  but 
would  make  it  exceed  it  in  the  variety  and  elegancy 
of  its  materials.  And  as  he  was  sagacious  in  ob- 
serving  the   nature    of    all    things,    and    in    having   a 

214  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

just  notion  of  what  was  new  and  surprising,  and 
where  there  were  no  sculjjtures,  he  would  invent  such 
as  were  projDer,  by  his  own  skill,  and  would  show 
them  to  the  workmen,  he  commanded  that  such 
sculptures  should  now  be  made,  and  that  those  which 
were  delineated,  should  be  most  accurately  formed 
by  a  constant  regard  to  their  delineation. 

9.  When  therefore  the  workmen  had  undertaken 
to  make  the  table,  they  framed  it  in  length  two 
cubits  [and  a  half,]  in  breadth  one  cubit,  and  in 
height  one  cubit  and  a  half;  and  the  entire  structure 
of  the  work  was  of  gold.  They  withal  made  a  crown 
of  a  hand-breadth  round  it,  with  wave-work  wreathed 
about  it,  and  with  an  engraving  imitated  a  cord,  and 
it  was  admirably  turned  on  its  three  parts;  for  as  they 
were  of  a  triangular  figure,  every  angle  had  the  same 
disposition  of  its  sculptures,  that  when  you  turned 
them  about,  the  very  same  form  of  them  was  turned 
about  without  any  variation.  Now  that  part  of 
the  crown-work  that  was  inclosed  under  the  table 
had  its  sculptures  very  beautiful,  but  that  part  which 
went  round  on  the  outside  was  more  elaborately 
adorned  with  most  beautiful  ornaments,  because  it 
was  exposed  to  sight,  and  to  the  view  of  the  spec- 
tators; for  which  reason  it  was  that  both  those  sides 
which  were  extant  above  the  rest,  were  acute;  and 
none  of  the  angles,  which  we  before  told  you  were 
three,  appeared  less  than  another,  when  the  table 
was  turned  about.  Now  into  the  cord-work  thus 
turned  were  precious  stones  inserted  in  rows  j^arallel 
one  to  the  other,  inclosed  in  golden  buttons,  which 
had  ouches  in  them;  but  the  parts  which  were  on 
the  side  of  the  crown,  and  were  exposed  to  the  sight, 
were  adorned  with  a  row  of  oval  figures  obliquely 
placed,  of  the  most  excellent  sort  of  precious  stones, 
which  imitated  rods  laid  close;  and  encompassed  the 

Chap.  II.  OF  THE  JEWS.  215 

table  round  about.  But  under  these  oval  figures, 
thus  engraven,  the  workmen  had  put  a  crown  all 
round  it,  where  the  nature  of  all  sorts  of  fruit  was 
represented,  insomuch  that  the  bunches  of  grapes 
hung  up.  And  when  they  had  made  the  stones  to 
represent  all  the  kinds  of  fruit  before  mentioned, 
and  that  each  in  its  proper  colour,  they  made  them 
fast  with  gold  round  the  whole  table.  The  like  dis- 
position of  the  oval  figures,  and  of  the  engraved 
rods,  was  framed  under  the  crown,  that  the  table 
might  on  each  side  show  the  same  appearance  of 
variety,  and  elegancy  of  its  ornaments,  so  that  neither 
the  position  of  the  wave-work  nor  of  the  crown, 
might  be  different,  although  the  table  were  turned 
on  the  other  side,  but  that  the  prospect  of  the  most 
artificial  contrivances  might  be  extended  as  far  as 
the  feet;  for  there  was  made  a  plate  of  gold  of  four 
fingers  broad,  through  the  entire  breadth  of  the 
table,  into  which  they  inserted  the  feet,  and  then 
fastened  them  to  the  table  by  buttons,  and  button- 
holes, at  the  place  where  the  crown  was  situate,  that 
so  on  what  side  soever  of  the  table  one  should  stand, 
it  might  exhibit  the  very  same  view  of  the  exquisite 
workmanship,  and  of  the  vast  expenses  bestowed 
upon  it:  but  upon  the  table  itself  they  engraved  a 
meander,  inserting  into  it  very  valuable  stones  in 
the  middle,  like  stars  of  various  colours:  the  car- 
buncle and  the  emerald,  each  of  which  sent  out 
agreeable  raj^s  of  light  to  the  spectators;  with  such 
stones  of  other  sorts  also  as  were  most  curious,  and 
best  esteemed,  as  being  most  precious  in  their  kind. 
Hard  by  this  meander  a  texture  of  net-work  ran 
round  it,  the  middle  of  which  appeared  like  a  rhom- 
bus, into  which  were  inserted  rock  crystal,  and 
amber,  whicli,  ])y  the  great  resemblance  of  the  ap- 
pearance they  made,  gave  wonderful  delight  to  those 

216  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

that  Scaw  them.  The  chapiters  of  the  feet  imitated 
the  first  buddings  of  lihes,  while  their  leaves  were 
bent  and  laid  under  the  table,  but  so  that  the  chives 
were  seen  standing  upright  within  them.  Their 
bases  were  made  of  a  carbuncle;  and  the  place  at 
the  bottom,  which  rested  on  that  carbuncle,  was  one 
palm  deep,  and  eight  fingers  in  breadth.  Now  they 
liad  engraven  upon  it  with  a  very  fine  tool,  and 
with  a  great  deal  of  pains,  a  branch  of  ivy,  and 
tendrils  of  the  vine;  sending  forth  clusters  of  grapes, 
that  you  would  guess  they  were  no  wise  different 
from  real  tendrils,  for  they  were  so  very  thin,  and 
so  very  far  extended  at  their  extremities,  that  they 
were  moved  with  the  wind,  and  made  one  believe 
that  they  were  the  product  of  nature,  and  not  the 
representation  of  art.  They  also  made  the  entire 
workmanship  of  the  table  appear  to  be  threefold, 
while  the  joints  of  tlie  several  parts  were  so  united 
together  as  to  be  invisible,  and  the  places  where  they 
joined  could  not  be  distinguished.  Now  the  thick- 
ness of  the  table  was  not  less  than  half  a  cubit.  So 
tliat  this  gift,  by  the  king's  great  generosity,  bj'' 
tlie  great  value  of  the  materials,  and  the  variety  of 
its  exquisite  structure,  and  the  artificer's  skill  in 
imitating  nature  with  graving  tools,  was  at  length 
brought  to  perfection,  while  the  king  was  very  de- 
sirous that  though  in  largeness  it  were  not  to  be 
different  from  that  which  was  already  dedicated 
to  God,  yet  that  in  exquisite  workmanship,  and  the 
novelty  of  the  contrivances,  and  in  the  splendour 
of  its  construction,  it  should  far  exceed  it,  and  be 
more  illustrious  than  tliat  was. 

10.  Now  of  the  cisterns  of  gold  there  were  two, 
whose  sculpture  was  of  scale-work,  from  its  basis 
to  its  belt-like  circle,  with  various  sorts  of  stones 
inchased  in  the   sj^iral  circles.     Next   to   which  there 

Chap.  II.  OF  THE  JEWS.  217 

was  upon  it  a  meander  of  a  cubit  in  height;  it  was 
composed  of  stones  of  all  sorts  of  colours.  And 
next  to  this  was  the  rod-work  engraven;  and  next 
to  that  was  a  rhombus  in  a  texture  of  net-work, 
drawn  out  to  the  brim  of  the  bason,  while  small 
shields  made  of  stones,  beautiful  in  their  kind,  and 
of  four  fingers  depth,  filled  up  the  middle  parts. 
About  the  top  of  the  bason  were  wreathed  the  leaves 
of  lilies,  ancl  of  the  convolvulus,  and  the  tendrils 
of  vines,  in  a  circular  manner.  And  this  was  the 
construction  of  the  two  cisterns  of  gold,  each  con- 
taining two  firkins.  But  those  which  were  of  silver 
were  much  more  bright  and  splendid  than  looking- 
glasses,  and  you  might  in  them  see  the  images  that 
fell  upon  them  more  plainly  than  in  the  other.  The 
king  also  ordered  thirty  vials;  those  of  which  the 
parts  that  were  of  gold,  and  not  filled  up  with 
precious  stones,  were  shadowed  over  with  the  leaves 
of  ivy,  and  of  vines,  artificially  engraven.  And  these 
were  the  vessels  that  were,  after  an  extraordinary 
manner,  brought  to  this  perfection,  partly  by  the 
skill  of  the  workmen,  who  were  admirable  in  such 
fine  work,  but  much  more  by  the  diligence  and 
generosity  of  the  king,  who  not  only  supplied  the 
artificers  abundantly,  and  with  great  generosity,  with 
what  they  wanted,  but  he  forbade  public  audiences 
for  the  time,  and  came  and  stood  by  the  workmen, 
and  saw  the  whole  operation.  And  this  was  the 
cause  why  the  workmen  were  so  accurate  in  their 
performance,  because  they  had  regard  to  the  king, 
and  to  his  great  concern  a})out  the  vessels,  and  so 
the  more  indefatigably  kept  close  to  the  work. 

11.  And  these  were  what  gifts  were  sent  by 
Ptolemy  to  Jerusalem,  and  dedicated  to  God  there. 
But  when  Eleazar  the  high  priest  had  devoted  them 
to    God,    and    had    paid    due  .respect    to    those    that 

218  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

brought  them,  and  had  given  them  presents  to  be 
carried  to  the  king,  he  dismissed  them.  And  when 
they  were  come  to  Alexandria,  and  Ptolemy  heard 
that  they  were  come,  and  that  the  seventy  elders 
were  come  also,  he  presently  sent  for  Andreas  and 
Aristeus,  his  ambassadors,  who  came  to  him,  and 
delivered  him  the  ej^istle  which  thej^  had  brought 
him  from  the  high  priest,  and  made  answer  to  all 
the  questions  he  put  to  them  by  word  of  mouth. 
He  then  made  haste  to  meet  the  elders  that  came 
from  Jerusalem,  for  the  interpretation  of  the  laws; 
and  he  gave  command,  that  every  bodj",  who  came 
on  occasions,  should  be  sent  away,  which  was  a 
thing  surprising,  and  what  he  did  not  use  to  do, 
for  those  that  there  were  drawn  thither  upon  such 
occasions  used  to  come  to  him  on  the  fifth  day,  but 
ambassadors  at  the  month's  end.  But  when  he  had 
sent  those  away,  he  waited  for  these  that  were  sent 
by  Eleazar;  but  as  the  old  men  came  in  with  the 
presents,  which  the  high  priest  had  given  them  to 
l3ring  to  the  king,  and  with  the  membranes,  upon 
which  they  had  their  laws  written  ^  in  golden  letters, 
he  put  questions  to  them  concerning  those  books; 
and  when  they  had  taken  off  the  covers  wherein 
they  were  wrapt  up,  they  showed  him  the  mem- 
branes. So  the  king  stood  admiring  the  thinness  of 
those  membranes,  and  the  exactness  of  the  junctin'cs; 
which  could  not  be  perceived,  (so  exactly  were  they 
connected  one  with  another)  ;  and  this  he  did  for 
a  considerable  time.  He  then  said  that  he  returned 
them  thanks  for  coming  to  him,  and  still  greater 
thanks  to  him  that  sent  them;  and,  above  all,  to 
that  God  whose  laws  they  appeared  to  be.  Then 
did  the  elders,  and  those  that  were  present  with  them, 

*  The  Talmudists  say,  that  it  is  not  hiwful  to  write  the  law  in  letters 
Qf  goldj  contrary  to  this  certain  and  very  ancient  example, 

Chap.  II.  OF  THE  JEWS.  219 

cry  out  with  one  voice,  and  wished  all  happiness  to 
the  king.  Upon  Avhich  he  fell  into  tears  by  the 
violence  of  the  pleasure  he  had,  it  being  natural 
to  men  to  afford  the  same  indications  in  great  joy, 
that  they  do  under  sorrows.  And  wlien  he  had  })id 
them  deliver  the  books  to  those  that  were  appointed 
to  receive  them,  he  saluted  the  men;  and  said,  that 
it  was  but  just  to  discourse,  in  the  first  place,  of 
the  errand  thej^  were  sent  about,  and  then  to  address 
himself  to  themselves.  He  promised,  however,  that 
he  would  make  this  day  on  which  they  came  to  him 
remarkable  and  eminent  every  year  through  the 
whole  course  of  his  life;  for  their  coming  to  him, 
and  the  victory  which  lie  gained  over  Antigonus  by 
sea,  proved  to  be  on  the  very  same  day.  He  also 
gave  orders,  that  they  should  sup  with  him;  and 
gave  it  in  charge  that  they  should  have  excellent 
lodgings  provided  for  them  in  the  upper  part  of 
the  city. 

12.  Xow  he  that  was  appointed  to  take  care 
of  the  reception  of  strangers,  Xicanor  by  name, 
called  for  Dorotheus,  whose  duty  it  was  to  make 
j^rovision  for  them,  and  bid  him  prepare  for  every 
one  of  them  what  should  be  requisite  for  their  diet 
and  way  of  living.  Which  thing  was  ordered  by 
the  king  after  this  manner:  he  took  care,  that  those 
that  belonged  to  every  city,  which  did  not  use  the 
same  way  of  living,  that  all  tilings  should  be  pre- 
pared for  them  according  to  the  custom  of  those 
that  came  to  him,  that  being  feasted  according  to 
the  usual  method  of  their  own  way  of  living,  they 
might  be  the  better  pleased,  and  might  not  be  un- 
easy at  any  thing  done  to  them,  from  wliich  they 
were  naturally  aAerse.  And  this  was  now  done  in 
the  case  of  these  men  by  Dorotheus,  who  was  put 
into    this    office    because    of    his    great    skill    in    such 

220  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

matters  belonging  to  common  life;  for  he  took  care 
of  all  such  matters  as  concerned  the  reception  of 
strangers,  and  appointed  them  double  seats  for  them 
to  sit  on,  according  as  the  king  had  commanded  him 
to  do;  for  he  had  commanded  that  half  of  their 
seats  should  be  set  at  his  hand,  and  the  other  half 
behind  his  table,  and  took  care  that  no  respect  should 
be  omitted  that  could  be  shown  them.  And  when 
they  were  thus  set  down,  he  bid  Dorotheus  to  min- 
ister to  all  those  that  were  come  to  him  from  Judea, 
after  the  manner  they  used  to  be  ministered  to:  for 
which  cause  he  sent  away  their  sacred  heralds,  and 
those  that  slew  the  sacrifices,  and  the  rest  that  used 
to  say  grace:  but  called  to  one  of  those  that  were 
come  to  him,  whose  name  was  Eleazar,  who  was 
a  priest,  and  desired  him  to  ^  say  grace;  who  then 
stood  in  the  midst  of  them,  and  prayed,  that  "all 
prosperity  might  attend  the  king,  and  those  that 
were  his  subjects."  Upon  which  an  acclamation  was 
made  by  the  whole  company,  with  joy  and  a  great 
noise;  and  when  that  was  over,  they  fell  to  eating 
their  supper,  and  to  the  enjoyment  of  what  was 
set  before  them.  And  at  a  little  interval  afterward, 
when  the  king  thought  a  sufficient  time  had  been 
interposed,  he  began  to  talk  philosophically  to  them, 
and  he  asked  every  one  of  them  a  ~  philosophical 
question,  and  such  an  one  as  might  give  light  in 
those  inquiries;  and  when  they  had  explained  all 
the  problems  that  had  been  proposed  })y  the  king 
about    every    point,    he    was    well    pleased    M'ith    their 

^  This  is  the  most  ancient  example  I  have  met  with,  of  a  grace,  or 
short  prayer,  or  thanksgiving  before  meat;  which,  as  it  used  to  be  said 
by  an  heathen  priest,  was  now  said  by  Eleazar,  a  Jewish  priest,  who  was 
one  of  these  seventy-two  interpreters.  The  next  example  I  have  met 
with  is  that  of  the  Essenes,  Of  the  War,  B.  TI.  ch.  viii.  sect.  5,  Vol.  III. 
both  before  and  after  it. 

^  They  were  rather  political  questions  and  answers,  tending  to  the 
good  and   religious   government  of  mankind. 

Chap.  II.  OF  THE  JEWS.  221 

answers.  This  took  up  the  twelve  days  in  which 
they  were  treated:  and  he  that  pleases  may  learn 
the  particular  questions  in  that  book  of  Aristeus', 
which  he  wrote  on  this  very  occasion. 

13.  And  while  not  the  king  only,  but  the  phi- 
losopher Menedemus  also  admired  them,  and  said, 
"that  all  things  were  governed  by  providence:  and 
that  it  was  probable  that  thence  it  was  that  such 
force  or  beauty  was  discovered  in  these  men's  words," 
they  then  left  off  asking  any  more  such  questions. 
But  the  king  said  that  he  had  gained  very  great 
advantages  by  their  coming,  for  that  he  had  received 
this  profit  from  them,  that  he  had  learned  how  he 
ought  to  rule  his  subjects.  And  he  gave  order  that 
they  should  have  every  one  three  talents  given  them, 
and  that  those  that  were  to  conduct  them  to  their 
lodging  should  do  it.  Accordingly,  when  three  days 
were  over,  Demetrius  took  them,  and  went  over  the 
causeway  seven  furlongs  long:  It  was  a  bank  in  the 
sea  to  an  island.  And  when  they  had  gone  over  the 
bridge,  he  j^roceeded  to  the  northern  parts  and  showed 
them  where  they  should  meet,  which  was  in  a  house 
which  was  built  near  the  shore,  and  was  a  quiet 
place,  and  fit  for  their  discoursing  together  about 
their  work.  When  he  had  brought  them  thither,  he 
entreated  them,  (now  they  had  all  things  about  them 
which  they  wanted  for  the  interpretation  of  their 
law)  that  they  Ma^uld  suffer  nothing  to  interrupt 
them  in  their  work.  Accordingly,  they  made  an 
accurate  interpretation,  with  great  zeal  and  great 
pains,  and  this  they  continued  to  do  till  the  nintli 
hour  of  the  day;  after  which  time  they  relaxed,  and 
took  care  of  their  body,  while  their  food  was  pro- 
vided for  them  in  great  plenty:  besides,  Dorotheus, 
at  the  king's  command,  brought  them  a  great  deal 
of  what  was  provided  for  the  king  himself.     But  in 

222  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

the  morning  they  came  to  the  court,  and  saluted 
Ptolemy  and  then  went  away  to  their  former  place, 
where,  when  they  had  ^  washed  their  hands,  and 
purified  themselves,  they  betook  themselves  to  the 
interpretation  of  the  laws.  Now  when  the  law  was 
transcribed,  and  the  labour  of  interpretation  was 
over,  which  came  to  its  conclusion  in  seventy-two 
days,  Demetrius  gathered  all  the  Jews  together  to 
the  place  where  the  laws  were  translated,  and  where 
the  interj^reters  were,  and  read  them  over.  The 
multitude  did  also  aj^prove  of  those  elders  that  were 
tlie  interpreters  of  the  law.  They  withal  commended 
Demetrius  for  his  proposal,  as  the  inventor  of  what 
was  greatly  for  their  happiness;  and  they  desired 
that  he  would  give  leave  to  their  rulers  also  to  read 
the  law.  JNIoreover,  they  all,  both  the  priest  and  the 
ancientest  of  the  elders,  and  the  principal  men  of 
their  commonwealth,  made  it  their  request,  that 
since  the  interj^retation  was  hapj^ily  finished,  it 
might  continue  in  the  state  it  now  was,  and  might 
not  be  altered.  And  when  they  all  commended  that 
determination  of  theirs,  they  enjoined,  that  if  any 
one  observed  either  any  thing  superfluous,  or  any 
thing  omitted,  that  he  would  take  a  view  of  it  again, 
and  have  it  laid  before  them,  and  corrected;  which 
was  a  wise  account  of  theirs,  that  when  the  thing 
was  judged  to  have  been  well  done,  it  might  continue 
for  ever. 

13.  So  the  king  rejoiced,  when  he  saw  that  his 
design  of  this  nature  was  brought  to  perfection  to 
so    great    advantage:    and    he    was    chiefly    delighted 

*  This  purification  of  the  interpreters  by  washing  in  the  sea,  before 
they  prayed  to  God  every  morning',  and  before  they  set  al)out  translating, 
may  I)e  (•oni]>ared  with  ttie  like  practice  of  Peter  tiie  ajiostle,  in  the 
recognitions  of  Clement,  15.  I^'.  ch.  iii.  and  B.  V.  ch.  xxxvi.  and  with  the 
places  of  the  Proseuthae,  or  of  prayer,  which  were  sometimes  built  near 
the  sea  or  rivers  also.  Of  which  matter,  see  Antiq.  B.  XIV.  ch.  x.  sect. 
23,  Vol.    II.   and    Acts   xvi.   1:5,   10. 

Chap.  II.  OF  THE  JEWS.  223 

with  hearing  the  laws  read  to  him,  and  was  astonished 
at  the  deep  meaning  and  wisdom  of  the  legishitor. 
And  he  began  to  discourse  with  Demetrius,  "How 
it  came  to  pass,  that  when  this  legislation  was  so 
wonderful,  no  one,  either  of  the  poets  or  of  the  his- 
torians, had  made  mention  of  it."  Demetrius  made 
answer,  that  "no  one  durst  be  so  bold  as  to  touch 
upon  the  description  of  these  laws,  because  they 
were  divine  and  venerable,  and  because  some  that 
had  attempted  it  were  afflicted  by  God."  He  also 
told  him,  that  "Theopompouse  was  desirous  of  writing 
somewhat  about  them,  })ut  was  thereupon  disturbed 
in  his  mind  for  above  thirty  days'  time;  and  upon 
some  intermission  of  his  distemper,  he  appeased  God 
[by  prayer]  as  suspecting  that  his  madness  proceeded 
from  that  cause."  Nay,  indeed,  he  further  saw  in 
a  dream,  that  his  distemper  befell  him  while  he  in- 
dulged too  great  a  curiosity  about  divine  matters, 
and  was  desirous  of  publishing  them  among  common 
men;  but  when  he  left  off  that  attempt,  he  recovered 
his  understanding  again.  Moreover,  he  informed  him 
of  Theodectes,  the  tragic  poet,  concerning  whom  it 
was  reported,  that  when,  in  a  certain  dramatic  rep- 
resentation, he  was  desirous  to  make  mention  of 
things  that  were  contained  in  the  sacred  books,  he 
was  afflicted  with  a  darkness  in  his  eyes;  and  that 
upon  his  being  conscious  of  the  occasion  of  his  dis- 
temper, and  appeasing  God  [by  prayer],  he  was 
freed  from  that  affliction. 

14.  And  when  the  king  had  received  these  books 
from  Demetrius,  as  we  have  said  already,  he  adored 
them,  and  gave  order  that  great  care  should  be  taken 
of  them,  that  they  might  remain  uncorrupted.  He 
also  desired  that  the  interpreters  would  come  often 
to  him  out  of  Judea,  and  that  both  on  account  of 
the  respects  that  he  would  pay  them,  and  on  account 

224  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

of  the  presents  he  would  make  them:  For  he  said, 
"It  was  now  but  just  to  send  them  away,  although 
if  of  their  own  accord,  they  would  come  to  him  here- 
after, they  should  obtain  all  that  their  own  wisdom 
might  justly  require,  and  what  his  generosity  was 
able  to  give  them."  So  he  then  sent  them  away; 
and  gave  to  every  one  of  them  three  garments  of 
the  best  sort,  and  two  talents  of  gold,  and  a  cup  of 
the  value  of  one  talent,  and  the  furniture  of  the 
room  wherein  they  were  feasted.  And  these  were 
the  things  he  presented  to  them.  But  by  them  he 
sent  to  Eleazar  the  high  priest,  ten  beds,  with  feet 
of  silver,  and  the  furniture  to  them  belonging,  and 
a  cup  of  the  value  of  thirty  talents;  and  besides 
these,  ten  garments,  and  purple,  and  a  very  beautiful 
crown,  and  a  hundred  pieces  of  the  finest  woven 
linen;  as  also  vials  and  dishes,  and  vessels  for  pour- 
ing, and  two  golden  cisterns  to  be  dedicated  to  God. 
He  also  desired  him,  by  an  epistle,  that  he  would 
give  these  interpreters  leave,  if  any  of  them  were 
desirous  of  coming  to  him,  because  he  highly  valued 
a  conversation  with  men  of  such  learning;  and  should 
be  very  willing  to  lay  out  his  wealth  upon  such  men. 
And  this  was  what  came  to  the  Jews,  and  was  much 
to  their  glory  and  honour,  from  Ptolemy  Philadelphus. 


How  the  ki7igs  of  ^isia  honoured  the  nation  of  the 
Jews,  and  made  tlieni  citizens  of  those  cities  which 
they  built. 

1.     The  Jews  also  obtained  honour  from  the  kings 
of    Asia,    when    they    became    their    auxiliaries;    for 

Chap.  III.  OF  THE  JEWS.  225 

Seleuciis  Nicator  made  them  citizens  in  those  cities 
which  he  built  in  Asia;  and  in  the  lower  Syria,  and 
in  the  metropolis  itself,  Antioch;  and  gave  them  privi- 
leges equal  to  those  of  the  JNIacedonians  and  Greeks, 
who  were  the  inhabitants,  insomuch  that  these  privi- 
leges continue  to  this  very  day:  An  argument  for 
wliich  you  have  in  this,  that  whereas  the  Jews  do  not 
make  use  of  ^  oil  prepared  by  foreigners,  they  receive 
a  certain  sum  of  money  from  the  proper  officers  be- 
longing to  their  exercises  as  the  value  would  have 
deprived  them  of,  in  the  last  war,  ^Nlucianus,  who 
was  then  president  of  Syria,  preserved  it  to  them. 
And  when  the  people  of  Alexandria  and  of  Antioch 
did  after  that,  at  the  time  that  Vespasian  and  Titus 
his  son  governed  the  habitable  earth,  pray  that  these 
privileges  of  citizens  might  be  taken  away,  they  did 
not  obtain  their  request.  In  which  behaviour  any 
one  may  discern  the  ^  equity  and  generosity  of  the 
Romans,  especially  of  Vespasian  and  Titus,  who, 
although  they  had  been  at  a  great  deal  of  pains  in 
the  war  against  the  Jews,  and  were  exasperated 
against  them,  because  they  did  not  deliver  up  their 
weapons  to  them,  but  continued  the  war  to  the  very 
last,  yet  did  not  they  take  away  any  of  their  fore- 
mentioned  privileges  belonging  to  them  as  citizens, 
but  restrained  their  anger;  and  overcame  the  prayers 

*  The  use  of  oil  was  much  greater,  and  the  donatives  of  it  much 
more  valuable  in  Judea,  and  the  neighbouring  countries,  than  it  is  amongst 
us.  It  was  also,  in  the  days  of  Josephus,  thought  unlawful  for  Jews 
to  make  use  of  any  oil  that  was  prepared  by  heatiiens,  perhaps  on 
account  of  some  superstitions  intermixed  with  its  preparation  by  those 
heathens.  Wlien  therefore  the  heathens  were  to  make  them  a  donative 
of  oil,  they  paid  them  money  instead  of  it.  See  Of  the  War,  B.  II.  ch. 
xxii.  sect.  -2,  Vol.  III.  the  Life  of  Josephus  sect.  13,  Vol.   III. 

'  This,  and  the  like  great  and  just  characters,  of  the  justice  and 
equity,  and  generosity  of  the  old  Romans,  both  to  the  Jews  and  other 
conquered  nations,  affords  us  a  very  good  reason  why  Almiglity  God, 
upon  the  rejection  of  the  Jews  for  their  wickedness,  chose  them  for  his 
people.  Of  which  matter,  see  Josephus  here,  sect.  2,  as  also  Antiq. 
B.  XIV.  ch.  X.   sect.  21,  23,   B.   XVI.   ch.  2,   sect.  4-. 

22G  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

of  the  Alexandrians  and  Antiochians,  who  were  a  very 
powerful  peo23le,  insomuch  that  they  did  not  yield 
to  them,  neither  out  of  their  favour  to  those  people, 
nor  out  of  their  old  grudge  at  those  whose  wicked 
opposition  they  had  subdued  in  the  war;  nor  would 
they  alter  any  of  the  ancient  favours  granted  to  the 
Jews,  but  said,  that  those  who  had  borne  arms  against 
them,  and  fought  them,  had  suffered  punishment 
already,  and  that  it  was  not  just  to  deprive  those 
that  had  not  offended  of  the  privileges  they  enjoyed. 

2.  AVe  also  know  that  ]Marcus  Agrippa  was  of  the 
like  disposition  towards  the  Jews:  For  when  the  peo- 
ple of  Ionia  were  very  anjry  at  them,  and  besought 
Agrippa,  that  they,  and  they  only,  might  have  those 
privileges  of  citizens  which  Antiochus,  tlie  grandson 
of  Seleucus  (who  by  the  Greeks  was  called  the  God,) 
had  bestowed  on  them;  and  desired  that  if  the  Jews 
were  to  be  joint-partakers  with  them,  they  might 
be  obliged  to  worship  the  gods  they  themselves  wor- 
shipped: but  when  these  matters  were  brought  to  the 
trial,  the  Jews  prevailed,  and  obtained  leave  to  make 
use  of  their  own  customs,  and  this  under  the  patronage 
of  Xicolaus  of  Damascus;  for  xVgrippa  gave  sentence, 
that  he  could  not  innovate.  And  if  any  one  hath  a 
mind  to  know  this  matter  accurately,  let  him  peruse 
the  hundred  and  twenty-tliird,  and  liundred  and 
twenty- fourth  book  of  the  history  of  this  Xicolaus. 
Now,  as  to  this  determination  of  xVgrippa,  it  is  not 
so  much  to  be  admired,  for  at  tliis  time  our  nation  had 
not  made  war  against  the  Romans.  But  one  may 
well  be  astonished  at  the  generosity  of  Vespasian 
and  Titus,  that  after  so  great  wars  and  conquests 
which  they  had  from  us,  they  should  use  such  modera- 
tion. But  I  will  now  return  to  that  part  of  my  history 
whence  I  made  the  present  digression. 

3.  Now  it  happened  tliat  in  the  reign  of  Antiochus 

Chap.  III.  OF  THE  JEWS.  227 

the  Great,  who  ruled  over  all  Asia,  that  the  Jews,  as 
well  as  the  inhabitants  of  CelcKsyria,  suffered  greatly, 
and  their  land  was  sorely  harassed:  For  while  he 
was  at  war  with  Ptolemy  Philopater,  and  with  his 
son  who  was  called  Epipliaucs,  it  fell  out,  that  these 
nations  were  equally  sufferers,  both  when  he  was 
beaten,  and  when  he  beat  the  others:  So  that  they 
were  very  like  to  a  ship  in  a  storm,  which  is  tossed 
by  the  waves  on  both  sides;  and  just  thus  were  they 
in  their  situation  in  the  middle  between  Antiochus' 
prosperity  and  its  change  to  adversity.  But  at  length, 
when  Antiochus  had  beaten  Ptolemy,  he  seized  upon 
Judea:  And  when  Philopater  was  dead,  his  son  sent 
out  a  great  army  under  Scopas,  the  general  of  his 
forces,  against  the  inhabitants  of  Celoesyria,  who  took 
many  of  their  cities,  and  in  particular  our  nation; 
which,  when  he  fell  upon  them,  went  over  to  him. 
Yet  was  it  not  long  afterward  when  Antiochus  over- 
came Scopas,  in  a  battle  fought  at  the  fountains  of 
Jordan,  and  destroyed  a  great  part  of  his  army. 
But  afterward,  when  Antiochus  subdued  those  cities 
of  Celoesyria  which  Scopas  had  gotten  into  his  pos- 
session, and  Samaria,  witli  tliem  the  Jews  of  their  own 
accord  went  over  to  him,  and  received  him  into  the 
city  [Jerusalem],  and  gave  plentiful  provision  to  all 
his  army,  and  to  his  elephants,  and  readily  assisted 
him  when  he  besieged  the  garrison  which  was  in  the 
citadel  of  Jerusalem.  Wherefore  Antiochus  thought 
it  but  just  to  requit  the  Jews'  diligence  and  zeal  in 
his  service:  So  he  wrote  to  the  generals  of  his  armies, 
and  to  his  friends,  and  gave  testimony  to  the  good 
behaviour  of  the  Jews  towards  him,  and  informed 
them  what  rewards  he  had  resolved  to  bestow  on  them 
for  that  their  behaviour.  I  will  set  down  presently 
the  epistles  themselves,  which  he  wrote  to  the  generals 
concerning  them,  but  will  first  produce  the  testimonies 

228  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

of  Polybiiis  of  ^Megalopolis,  for  thus  does  he  speak, 
in  the  sixteenth  book  of  his  history:  "Xow  Scopas, 
the  general  of  Ptolemy's  army,  went  in  haste  to  the 
superior  parts  of  the  country,  and  in  the  winter  time 
overthrew  the  nation  of  the  Jews.  He  also  saith,  in 
the  same  book,  that  when  Scopas  was  conquered  by 
Antiochus,  Antiochus  received  Batanea  and  Samaria, 
and  Abila  and  Gadara:  and  that,  a  while  afterwards, 
there  came  in  to  him  those  Jews  that  inhabited  near 
that  temple  which  was  called  Jerusalem,  concerning 
which,  althougli  I  have  more  to  say,  and  particularly 
concerning  the  presence  of  God  about  the  temple, 
yet  do  I  put  off  that  history  till  another  opportunity." 
This  it  is  which  Polybius  relates.  But  we  will  return 
to  the  series  of  the  history,  when  we  have  first  pro- 
duced the  epistle  of  king  Antiochus: 

''King  Antiochus  to  Ptolemy,  sendeth  greeting. 

"Since  the  Jews,  upon  our  first  entrance  on  their 
country,  demonstrated  their  friendship  towards  us; 
and  when  we  came  to  their  city  [Jerusalem,]  received 
us  in  a  splendid  manner,  and  came  to  meet  us  with 
their  senate,  and  gave  abundance  of  provisions  to  our 
soldiers,  and  to  the  elephants,  and  joined  with  us  in 
ejecting  the  garrison  of  the  Egyptians  that  were  in 
the  citadel,  we  have  thought  fit  to  reward  them,  and 
to  retricAX  the  condition  of  their  city,  which  had  been 
greatly  depopulated  by  such  accidents  as  have  befallen 
its  inhabitants,  and  to  bring  those  that  have  been 
scattered  abroad  back  to  the  city.  And,  in  the  first 
place,  we  have  determined,  on  account  of  their  piety 
towards  God,  to  bestow  on  them,  as  a  pension,  for 
their  sacrifices  of  animals  that  are  fit  for  sacrifice, 
for  wine  and  oil,  and  frankincense,  the  value  of  twenty 
thousand  pieces  of   silver,   and    [six]    sacred   artabrae 

Chap.  III.  OF  THE  JEWS.  229 

of  fine  flour,  with  one  thousand  four  hundred  and  sixty 
medimni  of  wheat,  and  three  hundred  and  seventy- 
five  medimni  of  salt.  And  these  payments  I  would 
have  fully  paid  them,  as  1  have  sent  orders  to  you. 
I  would  also  have  the  work  about  the  temple  finished, 
and  the  cloisters,  and  if  there  be  any  thing  else  that 
ought  to  be  rebuilt.  And  for  the  materials  of  wood, 
let  it  be  brought  them  out  of  Judea  itself,  and  out 
of  the  other  countries,  and  out  of  Libanus,  tax  free: 
and  the  same  I  would  have  observed  as  to  those  other 
materials  which  will  be  necessary,  in  order  to  render 
the  temple  more  glorious.  And  let  all  of  that  nation 
live  according  to  the  laws  of  their  own  country;  and 
let  the  senate  and  the  priests,  and  the  scribes  of  the 
temple,  and  the  sacred  singers,  be  discharged  from 
poll-money  and  the  crown  tax,  and  other  taxes  also. 
And  that  the  city  may  the  sooner  recover  its  in- 
habitants, I  grant  a  discharge  from  taxes  for  three 
years  to  its  present  inhabitants;  and  to  such  as  shall 
come  to  it,  until  the  month  Ilyperberetus.  We  also 
discharge  them  for  the  future  from  a  third  part  of 
their  taxes,  that  the  losses  they  have  sustained  may 
be  repaired.  And  all  those  citizens  that  have  been 
carried  away,  and  are  become  slaves,  we  grant  them 
and  their  children  their  freedom;  and  give  order  that 
their  substance  be  restored  to  them." 

4.  And  these  were  the  contents  of  this  epistle. 
He  also  published  a  decree,  through  all  his  kingdom, 
in  honour  of  the  temple,  which  contained  what  fol- 
lows: "It  shall  be  lawful  for  no  foreigner  to  come 
within  the  limits  of  the  temple  round  about;  which 
thing  is  forbidden  also  to  the  Jews,  unless  to  those 
who,  according  to  their  own  custom,  have  purified 
themselves.  Xor  let  any  flesh  of  horses,  or  of  mules, 
or  of  asses,  be  brought  into  the  city,  whether  they 
be  wild,  or  tame;  nor  that  of  leopards,  or  foxes,  or 

230  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

Iiares,  and  in  general,  that  of  any  animal  which  is 
forbidden  for  the  Jews  to  eat.  Nor  let  their  skins  be 
brought  into  it;  nor  let  any  such  animal  be  bred  up 
in  the  city.  Let  them  only  be  permitted  to  use  the 
sacrifices  derived  from  their  forefathers,  with  which 
they  have  been  obliged  to  make  acceptable  atonements 
to  God.  And  he  that  transgresseth  any  of  these 
orders,  let  him  pay  to  the  priests  three  thousand 
drachma  of  silver."  Moreover,  this  Antiochus  bare 
testimony  to  our  piety  and  fidelity,  in  an  epistle  of 
his,  written  when  he  was  informed  of  a  sedition  in 
Phrygia  and  Lydia,  at  which  time  he  was  in  the 
superior  provinces,  wherein  he  commanded  Zeuxis, 
the  general  of  his  forces,  and  his  most  intimate  friend, 
to  send  some  of  our  nation  out  of  Babylon  into 
Phrygia.     The  epistle  was  this: 

"King  Antiochus  to  Zeuxis  liis  father,  sendeth 


"If  you  are  in  health  it  is  well.  I  also  am  in  health. 
Having  been  informed  that  a  sedition  is  arisen  in 
Lydia  and  Phrygia,  I  thought  that  matter  required 
great  care:  And  upon  advising  with  my  friends  what 
was  fit  to  be  done,  it  hath  been  thought  proper  to 
remove  two  thousand  families  of  Jews,  with  their 
effects,  out  of  INIesopotamia  and  Babylon,  unto  the 
castles  and  places  that  lie  most  convenient;  for  I  am 
persuaded  that  they  will  be  well  disposed  guardians 
of  our  possessions,  because  of  their  piety  towards 
God,  and  because  I  know  that  my  predecessors  have 
borne  witness  to  them,  that  they  are  faithful,  and, 
with  alacrity,  do  what  tliey  are  desired  to  do.  I 
will,  therefore,  though  it  be  a  laborious  work,  that 
thou  remove  these  Jews;  under  a  promise,  that  they 
shall  be  permitted  to  use  tlieir  own  laws.     And  when 

Chap.  iv.  OF  THE  JEWS.  231 

thou  shalt  have  brought  them  to  the  places  fore- 
mentioned,  thou  shalt  give  every  one  of  their  families 
a  place  for  building  their  houses,  and  a  portion  of 
land  for  their  husbandry,  .and  for  the  plantation  of 
their  vines;  and  thou  shalt  discharge  them  from  pay- 
ing taxes  of  the  fruits  of  the  earth  for  ten  years: 
and  let  them  have  a  proper  quantity  of  wheat  for  tlie 
maintenance  of  their  servants,  until  they  receive  bread 
corn  out  of  the  earth:  also  let  a  sufficient  share  be 
given  to  such  as  minister  to  them  in  the  necessaries 
of  life,  that  by  enjoying  the  effects  of  our  liumanity, 
they  may  show  themselves  the  more  willing  and  ready 
about  our  affairs.  Take  care  likewise  of  that  nation, 
as  far  as  thou  art  able,  that  they  may  not  have  any 
disturbance  given  them  by  any  one."  Now  these 
testimonials  which  I  have  produced,  are  sufficient  to 
declare  the  friendship  that  Antiochus  the  Great  bare 
to  the  Jews. 


How  Antiochus  made  a  league  zcith  Ptolemy;  and  how 
Onias  provoked  Ptolemy  Euergetes  to  anger;  and 
Jiow  Joseph  brought  all  things  right  again,  and  en- 
tered into  friendship  with  him ;  and  ichat  other  things 
were  done  by  Joseph  and  his  son  Hyrcanus. 

1.  After  this  Antiochus  made  a  friendship  and 
a  league  with  Ptolemy;  and  gave  him  his  daughter 
Cleopatra  to  wife,  and  yielded  up  to  him  CeloesjTia, 
and  Samaria,  and  Judea,  and  Phenicia,  by  way  of 
dowry.  And  upon  the  division  of  the  taxes  between 
the  two  kings,  all  the  principal  men  farmed  the 
taxes   of   their   several   countries,    and   collecting   the 

232  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

sum  that  was  settled  for  them,  paid  the  same  to 
the  [two]  kings.  Now  at  this  time  the  Samaritans 
were  in  a  flourishing  condition,  and  much  distressed 
the  Jews,  cutting  otf  parts  of  their  land,  and  carry- 
ing off  slaves.  This  happened  when  Onias  was  high 
priest;  for  after  Eleazar's  death,  his  uncle  Manasseh 
took  the  priesthood,  and  after  he  had  ended  his  life, 
Onias  received  that  dignity.  He  was  the  son  of 
Simon,  who  was  called  the  Just,  which  Simon  was 
the  brother  of  Eleazar,  as  I  said  before.  This  Onias 
was  one  of  a  little  soul,  and  a  great  lover  of  money; 
and  for  that  reason,  because  he  did  not  pay  the  tax 
of  twenty  talents  of  silver,  which  his  forefathers  paid 
to  these  kings,  out  of  their  own  estates,  he  provoked 
king  Ptolemy  Euergetes  to  anger,  who  was  the 
father  of  Philopater.  Euergetes  sent  an  ambassador 
to  Jerusalem,  and  complained  that  Onias  did  not 
pay  his  taxes,  and  threatened,  that  if  he  did  not 
receive  them,  he  would  seize  upon  their  land,  and 
send  soldiers  to  live  upon  it.  When  the  Jews  heard 
this  message  of  the  king's,  they  were  confounded: 
But  so  sordidly  covetous  was  Onias,  that  nothing 
of  this  nature  made  him  ashamed. 

2.  There  was  now  one  Joseph,  young  in  age, 
but  of  great  reputation  among  the  people  of  Jeru- 
salem, for  gravity,  prudence,  and  justice.  His 
father's  name  was  Tobias;  and  his  mother  was  the 
sister  of  Onias  the  high  priest,  who  informed  him 
of  the  coming  of  the  ambassador:  for  he  was  then 
sojourning  at  a  village  named  '  Phieol,  where  he 
was  born.  Hereupon  he  came  to  the  city  [Jeru- 
salem], and  reproved  Onias  for  not  taking  care  of 
the    preservation    of    his    countrymen,    but    bringing 

*  The  name  of  tliis  ])lace,  Phieol,  is  the  very  same  with  that  of  the 
chief  captain  of  Ahhiielech's  host,  in  tlic  days  of  Abraham,  Gen.  xxi.  2-2, 
and  might  possibly  be  the  phaee  of  tiiat  Phicol's  nativity  or  abode,  for 
it  seems  to  have  been  in  tic  south  ])art  of  Palestine,  as  that  was. 

Chap.  IV.  OF  THE  JEWS.  233 

the  nation  into  dangers,  by  not  paying  this  money. 
For  which  preservation  of  them,  he  told  him  he  had 
received  the  authority  over  them,  and  had  been  made 
high  priest:  But  that,  in  case  he  was  so  great  a 
lover  of  money,  as  to  endure  to  see  his  country  in 
danger  on  that  account,  and  his  countrymen  suffer 
the  greatest  damages,  he  advised  him  to  go  to  the 
king,  and  petition  him  to  remit  either  the  whole,  or 
part  of  the  sum  demanded.  Onias'  answer  was  this, 
that  he  did  not  care  for  his  authority,  and  that  he 
was  ready,  if  the  thing  were  practicable,  to  lay  down 
his  high  priesthood;  and  that  he  would  not  go  to 
the  king,  because  he  troubled  not  himself  at  all  about 
such  matters.  Joseph  then  asked  him.  If  he  would 
not  give  him  leave  to  go  ambassador  on  behalf  of 
the  nation?  He  replied,  that  he  would  give  him 
leave.  Upon  which  Joseph  went  up  into  the  temple; 
and  called  the  multitude  together,  to  a  congregation, 
and  exhorted  them  not  to  be  disturbed  nor  affrighted, 
because  of  his  uncle  Onias'  carelessness,  but  desired 
them  to  be  at  rest,  and  not  terrify  themselves  with 
fear  about  it;  for  he  promised  them  that  he  would 
be  their  ambassador  to  the  king,  and  persuade  him 
that  they  had  done  him  no  wrong.  And  when  the 
multitude  heard  this,  they  returned  thanks  to  Joseph. 
So  he  went  down  from  the  temple,  and  treated 
Ptolemy's  ambassador  in  a  hospitable  manner.  He 
also  presented  him  with  rich  gifts;  and  feasted  him 
magnificently  for  many  days,  and  then  sent  him  to 
the  king  before  him,  and  told  him  that  he  w^ould 
soon  follow  him:  for  he  was  now  more  willing  to 
go  to  the  king,  by  the  encouragement  of  the  am- 
bassador, who  earnestly  persuaded  him  to  come  into 
Egypt;  and  promised  him  that  he  would  take  care 
that  he  should  obtain  every  thing  that  he  desired 
of  Ptolemy,  for  he  was  highly  pleased  with  his  frank 

234  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

and  liberal  temper,  and  with  the  gravity  of  his  de- 

3.  When  Ptolemy's  ambassador  was  come  into 
Egypt,  he  told  the  king  of  the  thoughtless  temper 
of  Onias;  and  informed  him  of  the  goodness  of  the 
disposition  of  Joseph;  and  that  he  was  coming  to 
him,  to  excuse  the  multitude,  as  not  having  done 
him  any  harm,  for  that  he  was  their  patron.  In 
short,  he  was  so  very  large  in  his  encomiums  upon 
the  young  man,  that  he  disposed  both  the  king  and 
his  wife  Cleopatra  to  have  a  kindness  for  him  be- 
fore he  came.  So  Joseph  sent  to  his  friends  at 
Samaria,  and  borrowed  money  of  them;  and  got 
ready  what  was  necessary  for  his  journey,  garments 
and  cups,  and  beasts  for  burthen,  which  amounted 
to  about  twenty  thousand  drachmae,  and  went  to 
Alexandria.  Now  it  happened  that  at  this  time 
all  the  principal  men  and  rulers  went  up  out  of 
the  cities  of  Syria  and  Phenicia,  to  bid  for  their 
taxes;  for  every  year  the  king  sold  them  to  the  men 
of  the  greatest  power  in  every  city.  So  these  men 
saw  Joseph  journeying  on  the  way,  and  laughed 
at  him  for  his  poverty  and  meanness.  But  when  he 
came  to  Alexandria,  and  heard  that  king  Ptolemy 
was  at  Memphis,  he  went  up  thither  to  meet  with 
him;  which  happened  as  the  king  was  sitting  in  his 
chariot,  with  his  wife  and  with  his  friend  Athenion, 
who  was  the  very  person  who  had  been  ambassador 
at  Jerusalem,  and  been  entertained  by  Joseph.  As 
soon  therefore  as  Athenion  saw  him,  he  presently 
made  him  known  to  the  king,  how  good  and  generous 
a  young  man  he  was.  So  Ptolemy  saluted  liim 
first,  and  desired  him  to  come  up  into  his  chariot; 
and  as  Joseph  sat  there,  he  began  to  complain  of 
the  management  of  Onias.  To  which  he  ansAvered, 
Forgive  him,  on  account  of  his  age;  for  thou  canst 

Chap.  IV.  OF  THE  JEWS.  235 

not  certainly  be  unacquainted  with  this,  that  old 
men  and  infants  have  their  minds  exactly  alike;  but 
thou  shalt  have  from  us,  who  are  young  men,  every 
thing  thou  desirest,  and  shalt  have  no  cause  to  com- 
plain. With  this  good  humour  and  pleasantry  of 
the  young  man,  the  king  was  so  delighted,  that  he 
began  already,  as  though  he  had  long  experience  of 
him,  to  have  a  still  greater  affection  for  him,  inso- 
much, that  he  bade  him  take  his  diet  in  the  king's 
palace,  and  be  a  guest  at  his  own  table  every  day. 
But  when  the  king  was  come  to  Alexandria,  the 
principal  men  of  Syria  saw  him  sitting  with  the 
king,  and  were  much  offended  at  it. 

4.  And  when  the  day  came  on  which  the  king 
was  to  let  the  taxes  of  the  cities  to  farm,  and  those 
that  were  the  principal  men  of  dignity  in  their  several 
countries  were  to  bid  for  them,  the  sum  of  the  taxes 
together,  of  Celesyria  and  Phenicia,  and  Judea,  with 
Samaria  [as  they  were  bidden  for,]  came  to  eight 
thousand  talents.  Hereupon  Joseph  accused  the 
bidders,  as  having  agreed  together  to  estimate  the 
value  cf  the  taxes  at  too  low  a  rate;  and  he  promised, 
that  he  would  himself  give  twice  as  much  for  them: 
but  for  those  who  did  not  pay,  he  would  send  the 
king  home  their  whole  substance;  for  this  privilege 
was  sold  together  with  the  taxes  themselves.  The 
king  was  pleased  to  hear  that  offer;  and  because  it 
augmented  his  revenues,  he  said  he  would  confirm 
the  sale  of  the  taxes  to  him.  But  then  he  asked 
him  this  question.  Whether  he  had  any  sureties  that 
would  be  bound  for  the  payment  of  the  money?  he 
answered  very  pleasantly,  I  will  give  such  seciu'ity, 
and  those  of  persons  good  and  responsible,  and  which 
you  shall  have  no  reason  to  distrust.  And  when  he 
bid  him  name  them,  who  they  were,  he  replied,  I 
give  thee  no  other  persons,  O  king,  for  my  sureties, 

236  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

than  myself,  and  this  thy  wife ;  and  you  shall  be 
security  for  both  parties.  So  Ptolemy  laughed  at 
the  proposal,  and  granted  him  the  farming  of  the 
taxes  without  any  sureties.  This  procedure  was  a 
sore  grief  to  those  that  came  from  the  cities  into 
Egypt,  who  w^ere  utterly  disappointed;  and  they 
returned  every  one  to  their  own  country  with  shame. 
5.  But  Joseph  took  with  him  two  thousand  foot 
soldiers  from  the  king,  for  he  desired  he  might  have 
some  assistance,  in  order  to  force  such  as  were  re- 
fractory in  the  cities  to  pay.  And  borrowing  of 
the  king's  friends  at  Alexandria  five  hundred  talents, 
he  made  haste  back  into  Syria.  And  when  he  was 
at  Askelon,  and  demanded  the  taxes  of  the  people 
of  Askelon,  they  refused  to  pay  any  thing;  and 
affronted  him  also:  upon  which  he  seized  upon  about 
twenty  of  the  principal  men,  and  slew  them,  and 
gathered  what  they  had  together,  and  sent  it  all  to 
the  king:  and  informed  him  what  he  had  done. 
Ptolemy  admired  the  prudent  conduct  of  the  man, 
and  commended  him  for  what  he  had  done;  and 
gave  him  leave  to  do  as  he  pleased.  When  the 
Syi'ians  heard  of  this,  they  were  astonished:  and 
having  before  them  a  sad  example  in  the  men  of 
Askelon  that  were  slain,  they  opened  their  gates, 
and  willingly  admitted  Joseph,  and  paid  their  taxes. 
And  when  the  inhabitants  of  Scythopolis  attempted 
to  affront  him,  and  would  not  pay  him  those  taxes 
which  they  formerly  used  to  pay,  without  disputing 
about  them,  he  slew  also  the  principal  men  of  that 
city,  and  sent  their  effects  to  the  king.  By  this 
means  he  gathered  great  wealth  together,  and  made 
vast  gains  by  this  farming  of  the  taxes:  and  he 
made  use  of  what  estate  he  had  thus  gotten,  in  order 
to  support  his  authority,  as  thinking  it  a  piece  of 
prudence   to   keep   what   had   been   the    occasion   and 

Chap.  IV.  OF  THE  JEWS.  237 

foundation  of  his  present  good  fortune;  and  this 
he  did  by  the  assistance  of  what  he  was  already 
possessed  of,  for  he  privately  sent  many  presents 
to  the  king,  and  to  Cleopatra,  and  to  their  friends, 
and  to  all  that  were  powerful  about  the  court,  and 
thereby  purchased .  their  good- will  to   himself. 

6.  This  good  fortune  he  enjoyed  for  twenty-two 
years:  and  was  become  the  father  of  seven  sons,  by 
one  wife:  he  had  also  another  son,  whose  name  was 
Hyrcanus,  by  his  brother  Solymius'  daughter,  whom 
he  married  on  the  following  occasion.  He  once 
came  to  Alexandria  with  his  brother,  who  had  along 
with  him  a  daughter  already  marriageable,  in  order 
to  give  her  in  wedlock  to  some  of  the  Jews  of  chief 
dignity  there.  He  then  supped  with  the  king,  and 
falling  in  love  with  an  actress,  that  was  of  great 
beauty,  and  came  into  the  room  where  they  feasted, 
he  told  his  brother  of  it,  and  entreated  him,  because 
a  Jew  is  forbidden  by  their  law  to  come  near  to 
a  foreigner,  to  conceal  his  offence,  and  to  be  kind 
and  subservient  to  him,  and  to  give  him  an  oppor- 
tunity of  fulfilling  his  desires.  Upon  which  his 
brother  willingly  entertained  the  proposal  of  serving 
him,  and  adorned  his  own  daughter,  and  brought 
her  to  him  by  night,  and  put  her  into  his  bed.  And 
Joseph,  being  disordered  witli  drink,  knew  not  who 
she  was,  and  so  lay  with  liis  brother's  daughter; 
and  this  did  he  many  times  and  loved  her  exceedingly, 
and  said  to  his  brother,  that  he  loved  this  actress 
so  well,  that  he  should  run  the  hazard  of  his  life 
[if  he  must  part  with  her,]  and  yet  probably  the 
king  would  not  give  him  leave  [to  take  her  with 
him].  But  his  brother  bid  him  be  in  no  concern 
about  that  matter,  and  told  him,  he  might  enjoy 
her  whom  he  loved  without  any  danger,  and  might 
have  her  for  his  wife;   and  opened  the   truth   of  the 

238  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

matter  to  him,  and  assured  him  that  he  chose  rather 
to  have  his  own  daughter  ahused,  than  to  overlook 
him,  and  see  him  come  to  [pubhc]  disgrace.  So 
Joseph  commended  him  for  this  his  brotherly  love; 
and  married  his  daughter;  and  by  her  begat  a  son, 
whose  name  was  Hyrcanus,  as  we  said  before.  And 
when  this  his  youngest  son  showed,  at  thirteen  years 
old,  a  mind  that  was  both  courageous  and  wise,  and 
was  greatly  envied  by  his  brethren,  as  being  of  a 
genius  much  above  them,  and  such  an  one  as  they 
might  well  envy,  Joseph  had  once  a  mind  to  know 
which  of  his  sons  had  the  best  disposition  to  virtue, 
and  when  he  sent  them  severally  to  those  that  had 
then  the  best  reputation  for  instructing  youth,  the 
rest  of  his  children,  by  reason  of  their  sloth,  and 
unwillingness  to  take  pains,  returned  to  him  foolish 
and  unlearned.  After  them  lie  sent  out  the  youngest, 
Hyrcanus,  and  gave  him  three  hundred  yoke  of 
oxen,  and  bid  him  go  two  days  journey  into  the 
wilderness,  and  sow  the  land  there  and  yet  kept 
back  privately  the  yokes  of  the  oxen  that  coupled 
them  together.  When  Hyrcanus  came  to  the  j^lace, 
and  found  he  had  no  yokes  with  him,  he  contemned 
the  drivers  of  the  oxen,  who  advised  him  to  send 
home  to  his  father,  to  bring  them  some  yokes;  but 
he  thinking  that  he  ought  not  to  lose  his  time,  while 
they  should  be  sent  to  bring  him  the  yokes,  he  in- 
vented a  kind  of  stratagem,  and  what  suited  an  age 
older  than  his  own;  for  he  slew  ten  yoke  of  the 
oxen,  and  distributed  their  flesh  among  the  labourers, 
and  cut  their  hides  into  several  pieces,  and  made 
him  yokes,  and  yoked  the  oxen  together  with  them; 
})y  which  means  he  sowed  as  much  land  as  his  father 
had  appointed  him  to  sow,  and  returned  to  him. 
And  when  lie  was  come  back,  his  father  was  mightily 
pleased  with  his  sagacity,  and  commended  the  sharp- 

Chap.  IV.  OF  THE  JEWS.  230 

ness  of  his  understanding,  and  his  boldness  in  what 
he  did.  And  he  still  loved  him  the  more,  as  if  he 
were  his  only  genuine  son,  while  his  brethren  were 
much  troubled  at  it. 

7.  But  when  one  told  him  that  Ptolemy  had  a 
son  just  born,  and  that  all  the  principal  men  of 
SjTia,  and  the  other  countries  subject  to  him,  were 
to  keep  a  festival,  on  account  of  the  child's  birthday, 
and  went  away  in  haste  with  great  retinues  to  Alex- 
andria, he  was  himself  indeed  hindered  from  going 
by  old  age,  but  he  made  trial  of  his  sons,  whether 
any  of  them  would  be  willing  to  go  to  the  king.  And 
when  the  elder  sons  excused  themselves  from  going, 
and  said,  they  were  not  courtiers  good  enough  for 
such  conversation,  and  advised  him  to  send  their 
brother  Hyrcanus,  he  gladly  hearkened  to  that  ad- 
vice; and  called  Hyrcanus,  and  asked  him,  whether 
he  would  go  to  the  king;  and  whether  it  was  agree- 
able to  him  to  go  or  not?  And  upon  his  promise 
that  he  would  go,  and  his  saying  that  he  should 
not  want  much  money  for  his  journey,  because  he 
would  live  moderately,  and  that  ten  thousand  drachmae 
would  be  sufficient,  he  was  pleased  with  his  son's 
prudence.  After  a  little  while,  the  son  advised  his 
father  not  to  send  his  presents  to  the  king  from 
thence,  but  to  give  him  a  letter  to  his  steward  at 
Alexandria,  that  he  might  furnish  him  with  money, 
for  purchasing  what  should  be  most  excellent  and 
most  precious.  So  he  thinking  that  the  expense 
of  ten  talents  would  be  enough  for  presents  to  be 
made  the  king,  and  commending  his  son  as  giving 
him  good  advice,  wrote  to  Arion  his  steward,  that 
managed  all  his  money  matters  at  Alexandria;  which 
money  was  not  less  than  three  thousand  talents  on 
his  account,  for  Josepli  sent  the  monej''  he  received 
in  Syria  to  Alexandria.     And  when  the  day  appointed 

240  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

for  the  payment  of  the  taxes  to  the  king  came,  he 
wrote  to  Ai'ion  to  pay  them.  So  when  the  son  had 
asked  his  father  ior  a  letter  to  this  steward,  and 
had  received  it,  he  made  haste  to  Alexandria.  And 
when  he  was  gone,  his  brethren  wrote  to  all  the 
king's   friends,   that   they   should   destroy  him. 

8.  But  when  he  was  come  to  Alexandria,  he  de- 
livered his  letter  to  Arion,  who  asked  him  how  many 
talents  he  would  have^  (hoping  he  would  ask  for 
no  more  than  ten,  or  a  little  more,)  he  said  he  wanted 
a  thousand  talents.  At  which  the  steward  was  angry 
and  rebuked  him,  as  one  that  intended  to  live  ex- 
travagantly; and  he  let  him  know  how  his  father 
had  gathered  together  his  estate  by  pains-taking,  and 
resisting  his  inclinations,  and  wished  him  to  imitate 
the  example  of  his  father:  he  assured  him  withal, 
that  he  would  give  him  but  ten  talents,  and  that 
for  a  231'esent  to  the  king  also.  The  son  was  irri- 
tated at  this,  and  threw  Arion  into  prison.  But 
when  Arion's  wife  had  informed  Cleopatra  of  this, 
with  her  entreaty,  that  she  would  rebuke  the  child 
for  wliat  he  had  done,  (for  Arion  was  in  great  esteem 
with  her)  Cleopatra  informed  the  king  of  it.  And 
Ptolemy  sent  for  HjTcanus,  and  told  him,  that  "he 
wondered  when  he  was  sent  to  him  by  his  father, 
that  he  had  not  yet  come  into  his  presence,  but  had 
laid  the  steward  in  prison."  And  he  gave  order, 
therefore,  that  he  should  come  to  him,  and  give  an 
account  of  the  reason  of  what  he  had  done.  And 
they  report,  that  the  answer  he  made  to  the  king's 
messenger  was  this:  that  "there  was  a  law  of  his 
that  forbade  a  child  tliat  was  born,  to  taste  of  the 
sacrifice,  before  he  had  been  at  the  temple  and  sacri- 
ficed to  God.  According  to  which  way  of  reasoning 
he  did  not  himself  come  to  him  in  expectation  of 
the  present  he  was  to  make  to  him,   as  to  one  who 

Chap.  IT.  OF  THE  JEWS.  241 

had  been  his  father's  benefactor:  and  that  he  had 
punished  the  slave  for  disobeying  his  commands, 
for  that  it  mattered  not  whether  a  master  was  httle 
or  great;  so  that  unless  we  punish  such  as  these, 
thou  thyself  mayest  also  expect  to  be  despised  by 
thy  subjects."  Upon  hearing  this  his  answer  he 
fell  a  laughing,  and  wondered  at  the  great  soul  of 
the  child. 

9.  When  Arion  was  apprized  that  this  was  the 
king's  disposition,  and  that  he  had  no  way  to  help 
himself,  he  gave  the  child  a  thousand  talents,  and 
was  let  out  of  prison.  So  after  three  days  were 
over,  Hyrcanus  came  and  saluted  the  king  and  queen. 
They  saw  him  with  pleasure,  and  feasted  him  in  an 
obliging  manner,  out  of  the  respect  they  bare  to 
his  father.  So  he  came  to  the  merchants  privately, 
and  bought  a  hundred  boys,  that  had  learning,  and 
were  in  the  flower  of  their  ages,  each  at  a  talent 
a-piece;  as  also  he  bought  a  hundred  maidens,  each 
at  the  same  price  as  the  other.  And  when  he  was 
invited  to  feast  with  the  king  among  the  principal 
men  in  the  country,  lie  sat  down  the  lowest  of  them 
all,  because  he  was  little  regarded,  as  a  child  in  age 
still;  and  this  by  those  who  placed  every  one  accord- 
ing to  their  dignity.  Xow  when  all  those  that  sat 
with  him  had  laid  the  bones  of  the  several  parts  on 
a  heap  before  Hyrcanus,  (for  they  had  themselves 
taken  away  the  flesh  belonging  to  them,)  till  the 
table  where  he  sat  was  filled  full  with  them;  Trypho, 
who  was  the  king's  jester,  and  was  appointed  for 
jokes  and  laughter  at  festivals,  who  was  now  asked 
by  the  guests  that  sat  at  the  table  [to  expose  him 
to  laughter].  So  he  stood  by  the  king,  and  said, 
"Dost  thou  not  see,  my  lord,  tlie  bones  that  lie 
by  Hyrcanus?  by  this  similitude  tliou  mayest  con- 
jecture that  his  father  made  all  Syria  as  bare  as  he 

242  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

hath  made  these  bones."  And  the  king  laughing 
at  what  Trypho  said,  and  asking  of  Hyrcanus,  "How 
he  came  to  have  so  many  bones  before  him?"  he 
rephed,  "Very  rightfully,  my  lord:  for  they  are 
dogs  that  eat  the  flesh  and  the  bones  together,  as 
these  thy  guests  have  done,  (looking  in  the  mean 
time  at  those  guests),  for  there  is  nothing  before 
them;  but  they  are  men  that  eat  the  flesh,  and  cast 
away  the  bones,  as  I,  who  am  also  a  man,  have  now 
done."  Upon  which  the  king  admired  at  his  answer, 
which  was  so  wisely  made;  and  bid  them  all  make 
an  acclamation,  as  a  mark  of  their  approbation  of 
his  jest,  which  was  truly  a  facetious  one.  On  the 
next  day  Hyrcanus  went  to  every  one  of  the  king's 
friends,  and  of  the  men  powerful  at  court,  and 
saluted  them;  but  still  inquired  of  the  servants  what 
present  they  would  make  the  king  on  his  son's  birth- 
day? and  when  some  said  that  they  would  give 
twelve  talents,  and  that  others  of  greater  dignity 
would  every  one  give  according  to  the  quantity  of 
their  riches,  he  pretended  to  every  one  to  be  grieved 
that  he  was  not  able  to  bring  so  large  a  present;  for 
that  he  had  no  more  than  five  talents.  And  when 
the  servants  heard  what  he  said,  they  told  their 
masters,  and  they  rejoiced  in  the  prospect  that  Joseph 
would  be  disapproved,  and  would  make  the  king 
angry,  by  the  smallness  of  his  present.  When  the 
day  came,  the  others,  even  those  that  brought  the 
most,  offered  the  king  not  above  twenty  talents; 
l)ut  Hyrcanus  gave  to  every  one  of  the  hundred 
boys,  and  hundred  maidens  that  he  had  bought,  a 
talent  a-piece,  for  them  to  carry,  and  introduced 
them,  the  boys  to  the  king,  and  the  maidens  to 
Cleopatra:  every  body  wondering  at  the  unexpected 
richness  of  the  presents,  even  the  king  and  queen 
themselves.     He   also   presented   those   that   attended 

Chap.  IV.  OF  THE  JEWS.  24.3 

about  the  king  with  gifts  to  the  value  of  a  great 
number  of  talents,  that  he  might  escape  the  danger 
he  was  in  from  them;  for  to  these  it  was  that  Hyr- 
canus'  brethren  had  written  to  destroy  him.  Xow 
Ptolemy  admired  at  the  young  man's  magnanimity; 
and  conmianded  him  to  ask  what  gift  he  pleased. 
But  he  desired  nothing  else  to  be  done  for  him  by 
tlie  king  than  to  write  to  his  father  and  brethren 
about  him.  So  when  the  king  had  paid  him  very 
great  respects,  and  had  given  him  very  large  gifts, 
and  had  written  to  his  father  and  his  brethren,  and 
all  his  commanders,  and  officers  about  him,  he  sent 
him  away.  But  when  his  brethren  heard  that  Hyr- 
canus  had  received  sucli  favours  from  the  king,  and 
was  returning  home  with  great  honour,  they  went 
out  to  meet  him,  and  to  destroy  him,  and  that  with 
the  privity  of  their  father:  for  he  was  angry  at  him 
for  the  [large]  sum  of  money  that  he  bestowed  for 
jDresents,  and  so  had  no  concern  for  his  preservation. 
However,  Joseph  concealed  the  anger  he  had  at  his 
son,  out  of  fear  of  the  king.  And  when  Hyrcanus' 
brethren  came  to  fight  him,  he  slew  many  others  of 
those  that  were  with  them;  as  also  two  of  his 
brethren  themselves,  but  the  rest  of  them  escaped 
to  Jerusalem  to  their  father.  But  when  H\Tcanus 
came  to  the  city,  where  nobody  would  receive  him, 
he  was  afraid  for  himself,  and  retired  beyond  the 
river  Jordan,  and  there  abode,  but  obliging  the 
Barbarians    to   pay   their    taxes. 

10.  At  this  time  Seleucus,  who  was  called  Snfer, 
reigned  over  Asia,  being  the  son  of  Antiochus  the 
Great.  And  [now]  Hyrcanus'  father  Joseph  died. 
He  was  a  good  man  and  of  great  magnanimity;  and 
brought  the  Jews  out  of  a  state  of  poverty  and  mean- 
ness, to  one  that  was  more  splendid.  He  retained 
the  farm  of  the  taxes   of   S^Tia,   and   Phenicia,   and 

2U  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

Samaria,  twenty-two  years.  His  uncle  also,  Onias, 
died  [about  this  time]  and  left  the  high  priesthood 
to  his  son  Simeon.  And  when  he  was  dead,  Onias 
his  son  succeeded  him  in  that  dignity.  To  him  it  was 
that  Areus,  king  of  the  Lacedemonians,  sent  an  embas- 
sage, with  an  epistle;  the  copy  whereof  here  follows: 

"Areus  king  of  the  Lacedemonians,  to  Onias, 
sendeth  greeting. 

"We  have  met  with  a  certain  writing,  whereby  we 
have  discovered  that  both  the  Jews  and  the  Lacede- 
monians are  of  one  stock,  and  are  derived  from  the 
^  kindred  of  Abraham:  It  is  but  just  therefore,  that 
you,  who  are  our  brethren,  should  send  to  us  about 
any  of  your  concerns  as  you  please.  We  will  also 
do  the  same  thing,  and  esteem  your  concerns  as  our 
own;  and  will  look  upon  our  concerns  as  in  common 
with  yours.  Demoteles,  who  brings  you  this  letter, 
will  bring  your  answer  back  to  us.  This  letter  is 
foursquare;  and  the  seal  is  an  eagle,  with  a  dragon 
in  its  claws." 

*  Whence  it  comes  that  these  Lacedemonians  declare  themselves  here 
to  be  of  kin  to  the  Jews,  as  derived  from  the  same  ancestor  Abraham, 
I  cannot  tell,  unless,  as  Grotius  supposes,  they  were  derived  from  the 
Dores,  that  came  of  the  Pelasgi.  These  are  by  Herodotus,  called  Bar- 
barians, and  perhap,s  were  derived  from  the  Syrians  and  Arabians,  the 
posterity  of  Abraham  by  Keturah.  See  Antiq.  B.  XVI.  ch.  x.  sect.  22, 
Vol.  II.  and  Of  the  War,  B.  I.  ch.  xxvi.  sect.  1.  Vol.  Ill,  and  Grot,  on 
I  Maccab.  xii.  7.  We  may  farther  observe  from  the  recognitions  of 
Clement,  that  Eliczer  of  Damascus,  the  serv^anf  of  Abraham,  Gen.  xv.  2, 
and  xxiv.  was  of  old  by  some  taken  for  his  son.  So  that  if  the  Lacede- 
monians were  sprung  from  him,  they  might  think  themselves  to  be  of 
the  posterity  of  Abraham:  as  well  as  the  Jews  who  were  sprung  from 
Isaac.  And  ]ierhaps  this  Eliezer  of  Damascus  is  that  very  Damascus 
whom  Trogus  Pompeius,  as  al)ridged  by  Justin,  makes  the  founder  of 
the  Jewish  nation  itself,  though  he  afterwards  blunders,  and  makes 
Azclus,  Adores,  Abraham,  and  Israel,  kings  of  Judea,  and  successors  to 
this  Damascus.  It  may  not  be  improper  to  observe  fartlier,  that  Moses 
("horenensis,  in  his  history  of  the  Armenians,  informs  us,  that  the  nation 
of  the  I^arthians  was  also  derived  from  Al)raham,  by  Keturah,  and  her 

Chap.  lY.  OF  THE  JEWS.  245 

11.  And  these  were  the  contents  of  the  epistle 
which  was  sent  from  the  king  of  the  Lacedemonians. 
But  upon  the  death  of  Joseph,  the  people  grew 
seditious,  on  account  of  his  sons;  For  whereas  the 
elders  made  war  against  Hyrcanus,  who  was  the 
youngest  of  Joseph's  sons,  the  multitude  was  divided, 
but  the  greater  part  joined  with  the  elders  in  this 
war;  as  did  Simon  the  high  priest,  by  reason  he  was 
of  kin  to  them.  However,  Hyrcanus  determined 
not  to  return  to  Jerusalem  any  more,  but  seated 
himself  beyond  Jordan;  and  was  at  perpetual  war 
with  the  Arabians,  and  slew  many  of  them,  and 
took  many  of  them  captives.  He  also  erected  a 
strong  castle,  and  built  it  entirely  of  white  stone 
to  the  very  roof;  and  had  animals  of  a  prodigious 
magnitude  engraven  upon  it.  He  also  drew  round 
it  a  great  and  deep  canal  of  water.  He  also  made 
caves  of  many  furlongs  in  length,  by  hollowing  a 
rock  that  was  o\er  against  him:  and  then  he  made 
large  rooms  in  it,  some  for  feasting,  and  some  for 
sleeping  and  living  in.  He  introduced  also  a  vast 
quantity  of  waters  which  ran  along  it,  and  which 
were  very  delightful  and  ornamental  in  the  court. 
But  still  he  made  the  entrances  at  the  mouth  of  the 
caves  so  narrow,  that  no  more  than  one  person  could 
enter  by  them  at  once:  And  the  reason  why  he  built 
them  after  that  manner  was  a  good  one;  it  was 
for  his  own  preservation,  lest  he  should  be  besieged 
by  his  brethren  and  run  the  hazard  of  being  caught 
by  them.  Moreover,  he  built  courts  of  greater  mag- 
nitude than  ordinary,  which  he  adorned  with  vastly 
large  gardens.  And  when  he  had  brouglit  the  place 
to  this  state,  he  named  it  Ti/re,  This  place  is  be- 
tween Arabia  and  Judea,  beyond  Jordan,  not  far 
from  the  country  of  Heshbon.  And  he  ruled  over 
those  parts   for   seven   years,   even   all   the   time   that 

246  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

Seleucus  was  king  of  Syria.  But  when  he  was  dead 
his  brother  Antiochus,  who  was  called  Epiphanes, 
took  the  kingdom.  Ptolemj^  also  the  king  of  Egypt, 
died,  who  was  besides  called  Epiphanes.  He  left 
two  sons,  and  both  young  in  age;  the  elder  of  which 
was  called  Philometer,  and  the  youngest  Physcon. 
As  for  Hyrcanus,  when  he  saw  that  Antiochus  had 
a  great  army,  and  feared  lest  he  should  be  caught 
by  him,  and  brought  to  punishment  for  what  he 
had  done  to  the  Arabians,  he  ended  his  life,  by 
slaying  himself  with  his  own  hand;  while  Antiochus 
seized  upon  all  his  substance. 


How,  upon  the  quarrels  of  the  Jews  one  against 
another  about  the  high  priesthood,  Antiochus  made 
an  ecVpedition  against  Jerusalem,  took  the  city  and 
pillaged  the  temple,  and  distressed  the  Jews:  As 
also  how  many  of  the  Jews  forsook  the  laws  of  their 
country;  and  how  the  Samaritans  followed  the 
customs  of  the  Greeks,  and  Jiamed  their  temple  at 
mount  Gerizzim,  the  temple  of  Jupiter  Hellenius. 

1.  About  this  time,  upon  the  death  of  Onias  the 
high  priest,  they  gave  the  high  priesthood  to  Jesus' 
brother;  for  that  son  which  Onias  left  [or  Onias  IV.] 
was  yet  but  an  infant:  and,  in  its  proper  place,  we 
will  inform  the  reader  of  all  the  circumstances  that 
befell  this  child.  But  this  Jesus,  who  was  the  brother 
of  Onias,  was  deprived  of  the  high  priesthood  by  the 
king,  who  was  angry  with  him,  and  gave  it  to  his 
younger  brother,  whose  name  also  was  Onias,  for 
Simon   had    these   three    sons,    to    each    of    which    the 

Chap.  V.  OF  THE  JEWS.  247 

priesthood  came  as  we  have  '  already  informed  the 
reader.  This  Jesus  changed  his  name  to  Jason;  but 
Onias  was  called  Menelaus.  Now  as  the  former  high 
priest,  Jesus,  raised  a  sedition  against  JNIenelaus, 
who  was  ordained  after  him,  the  multitude  were 
divided  between  them  both.  And  the  sons  of  Tobias 
took  the  part  of  Menelaus,  but  the  greater  part  of  the 
people  assisted  Jason:  and  by  that  means  INIenelaus, 
and  the  sons  of  Tobias  were  distressed,  and  retired 
to  Antiochus,  and  informed  him,  that  they  were 
desirous  to  leave  the  laws  of  their  country,  and  the 
Jewish  way  of  living  according  to  them,  and  to 
follow  the  king's  laws,  and  the  Grecian  way  of  living: 
Wherefore  they  desired  his  permission  to  build  them 
a  "  Gymnasium  at  Jerusalem.  And  when  he  had 
given  them  leave,  they  also  hid  the  circumcision  of 
their  genitals,  that  even  when  they  were  naked,  they 
might  appear  to  be  Greeks.  Accordingly  •  they  left 
off  all  the  customs  that  belonged  to  their  own  country, 
and  imitated  the  practices  of  the  other  nations. 
2.     Now   Antiochus,   upon   the   agreeable   situation 

*  We  have  hitherto  had  but  a  few  of  those  many  citations  where 
Josephus  says,  that  he  had  elsewhere  formerly  treated  of  many  things, 
of  which  yet  his  present  books  have  not  a  syllable.  Our  commentators 
have  hitherto  been  able  to  give  no  tolerable  account  of  these  citations, 
which  are  far  too  numerous,  and  that  usually  in  all  his  copies,  both 
Greek  and  Latin,  to  be  supposed  later  interpolations,  which  is  almost  all 
that  has  been  hitherto  said  upon  this  occasion.  What  I  have  to  say 
farther  is  this,  that  we  have  but  very  few  of  these  references  before,  and 
very  many  in  and  after  the  history  of  Antiochus  Epiphanes;  and  that 
Josephus'  first  book,  the  Hebrew  or  Chaldee,  as  well  as  the  Greek  history 
of  the  Jewish  War,  long  since  lost,  began  with  that  very  history,  so  that 
the  references  are  most  probably  made  to  that  edition  of  the  seven  Books 
of  the  War.  See  several  other  examples,  besides  those  in  the  two  sec- 
tions before  us,  in  Antiq.  B.  XIII.  ch.  ii.  sect.  1,  4,  Vol.  II.  and  ch.  iv. 
sect.  6,  8,  ch.  v.  sect.  6,  11,  ch.  viii.  sect.  4,  and  ch.  xiii.  sect.  4,  5,  and 
Antiq.   B.  XVIII.  ch.   ii.  sect.  5,  Vol.   III. 

^  This  word  Gipnnnsinni.  properly  denotes  a  place  where  the  exercises 
were  performed  naked,  which  because  it  would  naturally  distinguish  cir- 
cumcised Jews  from  uncircumcised  Gentiles,  these  Jewish  apostates  en- 
deavoured to  appear  uncircumcised,  by  means  of  a  chirurgical  operation, 
hinted  at  by  St.  Paul,  1  Cor.  vii.  ]8,*;ind  described  by  Celsus,  B.  VII. 
ch.  XXV, 

248  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

of  the  affairs  of  his  kingdom,  resolved  to  make  an 
expedition  against  Egypt,  both  because  he  had  a 
desire  to  gain  it,  and  because  he  contemned  the  son 
of  Ptolemy,  as  now  weak,  and  not  yet  of  abilities  to 
manage  affairs  of  such  consequence;  so  he  came  with 
great  forces  to  Pelusium,  and  circumvented  Ptolemy 
Philometer  by  treachery,  and  seized  upon  Egypt. 
He  then  came  to  the  places  about  Memphis;  and  when 
he  had  taken  them,  he  made  haste  to  Alexandria,  in 
hopes  of  taking  it  by  siege,  and  of  subduing  Ptolemy, 
who  reigned  there.  But  he  was  driven  not  only  from 
Alexandria,  but  out  of  all  Egypt,  l)y  the  declara- 
tions of  the  Romans,  who  charged  liim  to  let  that 
country  alone;  according  as  I  have  elsewhere  formerly 
declared.  I  will  now  give  a  particular  account  of 
what  concerns  this  king,  how  he  subdued  Judea  and 
the  temple;  for  in  my  former  work  I  mentioned  those 
things  very  briefly,  and  have  therefore  now  thought 
it  necessary  to  go  over  that  history  again,  and  that 
with  greater  accuracy. 

3.  ^  King  Antiochus  returning  out  of  Egypt,  for 
fear  of  the  Romans,  made  an  expedition  against  tlie 
city  Jerusalem;  and  when  he  was  there,  in  the  hundred 
forty  and  third  year  of  the  kingdom  of  the  Seleucidae, 
he  took  the  city  without  fighting,  those  of  his  own 
party  opening  the  gates  to  him.  And  when  he  had 
gotten  possession  of  Jerusalem  he  slew  many  of  the 
opposite  party;  and  when  he  had  plundered  it  of  a 
great  deal  of  money,  he  returned  to  Antioch. 

4.  Xow  it  came  to  pass,  after  two  years,  in  the 
hundred    forty    and    fifth   year,    on    the    twenty-fifth 

^  Hereabouts  Josephus  begins  to  follow  tlie  first  book  of  the  Maccabees, 
a  most  excellent  and  most  autlientic  history;  and  accordingly  it  is  here, 
with  great  fidelity  and  exactness,  abridged  l)y  him;  between  whose  present 
copies  there  seem  to  lie  fewer  variations  than  in  any  other  sacred  Heorew 
hook  of  the  Old  Testament  whatsoever,  (for  this  i)Ook  also  was  origmally 
written  in  Hebrew),  which  is  very  natural,  because  it  was  written  so 
much  nearer  to  the  times  of  Josephus  than  the  rest  were. 

Chap.  Y.  OF  THE  JEWS.  249 

day  of  that  month,  which  is  by  us  called  Chasleu, 
and  by  the  Macedonians  ApelleuSj  in  the  hundred  and 
fifty-third  Olympiad,  that  the  king  came  up  to  Jeru- 
salem, and  pretending  peacfe,  he  got  possession  of 
the  city  by  treachery: 'at  which  time  he  spared  not  so 
much  as  those  that  admitted  him  into  it,  on  account 
of  the  riches  that  lay  in  the  temple;  but  led  by  his 
covetous  inclination,  (for  he  saw  there  was  in  it  a 
great  deal  of  gold,  and  many  ornaments  that  had 
been  dedicated  to  it  of  very  great  value,)  and  in  order 
to  plunder  its  wealth,  he  ventured  to  break  the  league 
he  had  made.  So  he  left  the  temple  bare;  and  took 
away  the  golden  candlesticks,  and  the  golden  altar 
[of  incense,]  and  table  [of  shew-bread,]  and  the 
altar  [of  burnt-offering;]  and  did  not  abstain  from 
even  the  vails,  which  were  made  of  fine  linen  and 
scarlet.  He  also  emptied  it  of  its  secret  treasures, 
and  left  nothing  at  all  remaining;  and  by  these  means 
cast  the  Jews  into  great  lamentation,  for  he  forbade 
them  to  offer  those  daily  sacrifices  which  they  used 
to  offer  to  God,  according  to  the  law.  And  when 
he  had  pillaged  the  whole  city,  some  of  the  inhabitants 
he  slew,  and  some  he  carried  captive,  together  with 
their  wives  and  children,  so  that  the  multitude  of 
those  captives  that  were  taken  alive  amounted  to  about 
ten  thousand.  He  also  burnt  down  the  finest  build- 
ings; and  when  he  had  overthrown  the  city  walls, 
he  built  ^  a  citadel  in  the  lower  part  of  the  city,  for 
the  place   was   high,   and   overlooked   the   temple,    on 

'  This  Citadel,  of  which  we  have  such  frequent  mention  in  the  fol- 
lowing history,  both  in  the  Maccabees  and  in  Josephus,  seems  to  have 
been  a  castle  built  on  a  hill,  lower  than  mount  Zion,  though  upon  its 
skirts,  and  higher  than  mount  Moriah,  between  them  both;  which  hill 
the  enemies  of  the  Jews  now  got  possession  of,  and  built  on  it  this 
citadel  and  fortified  it,  till  a  good  while  afterwards  the  Jews  regained 
it,  and  levelled  the  hill  itself  with  the  common  ground,  that  their  enemies 
might  no  more  recover  it,  and  might  thence  overlook  the  temple  itself, 
and  do  them  such  mischief  as  thev  had  long  undergone  from  it,  Antiq 
B.  XIII.  ch.  vi.  sect.  6,  Vol  II. 

250  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

which  account  he  fortified  it  with  high  walls  and 
towers;  and  put  into  it  a  garrison  of  Macedonians. 
However,  in  that  citadel  dwelt  the  impious  and  wicked 
part  of  the  [Jewish]  multitude,  from  whom  it  proved 
that  the  citizens  suffered  many  and  sore  calamities. 
And  when  the  king  had  built  an  idol  altar  upon  God's 
altar,  he  slew  swine  upon  it,  and  so  offered  a  sacrifice 
neither  according  to  the  law,  nor  the  Jewish  religious 
worship  in  that  country.  He  also  compelled  them  to 
forsake  the  worship  which  they  paid  their  own  God, 
and  to  adore  those  whom  he  took  to  be  gods,  and  made 
them  build  temples,  and  raise  idol  altars  in  every 
city  and  village,  and  offer  swine  upon  them  every 
day.  He  also  commanded  them  not  to  circumcise 
their  sons,  and  threatened  to  punish  any  that  should 
be  found  to  have  transgressed  his  injunctions.  He 
also  appointed  overseers,  who  should  compel  them  to 
do  what  he  commanded.  And  indeed  many  Jews 
there  were  who  complied  with  the  king's  commands, 
either  voluntarily  or  out  of  fear  of  the  penalty  that 
was  denounced:  but  the  best  men,  and  those  of  the 
noblest  souls,  did  not  regard  him,  but  did  pay  a 
greater  respect  to  the  customs  of  their  country,  than 
concern  as  to  the  punishment  which  he  threatened  to 
the  disobedient;  on  which  account  they  every  day 
underwent  great  miseries,  and  bitter  torments,  for 
they  were  whipped  with  rods,  and  their  bodies  were 
torn  to  pieces,  and  were  crucified,  while  they  were 
still  alive,  and  breathed:  They  also  strangled  those 
women  and  their  sons  whom  they  had  circumcised, 
as  the  king  had  appointed,  hanging  their  sons  about 
their  necks  as  they  were  upon  the  crosses.  And  if 
there  were  any  sacred  book  of  the  law  found,  it  was 
destroyed,  and  those  with  whom  they  were  found, 
miserably  perished  also. 

^,     When    the    Samaritans    saw    the    Jews    under 

Chap.  V.  OF  THE  JEWS.  251 

these  sufferings,  they  no  longer  confessed  that  they 
were  of  their  kindred,  nor  that  the  temple  on  mount 
Gerizzim  belonged  to  Almighty  God.  This  was  ac- 
cording to  their  nature,  as  we  have  already  shown. 
And  they  now  said,  that  they  were  a  colony  of  jNIedes 
and  Persians:  and  indeed  they  were  a  colony  of  theirs. 
So  they  sent  ambassadors  to  Antiochus,  and  an  epistle; 
whose  contents  are  these:  "To  king  Antiochus  the 
f^od,  Epiphanes,  a  memorial  from  the  Sidonians,  who 
live  at  Shechem.  Our  forefathers,  upon  -certain  fre- 
quent plagues,  and  as  following  a  certain  ancient 
superstition,  had  a  custom  of  observing  that  day  which 
by  the  Jews  is  called  the  Sabbath.^  And  when  they 
had  erected  a  temple  at  the  mountain  called  Gerizzim, 
though  without  a  name,  they  offered  upon  it  the 
proper  sacrifices.  Now,  upon  the  just  treatment  of 
tliese  wicked  Jews,  those  tliat  manage  their  affairs, 
supposing  that  we  were  of  kin  to  them,  and  practised 
as  they  do,  make  us  liable  to  the  same  accusations, 
although  we  be  originally  Sidonians,  as  is  evident 
from  the  public  records.  We  therefore  beseech  thee, 
our  benefactor  and  saviour,  to  give  order  to  Appol- 
lonius,  the  governor  of  this  part  of  the  country,  and 
to  Xicanor,  the  procurator  of  thy  affairs,  to  give  us 
no  disturbance,  nor  to  lay  to  our  charge  what  the 
Jews  are  accused  for,  since  we  are  aliens  from  their 
nation,  and  from  their  customs;  but  let  our  temple, 
which  at  present  hath  no  name  at  all,  be  named.  The 
tevvple  of  Jupiter  HcUenins.  If  this  were  once  done, 
we  should  be  no  longer  disturbed,  but  should  be  more 
intent  on  our  own  occupation  with  quietness,  and 
so  bring  in  a  greater  revenue  to  thee."  When  the 
Samaritans  had  petitioned  for  this,  the  king  sent  them 

'  This  allegation  of  the  Samaritans  is  remarkable,  that  thoutrh  they 
were  not  Jews,  yet  did  they,  from  ancient  times,  observe  the  Saliliath- 
day,  and  as  they  elsewhere  pretend,  the  Sabbatic  year  also,  Antiq.  B. 
XII.  ch.   vii.  sect",  (i.   Vol.   II. 

252  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

back  the  following  answer,  in  an  epistle:  "King 
Antiochus  to  Xicanor.  The  Sidonians,  who  live  at 
Shechem,  have  sent  me  the  memorial  inclosed.  When 
therefore  we  were  advising  with  our  friends  about 
it,  the  messengers  sent  by  them  represented  to  us, 
that  they  are  no  way  concerned  with  accusations  which 
belong  to  the  Jews,  but  choose  to  live  after  the  customs 
of  the  Greeks.  Accordingly  we  declare  them  free 
from  such  accusations,  and  order  that,  agreeable  to 
their  petition,  their  temple  be  named.  The  teviplc  of 
Jupiter  Hellenius."  He  also  sent  the  like  epistle  to 
Appollonius,  the  governor  of  that  part  of  the  country, 
in  the  forty-sixth  year,  and  the  eighteenth  day  of  the 
month  Hecatombeon. 


How,  upon  Antiochus'  prohibition  to  the  Jews  to 
malxe  use  of  the  laws  of  their  country,  Mattathias 
the  son  of  Asmoneus,  alone  despised  the  king,  and 
overcame  the  generals  of  Antiochus'  army;  as  also 
concerning  the  death  of  Mattathias,  and  the  suc- 
cession  of  Judas. 

1.  Xow  at  this  time  there  w^as  one  whose  name 
was  ^Mattathias,  who  dwelt  at  ]Modin,  the  son  of  John, 
the  son  of  Simeon,  the  son  of  Asmoneus,  a  priest  of 
the  order  of  Jmirib,  and  a  citizen  of  Jerusalem.  He 
had  five  sons,  John,  who  was  called  Gaddis,  and 
Simon,  who  was  called  Matthes,  and  Judas,  who  was 
called    ]Maccabeus,^    and    Eleazar,    who    was    called 

*  That  this  appellation  of  Marrabre  was  not  first  of  all  given  to  Judas 
Maccabeus,  nor  was  derived  from  any  initial  letters  of  the  Hebrew  words 
on    his    banner,    Mi   Knmoka    Be    EUm,   Jrhovoh?     Who    is    like    unto    thee 

Chap.  Yi.  OF  THE  JEWS.  253 

Auran,  and  Jonathan,  who  was  called  A23phus.  Now 
this  Mattathias  lamented  to  his  children  the  sad  state 
of  their  affairs,  and  the  ravage  made  in  the  city,  and 
the  plundering  of  the  temple,  and  the  calamities  the 
multitude  were  under;  and  he  told  them,  that  it  was 
hetter  for  them  to  die  for  the  laws  of  their  .country, 
than  to  live  so  ingloriously  as  they  then  did. 

2.  But  when  those  that  were  appointed  hy  the 
king  were  come  to  ^Nlodin,  that  they  might  compel 
the  Jews  to  do  what  they  were  commanded;  and  to 
enjoin  those  that  were  there  to  offer  sacrifice,  as  the 
king  had  commanded,  they  desired  that  ^lattathias, 
a  person  of  the  greatest  character  among  them,  both 
on  other  accounts,  and  particularly  on  account  of  such 
a  numerous  and  so  deserving  a  family  of  children, 
would  begin  the  sacrifice,  because  his  fellow-citizens 
would  follow  his  example,  and  because  such  a  pro- 
cedure would  make  him  honoured  by  the  king.  But 
Mattathias  said,  "he  would  not  do  it;  and  that  if  all 
the  other  nations  would  obey  the  commands  of  An- 
tiochus,  either  out  of  fear,  or  to  please  him,  yet  would 
not  he  nor  his  sons  leave  the  religious  worship  of 
their  country."  But  as  soon  as  he  had  ended  his 
speech,  there  came  one  of  the  Jews  into  the  midst 
of  them,  and  sacrificed,  as  Antiochus  had  commanded. 
At  which  INIattathias  had  great  indignation,  and  ran 
upon  him  Wolently,  with  his  sons,  who  had  swords 
with  them,  and  slew  both  the  man  himself  that 
sacrificed,  and  Apelles  the  king's  general,  who  com- 
pelled them  to  sacrifice,  with  a  few  of  his  soldiers. 
He  also  overthrew  the  idol  altar;  and  cried  out,  "If, 
said  he,  any  one  be  zealous  for  the  laws  of  his  country, 

nmonci  the  (fod.i,  O  Jehovah?  Exod.  xv.  11,  as  the  modern  Rabbins  vainly 
pretend,  see  Authent.  Rec.  Part  I.  pp.  205,  206.  Only  we  may  note,  by 
the  way,  that  the  original  name  of  these  Maccabees,  and  their  posterity, 
was  .ig))wtn(uis:  which  was  derived  from  Asmoneus,  the  great-grand- 
father of  Mattathias,  as  Josephiis  here   informs   us. 

254  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

and  for  the  worship  of  God,  let  him  follow  me." 
And  when  he  had  said  this,  he  made  haste  into  the 
desert  with  his  sons,  and  left  all  his  substance  in 
the  village.  ^Nlany  others  did  the  same  also,  and 
fled  with  their  children  and  wives  into  the  desert, 
and  dwelt  in  caves.  But  when  the  king's  generals 
heard  this,  they  took  all  the  forces  they  then  had  in 
the  citadel  at  Jerusalem,  and  pursued  the  Jews  into 
the  desert;  and  when  they  had  overtaken  them,  they 
in  the  first  place  endeavoured  to  persuade  them  to 
repent,  and  to  choose  what  was  most  for  their 
advantage,  and  not  put  them  to  the  necessity  of  using 
them  according  to  the  law  of  war.  But  when  they 
would  not  comply  with  their  persuasions,  but  con- 
tinued to  be  of  a  different  mind,  they  fought  against 
them  on  the  Sabbath-day,  and  they  burnt  them,  as 
they  were  in  the  caves,  without  resistance,  and  with- 
out so  nuich  as  stopping  up  the  entrances  of  the  caves. 
And  they  avoided  to  defend  themselves  on  that  day, 
because  they  were  not  willing  to  break  in  upon  the 
honour  they  owed  the  Sabbath,  even  in  such  distresses, 
for  our  law  requires  that  we  rest  upon  that  day. 
There  were  about  a  thousand,  with  their  wives  and 
children,  w^ho  were  smothered,  and  died  in  these 
caves;  but  many  of  those  that  escaped  joined  them- 
selves to  INIattathias,  and  appointed  him  to  be  their 
ruler,  who  taught  them  to  fight,  even  on  the  Sabbath- 
day;  and  told  them,  that  "unless  they  would  do  so, 
they  would  become  their  own  enemies,  by  observing 
the  law  [so  rigorously,]  while  their  adversaries  would 
still  assault  them  on  this  day,  and  they  would  not 
then  defend 'themselves,  and  that  nothing  could  then 
hindci-  l)ut  they  must  all  perish  without  fighting." 
This  speech  pej'suaded  them.  And  this  rule  con- 
tinues among  us  to  this  day,  that  if  there  be  a  neces- 
sity, we  may  fight  on   Sabbath-days.     So   JMattathias 

Chap.  vi.  OF  THE  JEWS.  255 

got  a  great  army  about  him,  and  overthrew  their  idol 
altars,  and  slew  those  that  broke  the  laws,  even  all 
that  he  could  get  under  his  230wer,  for  many  of  them 
w^ere  dispersed  among  the  nations  round  about  them 
for  fear  of  him.  He  also  commanded,  that  those  boys 
which  were  not  yet  circumcised  should  be  circumcised 
now;  and  he  drove  those  away  that  were  appointed 
to  hinder  such  their  circumcision. 

3.  But  when  he  had  ruled  one  year,  and  was  fallen 
into  a  distemper,  he  called  for  his  sons,  and  set  them 
round  about  him,  and  said,  "O  mv  sons,  I  am  ffoiuir 
the  way  of  all  the  earth,  and  I  recommend  to  you 
my  resolution,  and  beseech  you  not  to  be  negligent 
in  keeping  it,  but  to  be  mindful  of  the  desires  of  him 
who  begat  you,  and  l)]'ought  you  up,  and  to  preserve 
the  customs  of  your  country,  and  to  recover  yoin- 
ancient  form  of  government,  which  is  in  danger  of 
being  overturned,  and  not  to  be  carried  away  with 
those  that,  either  by  their  own  inclination,  or  out  of 
necessity,  betray  it,  but  to  become  such  sons  as  are 
w^orthy  of  me;  to  be  above  all  force  and  necessity, 
and  so  to  dispose  your  souls,  as  to  be  ready,  when  it 
shall  be  necessary,  to  die  for  your  laws,  as  sensible 
of  this  by  just  reasoning,  that  if  God  see  that  you 
are  so  disposed  he  will  not  overlook  you,  but  will 
have  a  great  value  for  your  virtue,  and  will  restore 
to  you  again  what  you  have  lost,  and  will  return  to 
you  that  freedom  in  which  you  shall  live  quietly,  and 
enjoy  yoiu-  own  customs.  Your  bodies  are  mortal, 
and  sul)ject  to  fate,  but  they  receive  a  sort  of  im- 
mortality, by  the  remembrance  of  what  actions  they 
have  done.  And  I  would  have  you  so  in  lo\'e  witli 
this  immortality,  that  you  may  pursue  after  glory: 
and  that,  when  you  have  undergone  the  greatest  dif- 
ficulties, you  may  not  scruple,  for  such  things,  to  lose 
yoiu'   lives,     I    exhort   you.    especially,    to   agree   one 

256  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

with  another;  and  in  what  excellency  any  one  of  you 
exceeds  another,  to  yield  to  him  so  far,  and  by  that 
means  to  reap  the  advantage  of  every  one's  own 
virtues.  Do  you  then  esteem  Simon  as  your  father, 
because  he  is  a  man  of  extraordinary  prudence,  and 
to  be  governed  by  him  in  what  counsels  he  gives  you. 
Take  ^Maccabeus  for  the  general  of  your  army,  be- 
cause of  his  courage  and  strength,  for  he  will  avenge 
your  nation,  and  will  bring  vengeance  on  your  enemies. 
Admit  among  you  the  righteous  and  religious,  and 
augment   their   power." 

4.  When  ^Nlattathias  had  thus  discoursed  to  his 
sons,  and  had  prayed  to  God  to  be  their  assistant, 
and  to  recover  to  the  people  their  former  constitution, 
he  died  a  little  afterward,  and  was  biu'ied  at  Modin; 
all  the  people  making  great  lamentation  for  him. 
Whereupon  his  son  Judas  took  upon  him  the  admin- 
istration of  public  affairs,  in  the  hundred  forty  and 
sixth  year:  and  thus  by  the  ready  assistance  of  his 
brethren,  and  of  others,  Judas  cast  their  enemies  out 
of  the  country,  and  put  those  of  their  own  country 
to  death  who  had  transgressed  its  laws,  and  purified 
the  land  of  all  the  pollutions  that  were  in  it. 


How  Jndas  overthrczc  the  forces  of  AppoUomus  and 
Seron,  and  killed  the  generals  of  their  armies  them- 
selves; and  how,  when  a  little  while  afterward, 
Lysias  and  Gorgias  were  beaten,  he  went  up  to 
Jerusalem,  and  jmrified  the  temple. 

1.     Whex  Appollonius,  the  general  of  the  Samari- 
tan  forces   heard   this,   he   took   his   army,   and   made 

Chap.  Yii.  OF  THE  JEWS.  2,57 

haste  to  go  against  Judas;  who  met  him,  and  joined 
battle  with  him,  and  beat  him,  and  slew  many  of 
his  men,  and  among  them  Appollonius  himself,  their 
general,  whose  sword  being  that  which  he  happened 
to  wear,  he  seized  upon,  and  kept  for  himself;  but 
he  wounded  more  than  he  slew,  and  took  a  great 
deal  of  prey  from  the  enemies'  camp,  and  went  his 
way.  But  when  Seron,  who  was  general  of  the  army 
of  Celesyria,  heard  that  many  had  joined  themselves 
to  Judas,  and  that  he  had  about  him  an  army  suffi- 
cient for  fighting,  and  for  making  war,  he  determined 
to  make  an  expedition  against  him,  as  thinking  it 
became  him  to  endeavour  to  punish  those  that  trans- 
gressed the  king's  injunctions.  He  then  got  to- 
gether an  army  as  large  as  he  was  able,  and  joined 
it  to  the  runagate  and  wicked  Jews,  and  came  against 
Judas.  He  came  as  far  as  Bethhoron,  a  village 
of  Judea,  and  there  pitched  his  camp:  upon  whic'i 
Judas  met  him;  and  when  he  intended  to  give  him 
battle,  he  saw  that  his  soldiers  were  backward  to 
fight,  because  their  number  was  small,  and  because 
they  M^inted  food,  for  they  were,  fasting,  he  en- 
couraged them,  and  said  to  them,  that  "victory  and 
conquest  of  enemies  is  not  derived  from  the  mul- 
titude in  armies,  but  in  the  exercise  of  i^iety  towards 
God;  and  that  they  had  the  plainest  instances  in 
their  forefathers,  who  by  their  righteousness,  and 
exerting  themselves  on  behalf  of  their  own  laws, 
and  their  own  children,  had  frequently  conquered 
many  ten  thousands,  for  innocence  is  the  strongest 
army."  By  this  speech  he  induced  his  men  to  con- 
temn the  multitude  of  the  enemy,  and  to  fall  upon 
Seron.  And  upon  joining  battle  with  him,  he  beat 
the  Syrians;  and  when  their  general  fell  among  the 
rest,  they  all  run  away  with  speed,  as  thinking  tliat 
to   be   their   best    way   of    escaping.     So    he    pursued 

258  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xil. 

them  unto  the  plain,  and  slew  about  eigbt  hundred 
of  the  enemy,  but  the  rest  escaped  to  the  region 
which  lay  near  to  the  sea. 

2.  When  king  Antiochus  heard  of  these  things, 
he  was  very  angry  at  what  had  happened;  so  he 
got  together  all  his  own  army,  witli  many  mercenaries, 
whom  he  had  hired  from  the  islands,  and  took  them 
with  him,  and  j^repared  to  break  into  Judea,  about 
tlie  beginning  of  the  spring.  But  when,  upon  his 
mustering  his  soldiers,  he  perceived  that  his  treasures 
were  deficient,  and  there  was  a  want  of  money  in 
them,  for  all  the  taxes  were  not  paid,  by  reason  of 
the  seditions  there  had  been  among  the  nations,  he 
having  been  so  magnanimous  and  so  liberal,  that 
what  he  had  was  not  sufficient  for  him,  he  therefore 
resolved  first  to  go  into  Persia,  and  collect  the  taxes 
of  that  country.  Hereupon  he  left  one  whose  name 
was  Lysias,  who  was  in  great  repute  with  him,  gov- 
ernor of  the  kingdom,  as  far  as  the  bounds  of  Egypt, 
and  of  the  lower  Asia,  and  reaching  from  the  river 
Euphrates,  and  committed  to  him  a  certain  part  of 
his  forces,  and  of  his  elephants,  and  charged  him  to 
bring  up  his  son  Antiochus  with  all  possible  care, 
until  he  came  back;  and  tliat  he  should  conquer 
Judea,  and  take  its  inhabitants  for  slaves,  and  utterly 
destroy  Jerusalem,  and  abolish  the  whole  nation. 
And  when  king  Antiochus  had  given  these  things 
in  charge  to  Lysias,  he  went  into  Persia:  and  in  the 
hundred  and  forty-seventh  year  he  passed  over  Eu- 
phrates, and  went  to  the  sujDcrior  provinces. 

3.  Upon  this  Lysias  chose  Ptolemy,  the  son  of 
Dorymenes,  and  Nicanor,  and  Gorgias,  very  potent 
men  among  the  king's  friends,  and  delivered  to  them 
forty  tliousand  foot  soldiers,  and  seven  thousand 
horsemen,  and  sent  them  against  Judea,  who  came 
as  far  as  the  city  I^],mmaus,  and  pitched  their  camp 

Chap.  VII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  259 

ill  the  j^l'^iii^  country.  There  came  also  to  them 
auxiharies  out  of  Syria,  and  the  country  round  about; 
as  also  many  of  the  runagate  Jews.  And  besides 
these  came  some  merchants  to  buy  those  that  should 
be  carried  captives,  (having  bonds  with  them  to 
bind  those  that  should  be  made  prisoners),  with  that 
silver  and  gold  which  they  were  to  pay  for  their 
price.  And  when  Judas  saw  their  camp,  and  how 
numerous  their  enemies  were,  he  persuaded  his  own 
soldiers  to  be  of  good  courage;  and  exhorted  them 
to  place  their  hopes  of  victory  in  God,  and  to  make 
supplication  to  him,  according  to  the  custom  of 
their  country,  clothed  in  sackcloth;  and  to  show  what 
was  their  usual  habit  of  supplication  in  the  greatest 
dangers,  and  thereby  to  prevail  with  God  to  grant 
you  the  victory  over  your  enemies.  So  he  set  them 
in  their  ancient  order  of  battle  used  by  their  fore- 
fathers, under  their  captains  of  thousands,  and  other 
officers;  and  dismissed  such  as  were  newly  married, 
as  well  as  those  that  had  newly  gained  possessions, 
that  they  might  not  fight  in  a  cowardly  manner,  out 
of  an  inordinate  love  of  life,  in  order  to  enjoy  those 
blessings.  When  he  had  thus  disposed  his  soldiers, 
he  encouraged  them  to  fight  by  the  following  speech, 
M'hich  he  made  to  them:  "O  my  fellow-soldiers,  no 
other  time  remains  more  opportune  than  the  present 
for  courage,  and  contempt  of  dangers;  for  if  you 
now  fight  manfully  you  may  recover  your  liberty, 
which,  as  it  is  a  thing  of  itself  agreeable  to  all  men, 
so  it  proves  to  be  to  us,  much  more  desirable,  by 
its  afi'ording  us  the  liberty  of  worshipping  God. 
Since  tlierefore  you  are  in  such  circumstances  at 
present,  that  you  must  either  recover  that  liberty, 
and  so  regain  a  happy  and  blessed  way  of  living, 
which  is  that  according  to  our  laws  and  customs  of 
our   country,   or   to   submit   to   the   most   opprobrious 

260  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

sufferings;  nor  will  any  seed  of  your  nation  remain 
if  you  be  beat  in  this  })attle.  Fight,  therefore,  man- 
fully; and  suppose  that  you  must  die,  though  you 
do  not  fight.  But  believe,  that  besides  such  glorious 
rewards  as  those  of  the  liberty  of  your  country,  of 
your  laws,  of  your  religion,  you  shall  then  obtain 
everlasting  glory.  Prepare  yourselves  therefore,  and 
put  yourselves  into  such  an  agreeable  posture,  that 
you  may  be  ready  to  fight  with  the  enemy  as  soon 
as  it  is  day  to-morrow  morning." 

4,  And  this  was  the  speech  w^hich  Judas  made 
to  encourage  them.  But  when  the  enemy  sent  Gor- 
gias,  with  five  thousand  foot,  and  one  thousand 
horse,  that  he  might  fall  upon  Judas  by  night,  and 
had  for  that  purpose  certain  of  the  runagate  Jews 
as  guides,  the  son  of  Mattathias  perceived  it,  and 
resolved  to  fall  upon  those  enemies  that  were  in 
their  camj),  now  their  forces  were  divided.  When 
they  had  therefore  supped  in  good  time,  and  had 
left  many  fires  in  their  camp,  he  marched  all  night 
to  those  enemies  that  were  at  Emmaus;  so  that  when 
Gorgias  found  no  enemj-  in  their  camp,  but  suspected 
that  they  w^ere  retired  and  had  hidden  themselves 
among  the  mountains,  he  resolved  to  go  and  seek 
them  wheresoever  they  were.  But  about  break  of 
day,  Judas  appeared  to  those  enemies  that  were  at 
Emmaus,  with  only  three  thousand  men,  and  those 
ill  armed,  by  reason  of  their  poverty,  and  when 
he  saw  the  enemy  very  well  and  skilfully  fortified 
in  their  camp,  he  encouraged  the  Jews,  and  told 
them  "that  they  ought  to  fight,  though  it  were  w^itli 
their  naked  bodies,  for  that  God  had  sometimes  of  old 
given  such  men  strength,  and  that  against  such 
as  were  more  in  number,  and  were  armed  also,  out 
of  regard  to  their  great  courage."  So  he  com- 
manded the  trumj^eters  to  sound  for  the  battle:  and 

Chap.  vii.  OF  THE  JEWS.  261 

by  thus  falling  upon  the  enemies  when  they  did  not 
expect  it,  and  thereby  astonishing  and  disturbing 
their  minds,  he  slew  many  of  those  that  resisted 
him,  and  went  on  pursuing  the  rest  as  far  as  Gadara, 
and  the  plains  of  Idumea,  and  Ashdod,  and  Jamnia: 
and  of  these  there  fell  about  three  thousand.  Yet 
did  Judas  exhort  his  soldiers  not  to  be  too  desirous 
of  the  spoils,  for  that  still  they  must  have  a  contest 
and  a  battle  with  Gorgias,  and  the  forces  that  were 
with  him;  but  that  when  they  had  once  overcome 
them,  then  they  might  securely  plunder  the  camp, 
because  they  were  the  only  enemies  remaining,  and 
they  expected  no  others.  And  just  as  he  was  speak- 
ing to  his  soldiers,  Gorgias'  men  looked  down  into 
that  army,  which  they  left  in  their  camp,  and  saw 
that  it  was  overthrown;  and  the  camp  burnt;  for 
the  smoke  that  arose  from  it  showed  them,  even 
when  tliey  were  a  great  way  off,  what  had  happened. 
When  therefore  those  that  were  with  Gorgias  under- 
stood that  things  were  in  this  posture,  and  perceived 
that  those  tliat  were  with  Judas  were  ready  to  fight 
them,  they  also  were  affrighted,  and  put  to  flight; 
but  then  Judas,  as  though  he  had  already  beaten 
Gorgias'  soldiers  without  fighting,  returned  and 
seized  on  the  spoils.  He  took  a  great  quantity  of 
gold  and  silver,  and  purple,  and  blue,  and  then 
returned  home  with  joy,  and  singing  hymns  to  God 
for  their  good  success;  for  this  victory  greatly  con- 
tributed to  the  recovery  of  their  liberty. 

5.  Hereupon  Lysias  was  confounded  at  the  de- 
feat of  the  army  which  he  had  sent,  and  the  next 
year  he  got  together  sixty  thousand  chosen  men. 
He  also  took  five  thousand  horsemen,  and  fell  upon 
Judea;  and  he  went  up  to  the  hill  country  of  Bethsur, 
a  village  of  Judea,  and  pitched  his  camp  there, 
where  Judas   met  him   with   ten   thousand   men;    and 

262  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

when  he  saw  the  great  number  of  his  enemies,  he 
prayed  to  God,  that  he  would  assist  him,  and  joined 
battle  with  the  first  of  the  enemy  that  appeared, 
and  beat  them,  and  slew  about  five  thousand  of 
them,  and  thereby  became  terrible  to  the  rest  of 
them.  Nay,  indeed,  Lysias  observing  the  great 
spirit  of  the  Jews,  how  they  were  prepared  to  die 
rather  than  lose  their  liberty,  and  being  afraid  of 
their  desperate  way  of  fighting,  as  if  it  were  real 
strength,  he  took  the  rest  of  the  army  back  with 
him,  and  returned  to  Antioch,  where  he  listed  for- 
eigners into  the  service,  and  prepared  to  fall  upon 
Judea  with  a  greater  army. 

6.  When  therefore  the  generals  of  Antiochus' 
armies  had  })een  beaten  so  often,  Judas  assembled 
the  people  together,  and  told  them.  That  "after 
these  many  victories,  which  God  had  given  them, 
they  ought  to  go  up  to  Jerusalem,  and  purify  the 
temple,  and  offer  the  appointed  sacrifices."  But  as 
soon  as  he,  with  the  whole  multitude,  was  come  to 
Jerusalem,  and  found  the  temple  deserted,  and  its 
gates  burnt  down,  and  plants  growing  in  the  temple 
of  their  own  accord,  on  account  of  its  desertion,  he 
and  those  that  were  with  him  began  to  lament,  and 
were  quite  confounded  at  the  sight  of  the  temple; 
so  he  chose  out  some  of  his  soldiers  and  gave  them 
order  to  fight  against  those  guards  that  were  in 
the  citadel,  until  he  should  have  purified  the  temple. 
When  therefore  he  had  carefully  purged  it,  and  had 
brought  in  new  vessels,  the  candlestick,  the  table 
[of  shew-bread],  and  the  altar  [of  incense],  which 
were  made  of  gokl,  he  hung  up  the  vails  at  the 
gates,  and  added  doors  to  them.  He  also  took  down 
tlie  altar  [of  burnt-offering],  and  built  a  new  one 
of  stones  that  he  gathered  together,  and  not  of  such 
as   were  hewn   with    iron   tools.     So   on   the   five   and 

Chap.  vii.  OF  THP:  JEWS.  2G3 

twentieth  day  of  the  month  Casleu,  which  the  Mace- 
donians call  ApcUcus,  they  lighted  the  lamps  that 
were  on  the  candlestick,  and  offered  incense  upon 
the  [altar  of  incense],  and  laid  the  loaves  upon 
the  table  [of  shew-bread,]  and  offered  burnt-offer- 
ings upon  the  new  altar  [of  burnt-offering].  Xow 
it  so  fell  out,  that  these  things  were  done  on  the 
very  same  day  on  which  their  divine  worship  had 
fallen  off,  and  was  reduced  to  a  profane  and  common 
use,  after  three  years"  time;  for  so  it  was,  that  the 
temple  was  made  desolate  by  Antiochus,  and  so 
continued  for  three  years.  This  desolation  happened 
to  the  temple  in  the  hundred  forty  and  fifth  year, 
on  the  twenty-fifth  day  of  the  month  Apelleus,  and 
on  the  hundred  fifty  and  third  Olympiad:  but  it  was 
dedicated  anew,  on  the  same  day,  the  twenty-fifth 
of  the  month  Apelleus,  on  the  hundred  and  forty- 
eighth  year,  and  on  the  hundred  and  fifty-fourth 
Olympiad.  And  this  declaration  came  to  pass  ac- 
cording to  the  prophecy  of  Daniel  which  was  given 
four  hundred  and  eight  years  before;  for  he  de- 
clared that  the  ^lacedonians  would  dissolve  that 
worship    [for  some   time.] 

7.  Xow  Judas  celebrated  the  festival  of  the  res- 
toration of  the  sacrifices  of  the  temple  for  eight  days; 
and  omitted  no  sort  of  pleasures  thereon ;  but  he 
feasted  them  upon  very  rich  and  splendid  sacrifices; 
and  he  honoured  God,  and  delighted  them  by  hynms 
and  psalms.  Xay,  they  were  so  very  glad  at  the 
revival  of  their  customs,  when,  after  a  long  time 
of  intermission,  they  unexpectedly  had  regained  the 
freedom  of  their  worship,  that  they  made  it  a  law 
for  their  posterity,  that  they  should  keep  a  festival 
on  account  of  the  restoration  of  their  temple  worship, 
for  eight  days.  And  from  that  time  to  this  we  cele- 
brate  this    festival,    and    call    it    Light fi.     I    suppose 

264  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

the  reason  was,  because  this  liberty  beyond  our  hopes 
appeared  to  us;  and  that  thence  was  the  name  given 
to  the  festival.  Judas  also  rebuilt  the  walls  round 
about  the  city;  and  reared  towers  of  great  height 
against  the  incursions  of  enemies;  and  set  guards 
therein.  He  also  fortified  the  city  Bethshura,  that 
it  might  serve  as  a  citadel  against  any  distresses 
that  might  come  from  our  enemies. 


How  Judas  subdued  the  nations  round  about;  and 
how  Simon  beat  the  people  of  Tyre  and  Ptolemais; 
and  how  Judas  overcame  Timotheus,  and  forced 
him  to  jiy  away,  and  did  many  other  things,  after 
Joseph  and  Azarias  had  been  beaten. 

1.  When  these  things  were  over,  the  nations 
round  about  the  Jews  were  very  uneasy  at  the  re- 
vival of  their  power,  and  rose  up  together,  and  de- 
stroyed many  of  them,  as  gaining  advantage  over 
them  by  laying  snares  for  them,  and  making  secret 
conspiracies  against  them.  Judas  made  perpetual 
expeditions  against  these  men,  and  endeavoured  to 
restrain  them  from  those  incursions,  and  to  prevent 
the  mischiefs  they  did  to  the  Jews.  So  he  fell  upon 
the  Idumeans,  the  posterity  of  Esau,  at  Acrabattene, 
and  slew  a  great  many  of  them,  and  took  their  spoils. 
He  also  shut  up  the  sons  of  Bean,  that  laid  wait 
for  the  Jews,  and  he  sat  down  about  them,  and 
besieged  them,  and  biu'nt  their  towers,  and  destroyed 
the  men  [that  were  in  them].  After  this  he  went 
thence  in  haste  against  the  Ammonites,  who  had 
a  great  and  a  numerous  army;   of  which  Timotheus 

Chap.  VIII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  265 

was  the  commander.  And  when  he  had  subdued 
them,  he  seized  on  the  city  Jazer,  and  took  their 
wives  and  their  children  captives,  and  burnt  the  city, 
and  then  returned  into  Judea.  But  when  the  neigh- 
bouring nations  understood  that  he  was  returned, 
they  got  together  in  great  numbers,  in  the  land  of 
Gilead,  and  came  against  those  Jews  that  were  at 
their  borders,  vv^ho  then  fled  to  the  garrison  of 
Dametha;  and  sent  to  Judas  to  inform  him  that 
Timotheus  was  endeavouring  to  take  the  place  whither 
they  were  fled.  And  as  these  epistles  were  reading, 
there  came  other  messengers  out  of  Galilee,  who  in- 
formed him  that  the  inhabitants  of  Ptolemais,  and 
of  Tyre  and  Sidon,  and  strangers  of  Galilee,  were 
gotten  together. 

2.  Accordingly  Judas,  upon  considering  what  was 
fit  to  be  done,  with  relation  to  the  necessity  both 
these  cases  required,  gave  order  that  Simon  his  brother 
should  take  three  thousand  chosen  men,  and  go  to 
the  assistance  of  the  Jews  in  Galilee,  whilst  he  and 
another  of  his  brothers,  Jonathan,  made  haste  into 
the  land  of  Gilead,  with  eight  thousand  soldiers. 
And  he  left  Joseph,  the  son  of  Zacharias,  and  Azarius, 
to  be  over  the  rest  of  the  forces;  and  charged  them 
to  keep  Judea  very  carefully,  and  to  fight  no  battles 
with  any  persons  whomsoever  until  his  return.  Ac- 
cordingly, Simon  went  into  Galilee,  and  fought  the 
enemy,  and  put  them  to  flight,  and  pursued  them 
to  the  very  gates  of  Ptolemais,  and  slew  about  three 
thousand  of  them;  and  took  the  spoils  of  those  that 
were  slain,  and  those  Jews  whom  they  had  made 
captives,  with  their  baggage;  and  then  returned  home. 

3.  Now  as  for  Judas  Maccabeus,  and  his  brother 
Jonathan,  they  passed  over  the  river  Jordan;  and 
when  they  had  gone  three  days'  journey,  they  light 
upon  the  Nabateans,  who  came  to  meet  them  peace- 

266  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

ably,  and  who  told  them  how  the  affairs  of  those 
in  the  land  of  Gilead  stood;  and  how  many  of  them 
were  in  distress,  and  driven  into  garrisons,  and  into 
the  cities  of  Galilee:  and  exhorted  him  to  make 
haste  to  go  against  the  foreigners,  and  to  endeavour 
to  save  his  own  countrymen  out  of  their  hands.  To 
this  exhortation  Judas  hearkened  and  returned  into 
the  wilderness;  and  in  the  first  place  fell  upon  the 
inhabitants  of  Bosor,  and  took  the  city,  and  beat 
the  inhabitants,  and  destroyed  all  the  males,  and 
all  that  were  able  to  fight,  and  burnt  the  city.  Nor 
did  he  stop  even  when  night  came  on,  but  he  journeyed 
in  it  to  the  garrison  where  the  Jews  happened  to 
be  then  shut  up,  and  where  Timotheus  lay  round 
the  place  with  his  army:  and  Judas  came  upon  the 
city  in  the  morning;  and  when  he  found  that  the 
enemy  were  making  an  assault  upon  the  walls,  and 
that  some  of  them  brought  ladders,  on  which  they 
might  get  upon  those  walls,  and  that  others  brought 
engines  to  [batter  them],  he  bid  the  trumpeter  to 
sound  his  trumpet,  and  he  encouraged  his  soldiers 
cheerfully  to  undergo  dangers  for  the  sake  of  their 
brethren  and  kindred;  he  also  parted  his  army  into 
three  bodies,  and  fell  upon  the  backs  of  their  enemies. 
But  when  Timotheus'  men  perceived  that  it  was 
]\Iaccabeus  that  was  upon  them,  of  both  whose  courage 
and  good  success  in  war  they  had  formerly  had 
sufficient  experience,  they  were  put  to  flight;  but 
Judas  followed  them  with  his  army,  and  slew  about 
eight  thousand  of  them.  He  then  turned  aside  to 
a  city  of  the  foreigners  called  31  all c,  and  took  it, 
and  slew  all  the  males,  and  burnt  the  city  itself. 
He  then  removed  from  thence,  and  overthrew  Cas- 
peom,  and  Bosor,  and  many  other  cities  of  the  land 
of  Gilead. 

4.     But    not    long    after    this    Timotheus    prepared 

Chap.  VIII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  267 

a  great  army,  and  took  many  others  as  auxiliaries, 
and  induced  some  of  the  Arabians,  by  the  promise 
of  rewards,  to  go  with  him  in  this  expedition,  and 
came  with  his  army  beyond  the  brook,  over  against 
the  city  Raphon.  And  he  encouraged  his  soldiers, 
if  it  came  to  a  battle  with  the  Jews,  to  fight  coura- 
geously, and  to  hinder  their  passing  over  the  brook: 
for  he  said  to  them  beforehand,  That  "if  they  come 
over  it,  we  shall  be  beaten."  And  when  Judas 
heard  that  Timotheus  prepared  himself  to  fight,  he 
took  all  his  own  army,  and  went  in  haste  against 
Timotheus  his  enemy;  and  when  he  had  passed  over 
the  brook,  he  fell  upon  his  enemies,  and  some  of 
them  met  him,  whom  he  slew,  and  others  of  them 
he  so  terrified,  that  he  compelled  them  to  throw  down 
their  arms,  and  fly;  and  some  of  them  escaped,  but 
some  of  them  fled  to  what  was  called  the  temple 
at  Carnaim,  and  hoped  thereby  to  preserve  them- 
selves; but  Judas  took  the  city,  and  slew  them,  and 
burnt  the  temple,  and  so  used  several  ways  of  de- 
stroying his  enemies. 

5.  When  he  had  done  this,  he  gathered  the  Jews 
together,  with  their  children,  and  wives,  and  the 
substance  that  belonged  to  them,  and  was  going  to 
bring  them  back  into  Judea:  but  as  soon  as  he  was 
come  to  a  certain  city,  whose  name  was  Ephron, 
that  lay  upon  the  road,  (and  as  it  was  not  possible 
for  him  to  go  any  other  way,  so  he  was  not  willing 
to  go  back  again),  he  then  sent  to  the  inhabitants, 
and  desired  that  they  would  open  their  gates,  and 
permit  them  to  go  on  their  way  through  the  city, 
for  they  had  stopped  up  the  gates  with  stones,  and 
cut  off'  their  passage  through  it.  And  when  the 
inhabitants  of  Ephron  would  not  agree  to  this  pro- 
posal, he  encouraged  those  th;it  were  with  him,  and 
encompassed    the    city    round,    and    besieged    it,    and 

268  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

lying  round  it  by  day  and  night,  took  the  city,  and 
slew  every  male  in  it,  and  burnt  it  all  down,  and 
so  obtained  a  way  through  it;  and  the  multitude  of 
those  that  were  slain  was  so  great,  that  they  went 
over  the  dead  bodies.  So  they  came  over  Jordan, 
and  arrived  at  the  great  plain,  over  against  which 
is  situate  the  city  Bethshan,  which  is  called  by  the 
Greeks  ^  ScythopoUs.  And  going  away  hastily  from 
thence,  they  came  into  Judea,  singing  psalms  and 
hymns  as  they  went,  and  indulging  such  tokens  of 
mirth  as  are  usual  in  triumphs  upon  victory.  They 
also  offered  thank-offerings,  both  for  their  good  suc- 
cess, and  for  the  preservation  of  tlieir  army,  for 
^  not  one  of  the  Jews  was  slain  in  these  battles. 

6.  But  as  to  Joseph,  the  son  of  Zacharias,  and 
Azarias,  whom  Judas  left  generals  [of  the  rest  of 
the  forces]  at  the  same  time  when  in  Galilee,  fighting 
against  the  people  of  Ptolemais,  and  Judas  himself 
and  his  brother  Jonathan,  were  in  the  land  of  Gilead, 
did  these  men  also  affect  the  glory  of  being  coura- 
geous generals  in  war,  in  order  whereto  they  took 
the  army  that  was  under  their  command,  and  came 
to  Jamnia.  There  Gorgias,  the  general  of  the  forces 
of  Jamnia,  met  them;  and  upon  joining  battle  with 
him,    they    lost    ^'  two    thousand    of    their    army,    and 

*  The  reason  why  Bethshan  was  called  Sci/thopolis,  is  well  known 
from  Herodotus,  B.  I.  p.  105,  and  Syncellus,  p.  2ii,  that  the  Scythians, 
when  they  overran  Asia,  in  the  days  of  Josiah,  seized  on  this  city,  and 
kept  it  as  long  as  they  continued  in  Asia,  from  which  time  it  retained 
the  name  of  Sryfhopolis,  or  the   citi/   of   the  Scythians. 

^  This  most  providential  preservation  of  all  the  religious  Jews  in  this 
expedition,  which  was  according  to  the  will  of  God,  is  observable  often 
among  (jlod's  peojile  the  Jews;  and  somewhat  very  like  it  in  the  changes 
of  the  four  monarchies,  which  were  also  providential.  See  Prideaux  at 
the  years  331,  333,  and  331. 

"•  Here  is  anotiicr  great  instance  of  providence,  that  whew,  even  at 
the  very  time  that  Simon,  and  Judas,  and  Jonathan,  were  so  miraculously 
preserved,  and  blessed  in  the  just  defence  of  their  laws  and  religion, 
these  otiier  generals  of  the  Jews  who  went  to  fight  for  iionour,  in  a 
v.: in-glorious   way,  and   without   any   conunission    from   {!od,  or   the    family 

Chap.  IX.  OF  THE  JEWS.  .     269 

fled  away,  and  were  pursued  to  the  very  borders  of 
Judea.  And  this  misfortune  befell  them  by  their 
disobedience  to  what  injunctions  Judas  had  given 
them,  "Not  to  fight  with  any  one  before  his  return." 
For  besides  the  rest  of  Judas'  sagacious  counsels, 
one  may  well  wonder  at  this  concerning  the  mis- 
fortune that  befell  the  forces  commanded  by  Joseph 
and  Azarias,  which  he  understood  would  happen, 
if  they  broke  any  of  the  injunctions  he  had  given 
them.  But  Judas  and  his  brethren  did  not  leave 
off  fighting  with  the  Idumeans,  but  pressed  upon 
them  on  all  sides,  and  took  from  them  the  city  of 
Hebron,  and  demolished  all  its  fortifications,  and 
set  all  its  towers  on  fire,  and  burnt  the  country  of 
the  foreigners,  and  the  city  Marissa.  They  came 
also  to  Ashdod,  and  took  it,  and  laid  it  waste,  and 
took  away  a  great  deal  of  the  spoils  and  prey  that 
were  in  it,  and  returned  to  Judea. 


Concerning  the  death  of  Antiochus  Ejnphanes.  How 
Antiochus  Eupator  fought  against  Judas,  and  he- 
sieged  him  in  the  temple,  and  afterwards  made 
peace  with  him  and  departed.  Of  Alcimus  and 

1.  About  this  time  it  was  that  king  Antiochus, 
as  he  was  going  over  the  upper  countries,  heard,  that 
there  was  a  very  rich  city  in  Persia,  called  Eli/mais; 
and  therein  a  very  rich  temple  of  Diana,  and  that 
it  was  full  of  all  sorts  of  donations  dedicated  to  it; 

he    had    raised    up    to    deliver    them,    were    miserably    disappointed    and 
defeated.     See  1  Maccab.  v.  G\,  62, 

270     .  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

as  also  weapons  and  breastplates,  which,  upon  inquiry, 
he  found  had  been  left  tliere  by  Alexander,  the  son 
of  Philip,  king  of  Macedonia.  And  being  incited 
by  these  motives,  he  went  in  liaste  to  Elymais,  and 
assaulted  it,  and  besieged  it.  But  as  those  that  were 
in  it  were  not  terrified  at  his  assault,  nor  at  his 
siege,  })ut  opposed  him  very  courageously,  he  was 
beaten  off  his  hopes;  for  they  drove  him  away  from 
the  city,  and  went  out  and  pursued  after  him;  -in- 
somuch that  he  fled  away  as  far  as  Babylon,  and 
lost  a  great  many  of  his  armj .  And  when  he  was 
grieving  for  this  disappointment,  some  persons  told 
him  of  the  defeat  of  his  commanders  whom  he  had 
left  behind  him  to  fight  against  Judea,  and  what 
strength  the  Jews  had  already  gotten:  When  this 
concern  about  these  affairs  was  added  to  the  former, 
he  was  confounded,  and  by  the  anxiety  he  was  in, 
fell  into  a  distemper,  which,  as  it  lasted  a  great 
while,  and  as  his  pains  increased  upon  him,  so  he 
at  length  perceived  he  should  die  in  a  little  time; 
so  he  called  his  friends  to  him,  and  told  them,  that 
his  distemper  was  severe  upon  him;  and  confessed 
withal,  that  this  calamity  was  sent  upon  him  for 
the  miseries  he  had  brought  upon  the  Jewish  nation, 
while  he  plundered  their  temple,  and  contemned  their 
God,  and  when  he  had  said  this,  he  gave  up  the 
ghost.  Whence  one  may  wonder  at  Polybiihs  of 
Megalopolis,  who,  though  otherwise  a  good  man, 
yet  saith.  That  "Antiochus  died  because  he  had  a 
purpose  to  plunder  the  temple  of  Diana  in  Persia;" 
for  the  ^  purposing  to  do  a   thing,   but   not   actually 

'  Since  St.  Paul,  a  Pharisee,  confesses,  that  he  had  not  knmon  con- 
cnpisrence.  or  desires,  to  lie  sinful,  had  not  the  tenth  commandment  said, 
ThoH  shall  not  covet,  Rom.  vii.  7,  the  case  seems  to  liave  heen  much  the 
same  with  our  Josephus,  who  was  of  the  same  sect;  that  he  had  not 
a  deep  sense  of  the  greatness  of  any  sins  that  proceeded  no  farther  than 
the    intention.     IIowe\er,    since    .IoscjjIius     sjicaks     here    properly    of    the 

Cluip.  IX.  OF  THP:  jews.  271 

doing  it,  is  not  worthy  of  punishment.  But  if 
Polyhius  could  think,  that  Antiochus  thus  lost  his 
life  on  that  account,  it  is  much  more  probable  that 
this  king  died  on  account  of  his  sacrilegious  plunder- 
ing of  the  temple  at  Jerusalem.  But  we  will  not 
contend  about  this  matter  with  those  who  may  think, 
that  the  cause  assigned  by  this  Polybius  of  Megalopo- 
lis is  nearer  the  truth  than  that  assigned  by  us. 

2.  However,  Antiochus,  before  he  died,  called 
for  Philip,  who  was  one  of  his  companions,  and 
made  him  the  guardian  of  his  kingdom;  and  gave 
him  his  diadem,  and  his  garment,  and  his  ring,  and 
charged  him  to  carry  them,  and  deliver  them  to  his 
son  Antiochus;  and  desired  him  to  take  care  of  his 
education,  and  to  preserve  the  kingdom  for  him.^ 
This  Antiochus  died  in  the  hundred  forty  and  ninth 
year:  But  it  was  Lysias  that  declared  his  death  to 
the  multitude,  and  appointed  his  son  Antiochus  to 
be  king,  (of  whom  at  present  he  had  the  care,)  and 
called  him  Eupator. 

3.  At  this  time  it  was  that  the  garrison  in  the 
citadel  at  Jerusalem,  with  the  Jewish  runagates,  did 
a  great  deal  of  harm  to  the  Jews:  for  the  soldiers 
that  were  in  that  garrison  rushed*  out  upon  the 
sudden,  and  destroyed  such  as  were  going  up  to  the 
temple  in  order  to  offer  their  sacrifices,  for  this 
citadel  adjoined  to,  and  overlooked  the  temple. 
When  these  misfortunes  had  often  happened  to  them, 
Judas  resolved  to  destroy  that  garrison;  whereupon 
he  got  all  the  people  together,  and  vigorously  be- 
sieged those  that   were   in   the   citadel.     This   was   in 

punishment  of  death,  which  is  not  inflicted  by  any  law  either  of  God  or 
man  for  tlie  l)are  intention,  his  words  need  not  to  he  strained  to  mean, 
that  sins  intended,  l)iit  not  executed,  were  no  sins  at  all. 

'  No  wonder  that  Jose])hus  here  describes  Antiochus  Eii])ator  as 
young,  and  wanting  tuition,  when  he  came  to  the  crown,  since  Appian 
informs  us,  Syriac,  p.   17T,  that  he  was  then  but   nine  years  old. 

272  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

the  hundred  and  fiftieth  year  of  the  dominion  of 
the  Seleucidte.  ,So  he  made  engines  of  war,  and 
erected  bulwarks,  and  very  zealously  pressed  on 
to  take  the  citadel:  But  there  were  not  a  few  of 
the  runagates  who  were  in  the  place,  that  went  out 
by  night  into  the  country,  and  got  together  some 
other  wicked  men  like  themselves,  and  went  to  An- 
tiochus  the  king,  and  desired  of  him.  That  "he  would 
not  suffer  them  to  be  neglected,  under  the  great 
hardships  that  lay  upon  them  from  those  of  their 
own  nation,  and  this  because  their  sufferings  were 
occasioned  on  his  father's  account,  while  they  left 
the  religious  worship  of  their  fathers,  and  preferred 
that  which  he  had  commanded  them  to  follow:  that 
there  was  danger  lest  the  citadel,  and  those  appointed 
to  garrison  it  by  the  king,  should  be  taken  by  Judas, 
and  those  that  were  with  him,  unless  he  would  send 
them  succours."  When  Antiochus,  who  was  but  a 
child,  heard  this,  he  was  angry,  and  sent  for  his  cap- 
tains, and  his  friends,  and  gave  order,  that  they 
should  get  an  army  of  mercenaries  together,  with 
such  men  also  of  his  own  kingdom  as  were  of  any 
age  fit  for  war.  Accordingly,  an  army  was  collected 
of  about  a  hundred  thousand  footmen,  and  twenty 
thousand  horsemen,   and  thirty-two   elephants. 

4.  So  the  king  took  his  army,  and  marched  hastily 
out  of  Antioch,  with  Lysias,  who  had  the  command 
of  the  whole,  and  came  to  Idumea,  and  thence  went 
up  to  the  city  Bethsura,  a  city  that  was  strong,  and 
not  to  be  taken  without  great  difficulty;  he  set  about 
this  city,  and  besieged  it.  And  while  the  inhabitants 
of  Bethsura  courageously  opposed  hhn;  and  sallied 
out  upon  him,  and  burnt  his  engines  of  war,  a  great 
deal  of  time  was  spent  in  the  siege.  But  when 
Judas  heard  of  the  king's  coming,  he  raised  the 
siege  of  the  citadel,   and  met   the  king,   and  pitched 


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From  the  Paintir 

by  P.   T.   DeLoutherb'ourg,   R.  A.      Engraved  by  C.   Heath. 

Chap.  IX.  OF  THE  JEWS.  273 

his  camp  in  certain  straits,  at  a  place  called  Beth- 
zachariah,  at  the  distance  of  seventy  furlongs  from 
the  enemy;  but  the  king  soon  drew  his  forces  from 
Bethsura,  and  brought  them  to  those  straits.  And 
as  soon  as  it  was  day,  he  put  his  men  in  battle 
array,  and  made  his  elephants  follow  one  another 
through  the  narrow  passes,  because  they  could  not 
be  set  sideways  by  one  another.  Now  round  about 
every  elephant  there  were  a  thousand  footmen,  and 
five  hundred  horsemen.  The  elephants  also  had  high 
towers  [upon  their  backs],  and  archers  [in  them]. 
And  he  also  made  the  rest  of  his  army  to  go  up 
the  mountains,  and  put  his  friends  before  the  rest; 
and  gave  orders  for  the  army  to  shout  aloud,  and 
so  he  attacked  the  enemy.  He  also  exposed  to  sight 
their  golden  and  brazen  shields,  so  that  a  glorious 
splendour  was  sent  from  them ;  and  when  they  shouted, 
the  mountains  echoed  again.  When  Judas  saw  this, 
he  was  not  terrified,  but  received  the  enemy  with 
great  courage,  and  slew  about  six  hundred  of  the 
first  ranks.  But  when  his  brother  Eleazar,  whom 
they  called  Aiiran,  saw  the  tallest  of  the  elephants 
armed  with  royal  breastplates,  and  supposed  that 
the  king  was  upon  him,  he  attacked  him  with  great 
quickness  and  bravery.  He  also  slew  many  of  those 
that  were  about  the  elephant,  and  scattered  the  rest, 
and  then  went  under  the  belly  of  the  elephant,  and 
smote  him,  and  slew  him;  so  the  elephant  fell  upon 
Eleazar,  and  by  his  weight  crushed  him  to  death. 
And  thus  did  this  man  come  to  his  end,  when  he  had 
first  courageously  destroyed  many  of  his  enemies. 

5.  But  Judas,  seeing  the  strength  of  the  enemy, 
retired  to  Jerusalem,  and  prepared  to  endure  a  siege. 
As  for  Antiochus,  he  sent  part  of  his  army  to  Beth- 
sura, to  besiege  it,  and  with  the  rest  of  his  army  he 
came    against    Jerusalem;     but     the     inhabitants     of 

274  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

Bethsuri*  were  terrified  at  his  strength;  and  seeing 
that  their  provisions  grew  scarce,  they  dehvered  them- 
selves up  on  the  security  of  oaths,  that  they  should 
suffer  no  hard  treatment  from  the  king.  And  when 
Antiochus  had  thus  taken  the  city,  he  did  them  no 
other  harm  than  sending  them  out  naked.  He  also 
placed  a  garrison  of  his  own  in  the  city.  But  as  for 
the  temple  of  Jerusalem,  he  lay  at  its  siege  a  long 
time,  while  they  within  bravely  defended  it,  for  what 
engines  soever  the  king  set  against  them,  they  set 
other  engines  again  to  oppose  them.  But  then  their 
provisions  failed  them;  what  fruits  of  the  ground 
they  had  laid  up  were  spent,  and  the  land  being  not 
ploughed  that  year,  continued  unsowed,  because  it 
was  the  seventh  year,  on  which,  by  our  laws,  we  are 
obliged  to  let  it  lie  uncultivated.  And  withal  so  many 
of  the  besieged  ran  away  for  want  of  necessaries,  that 
but  a  few  only  were  left  in  the  temple. 

6.  And  these  happened  to  be  the  circumstances  of 
such  as  were  besieged  in  the  temple.  But  then,  be- 
cause Lysias,  the  general  of  the  army,  and  Antiochus 
the  king,  were  informed  that  Philip  was  coming  upon 
them  out  of  Persia,  and  was  endeavouring  to  get 
the  management  of  public  affairs  to  himself,  they 
came  into  these  sentiments,  to  leave  the  siege,  and 
to  make  haste  to  go  again  to  Philip;  yet  did  they 
resolve  not  to  let  this  be  known  to  the  soldiers  nor 
to  the  officers:  But  the  king  commanded  Lysias  to 
speak  openly  to  their  soldiers  and  the  officers,  with- 
out saying  a  word  about  the  business  of  Philip:  and 
to  intimate  to  them,  that  the  siege  would  be  very 
long:  that  the  place  was  very  strong;  that  they  were 
already  in  want  of  provisions;  that  many  affairs  of 
the  kingdom  wanted  regulation:  and  that  it  was  much 
better  to  make  a  league  with  the  besieged,  and  to 
become  friends  to  their  whole  nation,  by  permitting 

Chap.  IX.  OF  THE  JEWS.  275 

them  to  observe  the  laws  of  their  fathers,  while  they 
broke  out  into  this  war  only  because  they  were  de- 
prived of  them,  and  so  to  depart  home.  When  Lysias 
had  discoursed  thus  to  them,  both  the  army  and  the 
officers  were  pleased  with  this  resolution. 

7.  Accordingly  the  king  sent  to  Judas,  and  to 
those  that  were  besieged  with  them,  and  promised  to 
give  them  peace,  and  to  permit  them  to  make  use  of, 
and  live  according  to  the  laws  of  their  fathers.  And 
they  gladly  received  his  proposals:  and  when  they 
had  gained  security  upon  oath,  for  their  performance, 
they  went  out  of  the  temple.  But  when  Antiochus 
came  into  it,  and  saw  how  strong  the  place  was,  he 
broke  his  oaths,  and  ordered  his  army  that  was  there 
to  pluck  down  the  walls  to  the  ground,  and  when  he 
had  so  done,  he  returned  to  Antioch:  he  also  carried 
with  him  Onias  the  high  priest,  who  was  also  called 
Menelaus;  for  Lysias  advised  the  king  to  slay  INIene- 
laus,  if  he  would  have  the  Jews  be  quiet,  and  cause 
him  no  farther  disturbance,  for  that  this  man  was 
the  origin  of  all  the  mischief  the  Jews  had  done  them, 
by  persuading  his  father  to  compel  the  Jews  to  leave 
the  religion  of  their  fathers:  So  the  king  sent  Mene- 
laus to  Berea,  a  city  of  Syria,  and  there  had  him 
put  to  death,  when  he  had  been  high  priest  ten  years. 
He  had  been  a  wicked  and  an  impious  man:  and,  in 
order  to  get  the  government  to  himself,  had  com- 
pelled his  nation  to  transgress  their  own  laws.  After 
the  death  of  Menelaus,  Alcimus.  who  was  also  called 
Jacimus,  was  made  high  priest.  But  when  king  An- 
tiochus found  that  Philip  had  already  possessed  him- 
self of  the  government,  he  made  war  against  him, 
and  subdued  him,  and  took  him  and  slew  him.  Now, 
as  to  Onias  the  son  of  the  high  priest,  who,  as  we 
before  informed  you,  was  left  a  child  when  his  father 
died,  when  he  saw  that  the  king  had  slain  his  uncle 

276  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

JVIenelaus,  and  given  the  high  priesthood  to  Alcimus, 
who  was  not  of  the  high  priest  stock,  but  was- induced 
by  Lysias  to  translate  that  dignity  from  this  family 
to  another  house,  he  fled  to  Ptolemy,  king  of  Egypt. 
and  when  he  found  4ie  was  in  great  esteem  with  him, 
and  with  his  wife  Cleopatra,  he  desired  and  obtained 
a  place  in  the  Nonius  of  Heliopolis,  wherein  he  built 
a  temple  like  to  that  at  Jerusalem:  of  which  there- 
fore we  shall  hereafter  give  an  account  in  a  place 
more  proper  for  it. 


How  Bacchides,  the  general  of  Demetrius'  army, 
made  an  expedition  against  Judca,  and  returned 
without  success;  and  how  Xicanor  teas  sent  a  little 
afterward  against  Judas,  and  perished,  together 
with  his  armij:  as  also  concerning  the  death  of  Al- 
cimus, and  the  succession  of  Judas. 

1.  About  the  same  time  Demetrius,  the  son  of 
Seleucus,  fled  away  from  Rome,  and  took  Tripoli, 
a  city  of  Syria,  and  set  the  diadem  on  his  own  head. 
He  also  gathered  certain  mercenary  soldiers  together, 
and  entered  into  his  kingdom,  and  was  joyfully  re- 
ceived by  all,  who  delivered  themselves  up  to  him. 
And  when  they  had  taken  Antiochus  the  king,  and 
Lysias,  they  brought  them  to  him  alive;  both  which 
were  immediately  put  to  death  by  the  command  of 
Demetrius,  when  Antiochus  had  reigned  two  years, 
as  we  have  already  elsewliere  related.  But  tliere 
were  now  many  of  the  wicked  Jewish  runagates  that 
came  together  to  him,  and  with  them  Alcimus  the 
high  priest,  who  accused  the  whole  nation,  and  partic- 

Chap.  X.  OF  THE  JEWS.  277 

ularly  Judas  and  his  brethren;  and  said,  That  "they 
had  slain  all  his  friends,  and  that  those  in  his  king- 
dom that  were  of  his  party,  and  waited  for  his  return, 
were  by  them  put  to  death;  that  these  men  had  ejected 
them  out  of  their  own  country;  and  caused  them  to 
be  sojourners  in  a  foreign  land;  and  they  desired  that 
he  would  send  some  one  of  his  own  friends,  and  know 
from  him  what  mischief  Judas'  party  had  done." 

2.  At  this  Demetrius  was  very  angry,  and  sent 
Bacchides,  a  friend  of  Antiochus  Epiphanes,  ^  a  good 
man,  and  one  that  had  been  entrusted  with  all 
INIesopotamia,  and  gave  him  an  army,  and  committed 
Alcimus  the  high  priest  to  his  care;  and  gave  him 
charge  to  slay  Judas,  and  those  that  were  with  him. 
So  Bacchides  made  haste,  and  went  out  of  Antioch 
with  his  army;  and  when  he  was  come  into  Judea, 
he  sent  to  Judas  and  his  brethren,  to  discourse  with 
him  about  a  league  of  friendship  and  peace,  for  he 
had  a  mind  to  take  him  by  treachery:  But  Judas 
did  not  give  credit  to  him,  for  he  saw  that  he  came 
with  so  great  an  army  as  men  do  not  bring  when 
they  come  to  make  peace  but  to  make  war.  How- 
ever, some  of  the  people  acquiesced  in  that  Bacchides 
caused  to  be  proclaimed;  and  supposing  they  should 
undergo  no  considerable  harm  from  Alcimus,  who 
was  their  countryman,  they  went  over  to  them;  and 
when  they  had  received  oaths  from  both  of  them, 
that  neither  they  themselves,  nor  those  of  the  same 
sentiments,  should  come  to  any  harm,  they  entrusted 
themselves  with  them:  But  Bacchides  troubled  him- 
self not  about  the  oaths  he  had  taken,  and  slew  three- 

*  It  is  no  way  probable  that  Josephus  would  call  Bacchides,  that 
bitter  and  bloody  enemy  of  the  Jews,  as  our  present  copies  have  it,  a 
good  man,  or  kind  and  f/entle.  What  the  author  of  the  first  iiook  of 
Maccabees,  whom  Josephus  here  follows,  instead  of  that  character,  says 
of  him,  is  that  he  was  a  (jnai  man  in  (he  kingdom,  and  faithful  to  his 
king:  which  was  very  probably  Josephus'  meaning  also. 

278  AXTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

score  of  them,  although  by  not  keeping  his  faith 
with  these  that  first  went  over,  he  deterred  all  the 
rest,  who  had  intentions  to  go  over  to  him,  from  doing 
it.  But  as  he  was  gone  out  of  Jerusalem,  and  was  at 
the  village  called  Bcthzetha,  he  sent  out  and  caught 
many  of  the  deserters,  and  some  of  tlie  people  also, 
and  slew  them  all;  and  enjoined  all  that  lived  in  the 
country  to  submit  to  Alcimus.  So  he  left  him  there, 
with  some  part  of  the  army  that  lie  might  have  where- 
with to  keep  the  country  in  obedience,  and  returned 
to  Antioch,  to  king  Demetrius. 

3.  But  Alcimus  was  desirous  to  have  the  dominion 
more  firmly  assured  to  him;  and  understanding,  that 
if  he  could  bring  it  al^out  that  the  multitude  should 
be  his  friends,  he  should  govern  with  gi'eater  security, 
he  spake  kind  words  to  them  all,  and  discoursed  to 
each  of  them  after  an  agreeable  and  pleasant  manner, 
by  which  means  he  quickly  had  a  great  body  of  men 
and  an  army  about  him,  although  the  greater  part  of 
them  were  of  the  wicked,  and  the  deserters.  With 
these,  whom  he  used  as  his  servants  and  soldiers,  he 
went  all  over  the  country,  and  slew  all  that  he  could 
find  of  Judas'  party.  But  wlien  Judas  saw  that 
Alcimus  was  already  become  great,  and  had  destroyed 
many  of  the  good  and  holy  men  of  the  country,  he 
also  went  all  over  the  country,  and  destroyed  those 
that  were  of  the  other's  party.  But  when  Alcimus 
saw  that  lie  was  not  able  to  oppose  Judas,  nor 
was  equal  to  him  in  strength,  he  resolved  to  apply 
himself  to  king  Demetriw*  for  his  assistance;  so  he 
came  to  Antioch,  and  irritated  him  against  Judas, 
and  accused  him,  alleging  that  he  had  undergone  a 
great  many  miseries  by  his  means,  and  that  he  would 
do  more  mischief  unless  he  were  prevented,  and 
brought  to  punishment,  which  must  be  done  by  send- 
ing a  powerful  force  against  him. 

Chap.  X.  OF  THE  JEWS.  279 

4.  So  Demetrius,  being  already  of  opinion  that 
it  would  be  a  thing  pernicious  to  his  own  affairs  to 
overlook  Judas,  now  he  was  becoming  so  great,  sent 
against  him  Xicanor,  the  most  kind  and  most  faith- 
ful of  all  his  friends;  for  he  it  was  who  fled  away 
with  him  from  the  city  of  Kome.  He  also  gave  him 
as  many  forces  as  he  thought  sufficient  for  him  to 
conquer  Judas  \yithal,  and  bid  him  not  to  spare 
the  nation  at  all.  When  Xicanor  was  come  to 
Jerusalem,  he  did  not  resolve  to  fight  Judas  im- 
mediately, but  judged  it  better  to  get  him  into  his 
power  by  treachery;  so  he  senc  him  a  message  of 
peace,  and  said,  "there  was  no  manner  of  necessity 
for  them  to  fight  and  hazard  themselves;  and  that 
he  would  give  him  his  oath  that  lie  would  do  him 
no  harm,  for  that  he  only  came  with  some  friends, 
in  order  to  let  him  Ivuow  what  king  Demetrius'  in- 
tentions were,  and  what  opinion  he  had  of  their 
nation."  When  Xicanor  had  delivered  this  message, 
Judas  and  his  brethren  complied  with  him,  and  sus- 
pecting no  deceit,  they  gave  him  assurances  of  friend- 
ship, and  received  Xicanor  and  his  army;  but  while 
he  was  saluting  Judas,  and  they  were  talking  together : 
he  gave  a  certain  signal  to  his  own  soldiers,  upon 
which  they  were  to  seize  upon  Judas;  but  he  perceived 
the  treachery,  and  ran  back  to  his  own  soldiers,  and  fled 
away  with  them.  So  upon  this  discovery  of  his  pur- 
pose, and  of  the  snares  laid  for  Judas,  Xicanor  de- 
termined to  make  open  war  with  him,  and  gathered 
his  army  together,  and  prepared  for  fighting  him; 
and  upon  joining  battle  with  him  at  a  certain  village 
called  Capharsalama,  he  ^  beat  Judas  and  forced  him 
to  fly  to  that  citadel  which  was  at  Jerusalem. 

*  Josephus'  copies  must  have  been  corru})ted  wlien  tliey  liere  give 
victory  to  Xicanor  c-ontrary  to  the  words  following-,  which  iinjily, 
he  who  was  beaten  fled  into  the  citadel,  which  for  certain  belonged  to  the 
tity  of  Da\id,  or  to  Mount  Zion,  and  was  in   the   ])nssession   of   N'icanor's 

280  AXTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

5.  And  when  Xicanor  came  down  from  the  citadel 
mito  the  temple,  some  of  the  priests  and  elders  met 
him,  and  saluted  him;  and  showed  him  the  sacrifices 
which  they  said  they  offered  to  God  for  the  king: 
upon  which  he  ])lasphemed,  and  threatened  them,  that 
unless  the  peo23le  would  deliver  up  Judas  to  him, 
upon  his  return  he  would  pull  down  their  temple. 
And  when  he  had  thus  threatened  them,  he  departed 
from  Jerusalem:  But  the  priests  fell  into  tears  out 
of  grief  of  what  he  had  said,  and  besought  God 
to  deliver  them  from  their  enemies.  But  now  for 
Xicanor,  when  he  was  gone  out  of  Jerusalem,  and 
was  at  a  certain  village  called  Bethhoron,  he  there 
pitched  his  camp,  another  army  out  of  Syria  having 
joined  him:  And  Judas  pitched  his  camp  at  Adasa, 
anotlier  village,  which  was  thirty  furlongs  distant  from 
Bethhoron,  having  no  more  than  one  thousand  soldiers. 
And  when  he  had  encouraged  them  not  to  be  dismayed 
at  the  multitude  of  their  enemies,  nor  to  regard  how 
many  they  were  against  whom  they  were  going  to  fight, 
but  to  consider  who  they  themselves  were,  and  for 
what  great  rewards  they  hazarded  themselves,  and 
to  attack  the  enemy  courageously,  he  led  them  out 
to  fight,  and  joining  battle  with  Xicanor,  which  proved 
to  be  a  severe  one,  he  overcame  the  enemy,  and  slew 
many  of  them;  and  at  last  Xicanor  himself,  as  he 
was  fighting,  gloriously  fell.  Upon  whose  fall  the 
army  did  not  stay,  but  when  they  had  lost  their 
general  they  were  put  to  flight  and  threw  down  their 
arms;  Judas  also  pursued  them  and  slew  them;  and 
gave  notice  by  the  sound  of  the  trumpets  to  the 
neighbouring  villages,  that  he  had  conquered  the 
enemy;  which,  when  the  inhabitants  heard,  they  put 

parrison,  and  not  of  Judas':  As  also  it  is  contrary  to  the  express  words 
of  Joscphus'  original  author,  1  Maccab.  vii.  32,  who  says  that  Nicanor 
lost  about  oOOO  men,  and  fled  to  the  city  of  David. 

Chap.  X.  OF  THE  JEWS.  281 

on  their  armour  hastily,  and  met  their  enemies  in 
the  face  as  they  were  running  away,  and  slew  them, 
insomuch  that  not  one  of  them  escaped  out  of  this 
battle,  and  were  in  number  nine  thousand.  This 
victory  happened  to  fall  on  the  thirteenth  day  of  that 
month,  which  by  the  Jews  is  called  Adar,  and  the 
Macedonians  Dystrus;  and  the  Jews  thereon  cele- 
brate this  victory  every  year,  and  esteem  it  as  a 
festival  day.  After  which  the  Jewish  nation  were, 
for  a  while,  free  from  wars,  and  enjoyed  peace;  but 
afterward  they  returned  into  their  former  state  of 
wars  and  hazards. 

6.  But  now  as  the  high  priest  Alcimus  was  re- 
solving to  pull  down  the  wall  of  the  sanctuary,  which 
had  been  there  of  old  time,  and  had  been  built  by  the 
holy  prophets,  ^  he  was  smitten  suddenly  by  God, 
and  fell  down.  This  stroke  made  him  fall  down 
speechless  upon  the  ground:  and  undergoing  torments 
for  many  days,  he  at  length  died,  when  he  had  been 
high  priest  four  years.  And  when  he  was  dead, 
the  people  bestowed  the  high  priesthood  on  Judas; 
who  hearing  of  the  power  -  of  the  Romans,  and  that 
they  had  conquered  in  war  Galatia,  and  Iberia,  and 
Carthage,  and  Lybia;  and  that,  besides  these,  they 
had  subdued  Greece,  and  their  kings,  Perseus,  and 
Philip,  and  Antiochus  the  Great  also,  he  resolved  to 
enter  into  a  league  of  friendship  with  them.  He 
therefore  sent  to  Rome  some  of  his  friends,  Eupolemus 

*  This  account  of  the  miserable  death  of  Alcimus  or  Jacimxis,  the 
vvncked  high  priest,  (the  first  that  was  not  of  the  family  of  the  high 
priests,  and  made  liy  a  vile  heathen,  Lyslas,)  before  the  death  of  Judas, 
and  of  Judas'  succession  to  him  as  a  high  priest,  both  here,  and  at  the 
conclusion  of  this  book,  directly  contradicts,  1  Maccab,  ix.  34-57,  which 
places  his  death  after  the  death  of  Judas,  and  says  not  a  syllable  of 
the  high  priesthood  of  Judas. 

*  How  well  the  Roman  histories  agree  to  this  account  of  the  conquests 
and  powerful  condition  of  the  Romans  at  this  time,  see  the  notes  in 
Havercamp's  edition;  only  that  the  number  of  the  senators  of  Rome 
was  then  just  3;i?0,  is,  I  think,  only  known  from  1   Maccab.  viii.   15. 

282  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xii. 

the  son  of  John,  and  Jason  the  son  of  Eleazar,  and 
by  them  desired  the  Romans  that  they  would  assist 
them,  and  be  their  friends,  and  would  write  to  De- 
metrius that  he  would  not  fight  against  the  Jews. 
So  the  senate  received  the  ambassadors  that  came 
from  Judas  to  Rome,  and  discoursed  with  them  about 
the  errand  on  which  they  came,  and  then  granted 
them  a  league  of  assistance.  They  also  made  a  decree 
concerning  it,  and  sent  a  copy  of  it  into  Judea.  It 
was  also  laid  up  in  the  capitol,  and  engraven  in  brass. 
The  decree  itself  was  this:  "The  decree  of  the  senate 
concerning  a  league  of  assistance  and  friendship,  with 
the  nation  of  the  Jews.  It  shall  not  be  lawful  for 
any  that  are  subject  to  the  Romans  to  make  war 
with  the  nation  of  the  Jews,  nor  to  assist  those  that 
do  so,  either  by  sending  them  corn,  or  ships,  or  money; 
and  if  any  attack  be  made  upon  the  Jews,  the  Romans 
shall  assist  them,  as  far  as  they  are  able:  and  again, 
if  any  attack  be  made  upon  the  Romans,  the  Jews 
shall  assist  them.  And  if  the  Jews  had  a  mind  to 
add  to,  or  to  take  away  any  thing  from  this  league 
of  assistance,  that  shall  be  done  with  the  common 
consent  of  the  Romans.  And  whatsoever  addition 
shall  thus  be  made,  -it  shall  be  of  force."  This  decree 
was  written  by  Eupolemus  tlie  son  of  John,  and  by 
Jason  the  son  of  Eleazar,  ^  when  Judas  was  high 
priest  of  the  nation,  and  Simon  his  brother  was  general 
of  the  army.  And  this  was  the  first  league  that  the 
Romans  made  with  the  Jews,  and  was  managed  after 
this  manner. 

*  This  subscription  is  wanting,  1  Maccab.  viii.  17,  19,  and  must  be 
the  words  of  Josephus,  who  l)y  mistake,  tiiought,  as  we  have  just  now 
seen,  that  Judas  was  at  this  time  high  priest,  and  accordingly  then 
reckoned  his  brother  Jonathan  to  be  the  general  of  the  army,  which  yet 
he  seems  not  to  have  been  till  after  the  death  of  Judas. 

Chap.  XI.  OF  THE  JEWS.  283 


That  Bacchides   was   again   sent   out   against   Judas; 
and  how  Judas  fell  as  he  was  courageously  fighting. 

1.  But  when  Demetrius  was  informed  of  the  death 
of  Nicanor,  and  of  the  destruction  of  the  army  that 
was  with  him,  he  sent  Bacchides  again  with  an  army 
into  Judea,  who  marched  gut  of  Antioch,  and  came 
into  Judea,  and  pitched  his  camp  at  Arbela,  a  city 
of  Gahlee,  and  having  besieged  and  taken  those  that 
were  there  in  caves,  (for  many  of  the  people  fled  into 
such  places,)  he  removed,  and  made  all  the  haste  he 
could  to  Jerusalem.  And  when  he  had  learned  that 
Judas  pitched  his  camp  at  a  certain  village  whose 
name  was  Bethzetho,  he  led  his  army  against  him: 
they  were  twenty  thousand  footmen,  and  two  thousand 
horsemen.  Now  Judas  had  no  more  soldiers  than 
^  one  thousand.  When  these  saw  the  multitude  of 
Bacchides'  men  they  were  afraid,  and  left  their  camp, 
and  fled  all  away,  excepting  eight  hundred.  Xow 
when  Judas  was  deserted  by  his  own  soldiers,  and 
the  enemy  pressed  upon  him,  and  gave  him  no  time 
to  gather  his  army  together,  he  was  disposed  to  fight 
with  Bacchides'  army,  though  he  had  but  eight  hun- 
dred men  with  him;  so  he  exhorted  these  men  to 
undergo  the  danger  courageously,  and  encouraged 
them  to  attack  the  enemy.  And  when  they  said  they 
were  not  a  body  sufficient  to  fight  so  great  an  army, 
and   advised   that   they    should   retire   now,    and   save 

'  That  this  copy  of  Josephus,  as  he  wrote  it,  liad  here  not  1000  but 
3000  with  1  Macoab.  ix.  ^  is  very  ])lain,  because  though  the  main  part 
ran  away  at  first  even  in  Josephus,  as  well  as  in  I  Maccab.  ix.  (i,  yet, 
as  there,  so  here  800  are  said  to  have  remained  with  .ludas,  which  would 
be  absurd,  if  the  whole  number  had  been  no  more  than   1000. 

284  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xil 

themselves,  and  that  when  he  had  gathered  his  own 
men  together,  then  he  should  fall  upon  the  enemy 
afterwards,  his  answer  was  this:  "Let  not  the  sun 
ever  see  such  a  thing  that  I  should  show  my  back  to 
the  enemy;  and  although  this  be  the  time  that  will 
bring  me  to  my  end,  and  I  must  die  in  this  battle, 
I  will  rather  stand  to  it  courageously,  and  bear  what- 
soever comes  upon  me,  than  by  now  running  away, 
bring  reproach  upon  my  former  great  actions,  or 
tarnish  their  glory."  This  was  the  speech  he  made 
to  those  that  remained  with  him,  whereby  he  en- 
couraged them  to  attack  the  enemy. 

2.  But  Bacchides  drew  his  army  out  of  their 
camp,  and  put  them  in  array  for  the  battle.  He 
set  the  horsemen  on  both  the  wings,  and  the  light 
soldiers  and  the  archers  he  placed  before  the  whole 
army,  but  he  was  himself  on  the  right  wing.  And 
when  he  had  thus  put  his  army  in  order  of  battle, 
and  was  going  to  join  battle  with  the  enemy,  he 
commanded  the  trumpeter  to  give  a  signal  of  battle, 
and  the  army  to  make  a  shout  and  to  fall  on  tlie 
enemy.  And  when  Judas  had  done  the  same,  he 
joined  battle  with  them;  and  as  both  sides  fought 
valiantly,  and  the  battle  continued  till  sunset,  Judas 
saw  that  Bacchides,  and  the  strongest  part  of  the 
army,  was  in  the  right  wing,  and  thereupon  took  the 
most  courageous  men  with  him,  and  ran  upon  that 
part  of  the  army,  and  fell  upon  those  that  were  there, 
and  broke  their  ranks,  and  drove  them  into  the 
middle,  and  forced  them  to  run  away,  and  pursued 
tliem  as  far  as  a  mountain  called  Aza;  but  when  those 
of  the  left  wing  saw  that  tlie  right  wing  was  put  to 
flight,  they  encompassed  Judas;  and  pursued  him, 
and  came  l)ehind  liim,  and  took  him  into  the  middle 
of  their  army;  so  being  not  able  to  fly,  but  encom- 
passed   round    about    with    enemies,    he    stood    still. 

Chap.  XI.  OF  THE  JEWS.  285 

and  he  and  those  that  were  with  him  fought,  and 
when  he  had  slain  a  great  many  of  tliose  that  came 
against  him,  he  at  last  was  himself  wounded,  and  fell, 
and  gave  up  the  ghost,  and  died  in  a  way  like  to  his 
former  famous  actions.  When  Judas  was  dead,  those 
that  were  with  him  had  no  one  whom  they  could 
regard  [as  their  commander,]  but  when  they  saw 
themselves  deprived  of  such  a  general,  they  fled.  But 
Simon  and  Jonathan,  Judas'  brethren,  received  his 
dead  body  by  a  treaty  from  the  enemy,  and  carried 
it  to  the  village  of  ^Nlodin,  where  their  father  had  been 
buried,  and  there  buried  him;  while  the  multitude 
lamented  him  many  days,  and  j^erformed  the  usual 
solemn  rites  of  a  funeral  to  him.  And  this  was  the 
end  that  Judas  came  to.  He  had  been  a  man  of 
valour  and  a  great  warrior,  and  mindful  of  the 
commands  of  his  father  jNIattathias;  and  had  under- 
gone all  difficulfies,  both  in  doing  and  suffering,  for 
the  liberty  of  his  countrymen.  And  when  his  character 
was  so  excellent  [while  he  was  alive,]  he  left  behind 
him  a  glorious  reputation  and  memorial,  by  gaining 
freedom  for  his  nation,  and  delivering  them  from 
slavery  under  the  JNIacedonians.  And  when  he  had 
retained  the  high  priesthood   three  years,   he   died. 





How  Jonathan  took  the  government  after  his  brother 
Judas,  and  how  he,  together  with  his  brother  Simon, 
waged  war  against  Bacchides.  * 

1.  By  what  means  the  nation  of  the  Jews  re- 
covered their  freedom  when  they  had  heen  brought 
into  slavery  by  the  INIacedonians,  and  what  struggles, 
and  how  great  battles  Judas  the  general  of  their 
army  ran  through,  till  he  was  slain  as  he  was  fight- 
ing for  them,  hath  been  related  in  the  foregoing  book; 
but  after  he  was  dead,  all  the  wicked,  and  those  that 
transgressed  the  laws  of  their  forefathers,  sprang  up 
again  in  Judea,  and  grew  upon  them  and  distressed 
them  on  every  side.  A  famine  also  assisted  their 
wickedness,  and  afflicted  the  country,  till  not  a  few, 
who  by  reason  of  their  want  of  necessaries,  and  be- 
cause they  were  not  able  to  bear  up  the  miseries  that 
})oth  the  famine  and  their  enemies  brought  upon  them, 
deserted  their  country,  and  went  to  the  INIacedonians. 
And    now    Bacchides    gathered    those    Jews    together 


Chap.  I.  OF  TIIK  JEWS.  287 

who  had  apostatized  from  the  accustomed  way  of 
hving  of  their  forefathers,  and  chose  to  hve  like  their 
neighbours,  and  committed  the  care  of  the  country 
to  them,  who  also  caught  the  friends  of  Judas,  and 
those  of  his  party,  and  delivered  them  up  to  Bacchides, 
who,  when  he  had  in  the  first  place  tortured  and  tor- 
mented them  at  his  pleasure,  he  by  that  means  at 
length  killed  them.  And  when  this  calamity  of  the 
Jews  was  become  so  great,  as  they  had  never  had 
experience  of  the  like  since  their  return  out  of  Babylon, 
those  that  remained  of  the  companions  of  Judas,  seeing 
that  the  nation  was  ready  to  be  destroyed  after  a 
miserable  manner,  came  to  his  brother  Jonathan,  and 
desired  him  that  he  would  imitate  his  brother,  and 
that  care  which  he  took  of  his  countrymen,  for  whose 
liberty  in  general  he  died  also;  and  that  he  would  not 
permit  the  nation  to  l)e  without  a  governor,  especially 
in  those  destructive  circumstances  wherein  it  now  was. 
And  when  Jonathan  said,  that  he  w^as  ready  to  die 
for  them,  and  was  indeed  esteemed  no  way  inferior 
to  his  brother,  he  was  appointed  to  be  the  general  of 
the  Jewish  army. 

2.  When  Bacchides  heard  this,  he  was  afraid  that 
Jonathan  might  be  very  troublesome  to  the  king  and 
the  Macedonians,  as  Judas  had  been  before  liim,  he 
sought  how  he  might  slay  him  by  treachery:  But  this 
invention  of  his  was  not  unknown  to  Jonathan,  nor 
to  his  brother  Simon:  but  when  these  two  were 
apprized  of  it,  they  took  all  their  companions,  and 
presently  fled  into  that  wilderness  which  was  nearest 
to  the  city;  and  when  they  were  come  to  a  lake  called 
Asjjhar,  they  abode  there.  But  when  Bacchides  was 
sensible  that  they  were  in  a  low  state,  and  were  in 
that  place,  he  hasted  to  fall  upon  them  with  all  his 
forces,  and  pitching  his  camp  beyond  Jordan,  he 
recruited  his  army:   But  when  Jonathan  knew  that 

288  AXTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

Bacchides  was  coming  upon  him,  he  sent  his  brother 
John,  who  was  also  called  Gaddis,  to  the  Xabatean 
Arabs,  that  he  might  lodge  his  baggage  with  them 
mitil  the  battle  with  Baccliides  should  be  over,  for 
they  were  the  Jews'  friends.  And  the  sons  of  Ambri 
laid  an  ambush  for  John  from  the  city  ]Medaba.  and 
seized  upon  him,  and  upon  those  that  were  with  him, 
and  plundered  all  that  they  had  with  them:  They 
also  slew  John,  and  all  his  companions.  However, 
they  were  sufficiently  punished  for  what  they  now 
did  by  John's  brethren,  as  we  shall  relate  presently. 
3.  But  when  Bacchides  knew  that  Jonathan  had 
pitched  his  camp  among  the  lakes  of  Jordan,  he 
observed  when  their  Sabbath  day  came,  and  then  as- 
saulted him  as  supposing  that  he  would  not  tight 
because  of  the  law  [for  resting  on  that  day:]  but  he 
exhorted  his  companions  [to  fight;]  and  told  them 
that  their  lives  were  at  stake,  since  tliey  were  en- 
compassed by  the  river,  and  by  their  enemies,  and 
had  no  way  to  escape,  for  that  their  enemies  pressed 
upon  them  before,  and  the  river  was  behind  them. 
So  after  he  had  prayed  to  God  to  give  them  the 
victory,  he  joined  battle  with  the  enemy,  of  whom 
he  overthrew  many;  and  as  he  saw  Bacchides  coming 
up  boldly  to  him,  he  stretched  out  his  right  hand  to 
smite  him,  but  the  other  foreseeing  and  avoiding  the 
stroke,  Jonathan  with  his  companions  leaped  into 
the  river,  and  swam  over  it,  and  by  that  means 
escaped  beyond  Jordan,  while  the  enemy  did  not 
pass  over  that  river:  but  Bacchides  returned  presently 
to  the  citadel  at  Jerusalem,  having  lost  about  two 
thousand  of  his  army.  He  also  fortified  many  cities 
of  Judea,  whose  walls  had  been  demob  shed,  Jericho, 
and  Emmaus,  and  Bethhoron,  and  Bethel,  and  Timna, 
and  Pharatho,  and  Tekoa,  and  Gazara,  and  built 
towers  in  every  one  of  these  cities,  and  encompassed 

Chap.  I.  OF  THP:  JEWS.  289 

them  with  strong  walls,  that  were  very  large  also, 
and  put  garrisons  into  them,  that  they  might  issue 
out  of  them,  and  do  mischief  to  the  Jews.  He  also 
fortified  the  citadel  at  Jerusalem  more  than  all  the 
rest.  JNIoreover  he  took  the  sons  of  the  principal 
Jews  as  pledges,  and  shut  them  up  in  the  citadel, 
and  in  that  manner  guarded  it. 

4.  About  the  same  time  one  came  to  Jonathan, 
and  to  his  brother  Simon,  and  told  them  that  the  sons 
of  Ambri  were  celebrating  a  marriage,  and  bringing 
the  bride  from  the  city  Gabatha,  who  was  the  daughter 
of  one  of  the  illustrious  men  among  the  Arabians,  and 
that  the  damsel  was  to  be  conducted  with  pomp  and 
splendour,  and  much  riches:  So  Jonathan  and  Simon 
thinking  this  appeared  to  be  the  fittest  time  for  them 
to  avenge  the  death  of  their  brother,'  and  that  they 
had  forces  sufficient  for  receiving  satisfaction  from 
them  for  his  death,  they  made  haste  to  Medaba,  and 
lay  in  wait  among  the  mountains  for-  the  coming  of 
their  enemies;  and  as  soon  as  they  saw  them  con- 
ducting the  virgin,  and  her  bridegroom,  and  such  a 
great  company  of  their  friends  with  them,  as  was 
to  be  expected  at  this  wedding,  they  sallied  out  of 
their  ambush,  and  slew  them  all;  and  took  their  orna- 
ments, and  all  the  prey  that  then  followed  them,  and 
so  returned,  and  received  this  satisfaction  for  their 
brother  John  from  the  sons  of  Ambri;  for  as  well 
those  sons  themselves,  as  their  friends,  and  wives,  and 
children,  that  followed  them,  perished,  being  in  num- 
ber about  four  hundred. 

5.  However,  Simon  and  Jonathan  returned  to  the 
lakes  of  the  river,  and  abode  there.  But  Bacchides, 
when  he  had  secured  all  Judea  with  his  garrisons, 
returned  to  the  king:  and  then  it  was  that  tlie  affairs 
of  Judea  were  quiet  for  two  years.  But  when  the 
deserters  and  the  wicked  saw  that  Jonathan  and  those 

290  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

that  were  with  him  hved  in  the  country  very  quietly, 
by  reason  of  the  peace,  they  sent  to  king  Demetrius, 
and  excited  him'  to  send  Bacchides  to  seize  upon 
Jonathan,  which  they  said  was  to  be  done  without 
any  trouble,  and  in  one  night's  time;  and  that  if 
they  fell  upon  them  before  they  were  aware,  they 
might  slay  them  all.  So  the  king  sent  Bacchides, 
who,  when  he  was  come  into  Judea,  wrote  to  all  his 
friends,  both  Jews  and  auxiliaries,  that  they  should 
seize  upon  Jonathan,  and  bring  him  to  him;  and, 
when,  upon  all  their  endeavours,  they  were  not  able 
to  seize  upon  Jonathan,  for  he  was  sensible  of  the 
snares  they  laid  for  him,  and  very  carefully  guarded 
against  them,  Bacchides  was  angry  at  these  deserters, 
as  having  imposed  upon  him,  and  uj^on  the  king, 
and  slew  fifty  of  their  leaders.  Whereupon  Jona- 
than, with  his  brother,  and  those  that  were  with  them, 
retired  to  Bethagla,  a  village  that  lay  in  the  wilderness, 
out  of  his  fear  of  Bacchides.  He  also  built  towers 
on  it,  and  encompassed  it  with  walls,  and  took  care 
that  it  should  be  safely  guarded.  Upon  the  hearing 
of  which,  Bacchides  led  his  own  army  along  with 
him,  and  besides  took  his  Jewish  auxiliaries,  and  came 
against  Jonathan,  and  made  an  assault  upon  his  forti- 
fications, and  besieged  him  many  days;  but  Jonathan 
did  not  abate  of  his  courage  at  the  zeal  Bacchides 
used  in  the  siege,  but  courageously  opposed  him: 
And  while  he  left  his  brother  Simon  in  the  city,  to 
fight  with  Bacchides,  he  went  privately  out  himself 
into  the  country,  and  got  a  great  ])ody  of  men  together 
of  his  own  party,  and  fell  upon  Bacchides'  camp  in 
the  night  time,  and  destroyed  a  great  many  of  them. 
His  brother  Simon  knew  also  of  this  his  falling  upon 
them,  because  he  perceived  that  the  enemies  were 
slain  by  him,  so  he  sallied  out  upon  them,  and  burnt 
the  engines  wliich  the  ^lacedonians  used,  and  made  a 

Chap.  I.  OF  THE  JEWS.  291 

great  slaughter  of  them.  And  when  Bacchides  saw 
himself  encompassed  with  enemies,  and  some  of  them 
before,  and  some  behind  him,  he  fell  into  despair  and 
trouble  of  mind,  as  confounded  at  the  unexpected  ill 
success  of  this  siege.  However,  he  vented  his  dis- 
pleasure at  these  misfortunes  upon  those  deserters 
who  sent  for  him  from  the  king,  as  having  deluded 
him.  So  he  had  a  mind  to  finish  this  siege  after  a 
decent  manner,  if  it  were  possible  for  him  so  to  do, 
and  then  to  return  home. 

6.  When  Jonathan  understood  these  his  intentions, 
he  sent  ambassadors  to  him,  about  a  league  of  friend- 
ship and  mutual  assistance,  and  that  they  might  re- 
store those  they  had  taken  captive  on  both  sides. 
So  Bacchides  thought  this  a  pretty  decent  way  of 
retiring  home,  and  made  a  league  of  friendship  with 
Jonathan,  when  they  sware  that  they  would  not  any 
more  make  war  one  against  another.  Accordingly, 
he  restored  the  captives,  and  took  his  own  men  with 
him,  and  returned  to  the  king  of  Antioch:  and  after 
this  his  departure,  he  never  came  into  Judea  again. 
Then  did  Jonathan  take  the  opportunity  of  this  quiet 
state  of  things,  and  went  and  lived  in  the  city  Mich- 
mash;  and  there  governed  the  multitude,  and  punished 
the  wicked  and  ungodly,  and  by  that  means  piu'ged 
the  nation  of  them. 

292  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 


Hoxc  Alexander  [2?rt/r/]  in  his  war  with  Demetrius, 
granted  Jonathan  many  advantages,  and  appointed 
him  to  he  high  priest,  and  persuaded  him  to  assist 
him,  although  Demetrius  promised  him  greater  ad- 
vantages on  the  other  side.  Concerning  the  death 
of  Demetrius. 

1.  Xow  in  the  hundred  and  sixtieth  year,  it  fell 
out  that  Alexander,  the  ^  son  of  Antiochus  Epiphanes, 
came  up  into  Syria,  and  took  Ptolemais,  the  soldiers 
within  having  betrayed  it  to  him,  for  they  were  at 
enmity  with  Demetrius,  on  account  of  his  insolence 
and  difficulty  of  access;  for  he  shut  himself  up  in 
a  palace  of  his  that  had  four  towers,  which  he  had 
built  himself,  not  far  from  Antioch,  and  admitted 
nobody.  He  was  withal  slothful  and  negligent  about 
the  public  affairs,  whereby  the  hatred  of  his  subjects 
was  the  more  kindled  against  him,  as  we  have  else- 
where already  related.  When  tlierefore  Demetrius 
heard  that  Alexander  was  in  Ptolemais,  he  took  his 
whole    army,    and   led    it    against    him:    he    also    sent 

*  This  Alexander  Bala,  who  certainly  pretended  to  be  the  son  of 
Antiochus  Epiphanes,  and  was  owned  for  such  by  the  Jews  and  Romans, 
and  many  others,  yet  is  by  several  historians  deemed  to  be  a  counterfeit, 
and  of  lio  family  at  all,  is,  however,  by  Josephus  believed  to  have  been 
the  real  son  of  that  Antiochus,  and  by  him  always  spoken  of  accord- 
ingly. And  truly,  since  the  original  cotemporary  and  authentic  author 
of  the  first  book  of  Maccab.  ch.  x.  1,  calls  him  by  his  father's  name 
Epiphanes,  and  says  he  was  the  son  of  Antiochus,  I  suppose  the  other 
writers,  who  are  all  much  later,  are  not  to  be  followed  against  such 
evidence,  though  perhaps  Epijihanes  might  have  him  by  a  woman  of  no 
family.  The  king  of  Egypt  also,  Philometer,  soon  gave  him  his  daughter 
in  marriage,  which  he  would  hardly  have  done,  had  he  believed  him  to 
be  a  counterfeit,  and  of  so  very  mean  a  birth  as  the  later  historians 

Chap.  II.  OF  THE  JEWS.  293 

ambassadors  to  Jonathan,  about  a  league  of  mutual 
assistance  and  friendship,  for  he  resolved  to  be 
beforehand  with  Alexander,  lest  the  other  should 
treat  with  him  first,  and  gain  assistance  from  him: 
And  this  he  did  out  of  the  fear  he  had,  lest  Jonathan 
should  remember  how  ill  Demetrius  had  formerly 
treated  him,  and  should  join  with  him  in  this  war 
against  him.  He  therefore  gave  orders  that  Jona- 
than should  be  allowed  to  raise  an  army,  and  should 
get  armour  made,  and  should  receive  back  those 
hostages  of  the  Jewish  nation  wliom  Bacchides  had 
shut  up  in  the  citadel  of  Jerusalem.  When  this  good 
fortune  had  befallen  Jonathan,  by  the  concession  of 
Demetrius,  he  came  to  Jerusalem,  and  read  the  king's 
letter,  in  the  audience  of  the  people,  and  of  those 
that  kept  the  citadel.  When  these  were  read,  these 
wicked  men  and  deserters,  who  were  in  the  citadel, 
were  greatly  afraid,  upon  the  king's  permission  to 
Jonathan  to  raise  an  army,  and  to  receive  back  the 
hostages:  So  he  delivered  every  one  of  them  to  his 
own  parents.  And  thus  did  Jonathan  make  his  abode 
at  Jerusalem,  renewing  the  city  to  a  better  state, 
and  reforming  the  buildings  as  he  pleased;  for  he 
gave  orders  that  the  walls  of  the  city  should  be  re- 
built with  square  stones,  that  it  might  be  more  secure 
from  their  enemies.  And  when  those  that  kept 
the  garrisons  that  were  in  Judea  saw  this,  they  all 
left  them,  and  fled  to  Antioch,  excepting  those  that 
were  in  the  city  of  Bethsura,  and  those  that  were 
in  the  citadel  of  Jerusalem,  for  the  greater  part  of 
these  was  of  the  wicked  Jews  and  deserters,  and  on 
that  account  these  did  not  deliver  up  their  garrisons. 
2.  When  Alexander  knew  what  promises  Deme- 
trius had  made  Jonathan,  and  withal  knew  his  courage, 
and  what  great  things  he  had  done  when  he  fought 
the  Macedonians,  and  besides  what  hardships  he  had 

294  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xmi. 

undergone  by  the  means  of  Demetrius,  and  of  Bac- 
chides,  the  general  of  Demetrius'  army,  he  told  his 
friends.  That  "he  could  not  at  present  find  any  one 
else  that  might  afford  him  better  assistance  than 
Jonathan,  who  was  both  courageous  against  his 
enemies,  and  had  a  particular  hatred  against  Deme- 
trius, as  having  both  suffered  many  hard  things  from 
him,  and  acted  many  hard  things  against  him.  If 
therefore  they  were  of  opinion  that  they  should  make 
him  their  friend  against  Demetrius,  it  was  more  for 
their  advantage  to  invite  him  to  assist  them  now 
than  at  another  time."  It  being  therefore  de- 
termined by  him  and  his  friends  to  send  to  Jonathan, 
he  wrote  to  him  this  epistle:  "King  Alexander  to 
his  brother  Jonathan,  sendeth  greeting:  We  have 
long  ago  heard  of  thy  courage,  and  thy  fidelity,  and 
for  that  reason  have  sent  to  thee,  to  make  with  thee 
a  league  of  friendship  and  mutual  assistance.  We 
therefore  do  ordain  thee  this  day  the  high  priest  of 
the  Jews,  and  that  thou  beest  called  my  friend.  I 
have  also  sent  thee,  as  presents,  a  purple  robe  and 
a  golden  crown,  and  desire,  that  now  thou  art  by 
us  honoured,  thou  wilt  in  like  manner  respect  us  also." 
3.  When  Jonathan  had  received  this  letter,  he 
^  put  on  the  pontifical  robe  at  the  time  of  the  feast 
of  tabernacles,  four  years  after  the  death  of  his 
brother  Judas,  for  at  that  time  no  high  priest  had 
been  made.  So  he  raised  great  forces,  and  had 
abundance     of     armour     got     ready.      This     greatly 

*  Since  Jonathan  jilainly  did  not  put  on  tlie  pontifical  robes  till  seven 
or  eight  years  after  the  death  of  his  hrotiier  Jndas,  or  not  till  the  feast 
of  tabernacles  in  the  IfiOtli  of  tlie  Seleucidae,  1  Maccab.  x.  ;?!,  Petitus' 
emendation  seems  here  to  deserve  consideration,  who,  instead  of  after 
four  years  since  the  death  of  his  brother  Judas,  would  have  us  read, 
and  therefore  after  eight  years  since  the  death  of  his  brother  Judas. 
This  woidd  toleralily  well  agree  witli  tlie  death  of  tlie  Maccabees,  and 
with  Joscphiis'  own  exact  chronology  at  the  end  of  the  twentieth  book 
of  these  Antiquities,  which   the  ])resent  text   cannot  be  made  to  do. 

Chap.  II.  OF  THE  JEWS.  29.5 

grieved  Demetrius,  when  he  heard  of  it,  and  made 
him  blame  himself  for  his  slowness,  that  he  had  not 
prevented  Alexander,  and  got  the  good-will  of  Jon- 
athan, but  had  given  him  time  so  to  do.  However, 
he  also  himself  wrote  a  letter  to  Jonathan,  and  to 
the  people;  the  contents  whereof  are  these:  "King 
Demetrius  to  Jonathan,  and  to  the  nation  of  the 
Jews,  sendeth  greeting:  Since  you  have  preserved 
your  friendship  for  us;  and  when  you  have  been 
tempted  by  our  enemies,  you  have  not  joined  your- 
selves to  them,  I  both  commend  you  for  this  your 
fidelity,  and  exhort  you  to  continue  in  the  same 
disposition,  for  which  you  shall  be  repaid,  and  receive 
rewards  from  us:  for  I  will  free  you  from  the  greatest 
part  of  the  tributes  and  taxes  which  you  formerly 
paid  to  the  kings  my  predecessors,  and  to  myself; 
and  I  do  now  set  you  free  from  those  tributes  which 
you  have  ever  paid;  and  besides,  I  forgive  you  the 
tax  upon  salt,  and  ^  the  value  of  the  crowns  which 
you  used  to  offer  to  me;  and  instead  of  the  third 
part  of  the  fruits  [of  the  field],  and  the  half  of 
the  fruits  of  the  trees,  I  relinquish  my  part  of  them 
from  this  day:  And  as  to  the  poll-money,  which 
ought  to  be  given  me  for  every  head  of  the  inhab- 
itants of  Judea,  and  of  the  three  toparchies  that 
adjoin  to  Judea,  Samaria,  and  Galilee,  and  Perea, 
that  I  relinquish  to  you  for  this  time,  and  for  all 
time  to  come.  I  will  also  that  the  city  of  Jerusalem 
be  holy  and  inviolable;  and  free  from  the  tithe,  and 
from  the  taxes,  unto  its  utmost  bounds:  And  I  so 
far  recede  from  my  title  to  the  citadel,  as  to  permit 
Jonathan  your  high  priest  to  possess  it,  that  he 
may  place  such  a  garrison   in  it  as   he   approves   of 

^  Take  Grotius'  note  here:  "The  Jews  were  wont  to  present  crowns 
to  the  kings  [of  Syria;]  afterwards  that  gold,  which  was  paid  instead  of 
those  crowns,  or  which  was  expended  in  making  tiiem,  Mas  called  the  vroini 
ifold  and  croicn  tax.''     On  1  Maccab,  x.  i?T. 

296  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xm. 

for  fidelity  and  good  will  to  himself,  that  they  may 
keep  it  for  us.  I  also  make  free  all  those  Jews 
who  have  been  made  captives  and  slaves  in  my  king- 
dom. I  also  give  order  that  the  beasts  of  the  Jews 
be  not  pressed  for  our  service.  And  let  their  Sab- 
baths, and  all  their  festivals,  and  three  days  before 
each  of  them,  be  free  from  any  imposition.  In  the 
same  manner,  I  set  free  the  Jews  that  are  inhab- 
itants in  my  kingdom,  and  order  that  no  injury  be 
done  them.  I  also  give  leave  to  such  of  them  as 
are  willing  to  list  themselves  in  my  army,  that  they 
may  do  it,  and  those  as  far  as  thirty  thousand;  which 
Jewish  soldiers,  wheresoever  they  go,  shall  have  the 
same  pay  that  my  own  army  hath:  and  some  of 
them  I  will  place  in  my  garrisons,  and  some  as 
guards  about  mine  oa^ii  body,  and  as  rulers  over 
those  that  are  in  my  court.  I  give  them  leave  also 
to  use  the  laws  of  their  forefathers,  and  to  observe 
them;  and  I  will,  that  they  have  power  over  the 
three  toparchies  that  are  added  to  Judea,  and  it 
shall  be  in  the  power  of  the  high  priest,  to  take  care 
that  not  one  Jew  shall  have  any  other  temple  for 
worship,  but  only  that  at  Jerusalem.  I  bequeath 
also,  out  of  my  own  revenues,  yearly,  for  the  ex- 
penses about  the  sacrifices,  one  hundred  and  fifty 
thousand  [drachmee;]  and  Avhat  money  is  to  spare 
I  will  that  it  shall  be  your  own.  I  also  release  to 
you  those  ten  thousand  drachmae  which  the  kings 
received  from  the  temple,  because  they  appertain  to 
the  priests  that  minister  in  that  temple.  And  who- 
soever shall  fly  to  the  temple  at  Jerusalem,  or  to  the 
places  thereto  belonging,  or  who  owe  the  king 
money,  or  are  there  on  any  other  account,  let  them 
be  set  free,  and  let  their  goods  be  in  safety.  I  also 
give  you  leave  to  repair  and  rebuild  your  temple, 
and  that   all   be   done  at  my   expense.     I   also   allow 

Chap.  II.  OF  THE  JEWS.  297 

you  to  build  the  walls  of  your  city,  and  to  erect 
high  towers,  and  that  they  be  erected  at  my  charge. 
And  if  there  be  any  fortified  town  that  would  be 
convenient  for  the  Jewish  country  to  have  very 
strong,  let  it  be  so  built  at  my  expenses." 

4.  This  was  what  Demetrius  promised,  and 
granted  to  the  Jews,  by  this  letter.  But  king  Alex- 
ander raised  a  great  army  of  mercenary  soldiers,  and 
of  those  that  deserted  to  him  out  of  Syria,  and  made 
an  expedition  against  Demetrius.  And  when  it  was 
come  to  a  battle,  the  left  wing  of  Demetrius  put 
those  who  opposed  them  to  flight,  and  j)ursued  them 
a  great  way,  and  slew  many  of  them,  and  spoiled 
their  camp,  but  the  right  wing,  where  Demetrius 
happened  to  be,  was  beaten;  and  as  for  all  the  rest, 
they  ran  away:  but  Demetrius  fought  courageously, 
and  slew  a  great  many  of  the  enemy;  but  as  he  was 
in  the  pursuit  of  the  rest,  his  horse  carried  him 
into  a  deep  bog,  where  it  was  hard  to  get  out,  and 
there  it  happened,  that  upon  his  horse's  falling  down, 
he  could  not  escape  being  killed;  for  when  his  enemies 
saw  what  had  befallen  him,  they  returned  back,  and 
encompassed  Demetrius  round,  and  they  all  threw 
their  darts  at  him;  but  he  being  now  on  foot,  fought 
bravely,  but  at  length  he  received  so  many  wounds, 
that  he  was  not  able  to  bear  up  any  longer,  but  fell. 
And  this  is  the  end  that  Demetrius  came  to  when 
he  had  reigned  ^  eleven  years,  as  we  have  elsewhere 

'  Since  the  rest  of  the  historians  now  extant  give  this  Demetrius  13 
years,  and  Josephus  only  11  years,  Prideaux  does  not  amiss  in  ascribing 
to  him  the  mean  number  12. 

298  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 


The  friendship  that  was  between  Onias  and  Ptolemy 
Philometer;  and  how  Onias  built  a  temple  in  Egypt 
like  to  that  at  Jerusalem. 

1.  But  then  the  son  of  Onias  the  high  priest,  who 
was  of  the  same  name  with  his  father,  and  who 
fled  to  king  Ptolemy,  who  was  called  Philometer, 
lived  now  at  Alexandria,  as  we  have  said  already. 
When  this  Onias  saw  that  Judea  was  opjDressed  by 
the  ^Macedonians,  and  their  kings,  out  of  a  desire 
to  purchase  to  himself  a  memorial  and  eternal  fame, 
he  resolved  to  send  to  king  Ptolemy  and  queen  Cleo- 
patra, to  ask  leave  of  them  that  he  might  build  a 
temple  in  Egypt  like  to  that  at  Jerusalem,  and  might 
ordain  Levites  and  priests  out  of  their  own  stock. 
The  chief  reason  why  he  was  desirous  so  to  do,  was, 
that  he  relied  upon  the  prophet  Isaiah,  who  lived 
above  six  hundred  years  before,  and  foretold  that 
there  certainly  was  to  be  a  temple  built  to  Almighty 
God  in  Egypt  by  a  man  that  was  a  Jew.  Onias 
was  elevated  with  this  prediction;  and  wrote  the 
following  epistle  to  Ptolemy  and  Cleoj^atra:  "Having 
done  many  and  great  things  for  you  in  the  affairs 
of  the  war,  by  the  assistance  of  God,  and  that  in 
Celesyria  and  Phenicia,  I  came  at  length  with  the 
Jews  to  Leontopolis,  and  to  other  places  of  your 
nation,  where  I  found  that  the  greatest  part  of  your 
people  had  temples  in  an  improper  manner,  and 
that  on  tliis  account  they  bare  ill  will  one  against 
another,  whicli  ha])pens  to  the  Egyptians  by  reason 
of  the  multitude  of  tlieir  temples,  and  the  difference 
of    opinions    about    divine    worship.     Xow    I    found 



OF  THE  JEWS.  299 

a  very  fit  place  in  a  castle  that  hath  its  name  from 
the  country  Diana;  this  place  is  full  of  materials  of 
several  sorts,  and  replenished  with  sacred  animals: 
I  desire  therefore  that  you  will  grant  me  leave,  to 
purge  this  holy  place,  which  belongs  to  no  master, 
and  is  fallen  down,  and  to  build  there  a  temple  to 
Ahnighty  God,  after  the  pattern  of  that  in  Jerusa- 
lem, and  of  the  same  dimensions;  that  may  be  for 
the  benefit  of  thyself,  and  thy  wife  and  children, 
that  those  Jews  which  dwell  in  Egypt  may  have  a 
place  whither  they  may  come  and  meet  together  in 
mutual  harmony  one  with  another,  and  be  subservient 
to  thy  advantages,  for  the  prophet  Isaiah  foretold, 
that  ^  ihere  should  he  an  altar  in  Egypt  to  the  Lord 

^  It  seems  to  me,  contrary  to  the  opinion  of  Josephus,  and  of  the 
moderns,  both  Jews  and  Christians,  that  this  prophecy  of  Isaiah  xix. 
19,  etc.,  In  that  chti/  there  sh(fU  be  an  altar  to  the  Lord  in  the  midst  of 
the  land  of  E f/ypt ^  eic,  directly  foretold  the  building  of  this  temple  of 
Onias  in  Egypt,  and  was  a  sufficient  warrant  to  the  Jews  for  building 
it,  and  for  worshipping  the  true  God,  the  God  of  Israel,  therein.  See 
Authent.  Rec.  Vol.  II.  p.  755.  That  God  seems  to  have  soon  better 
accepted  of  the  sacrifices  and  prayers  here  offered  him  than  those  at 
Jerusalem,  see  the  note  on  ch.  x.  sect.  T.  And  truly  the  marks  of  Jewish 
corruption  or  interpolation  in  this  text,  in  order  to  discourage  their 
people  from  approving  of  the  worship  of  God  here,  are  very  strong, 
and  highly  deserve  our  consideration  and  correction.  The  foregoing  verse 
in  Isaiah  "runs  thus  in  our  common  copies,  In  that  day  shall  five  cities  in 
the  land  of  Eyi/pt,  [the  Hebrew  language:  shall  be  full  of  Jews,  wliose 
sacred  boolvs  were  in  Hebrew,]  and  swear  to  the  Lord  of  hosts.  One 
[for  the  first]  shall  be  called  the  city  of  destruction,  Isa.  xx.  18.  A 
strange  name,  city  of  destruction!  upon  so  joyful  an  occasion,  and  a 
name  never  heard  of  in  the  land  of  Egypt,  or  perhaps  in  any  other 
nation.  The  old  reading  was  evidently  the  city  of  the  sun,  or  Heliopolis; 
and  Onkelos,  in  effect,  and  Symmachus  with  the  Arabic  version,  entirely 
confess  that  to  be  the  true  reading.  The  Septuagint  also,  though  they 
have  the  text  disguised  in  the  connnon  cojiies,  and  call  it  Asedck,  tlie 
citii  of  riyhteousness;  yet  in  two  or  three  otlier  copies  the  Hebrew  word 
itself  for  the  sun,  Acheres,  or  Thares.  is  preserved.  And  since  Onias 
insists  with  the  king  and  queen,  that  Isaiah's  prophecy  contained  many 
other  predictions  relating  to  this  place,  besides  the  words  by  him  recited; 
it  is  highly  probable  that  these  were  especially  meant  by  him;  and  that 
one  main  reason  wliy  he  applied  this  prediction  to  himself,  and  to  his 
l)refecture  of  Heliopolis,  which  Dean  Prideaux  well  proves  was  in  that 
]iart  of  Egypt,  and  why  he  chose  to  build  in  that  prefecture  of  Heliopolis, 
thoiigli  otherwise  an  improper  ])lace,  was  this,  that  the  same  authority 
tliat    he   had    for   building   this    temple    in    Egypt,   the    very    same    he    had 

300  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xm. 

God.  And  many  other  such  things  did  he  prophesy 
relating  to  that  place." 

2.  And  this  was  what  Onias  wrote  to  king  Ptol- 
emy. Now  any  one  may  observe  his  piety,  and  that 
of  his  sister  and  wife  Cleopatra's,  by  that  epistle 
which  they  wrote  in  answer  to  it;  for  they  laid  the 
blame  and  the  transgression  of  the  law  upon  the 
head  of  Onias.  And  this  was  their  reply:  "King 
Ptolemy  and  queen  Cleopatra  to  Onias,  send  greeting: 
We  have  read  thy  petition,  wherein  thou  desirest 
leave  to  be  given  thee  to  purge  that  temple  which 
is  fallen  down  at  Leontopolis,  in  the  Nomus  of 
Heliopolis,  and  which  is  named  from  the  country 
Buhastis;  on  which  account  we  cannot  but  wonder 
that  it  should  be  pleasing  to  God  to  have  a  temple 
erected  in  a  place  so  unclean,  and  so  full  of  sacred 
animals:  But  since  thou  sayest  that  Isaiah  the  prophet 
foretold  this  long  ago,  we  give  thee  leave  to  do  it, 
if  it  may  be  done  according  to  your  law,  and  so 
that  we  may  not  appear  to  have  at  all  offended  God 

3.  So  Onias  took  the  place,  and  built  a  temple, 
and  an  altar  to  God,  like  indeed  to  that  in  Jerusalem, 
but  smaller  and  poorer.  I  do  not  think  it  proper 
for  me  now  to  describe  its  dimensions,  or  its  vessels, 
which  have  been  already  described  in  my  seventh 
book  of  the  wars  of  the  Jews.  However,  Onias 
found  other  Jews  like  to  himself,  together  with  priests 
and  Levites,  that  there  performed  divine  service. 
But  we  have  said  enough  about  this  temple. 

4.  Now    it    came    to    pass    that    the    Alexandrian 

for  building  it  in  his  own  prefecture  of  Heliopolis  also,  which  he  desired 
to  do,  and  which  he  did  accordingly.  Prideaux  has  much  ado  to  avoid 
seeing  this  corruption  of  the  Hebrew,  but  it  being  in  support  of  his  own 
opinion  about  this  temple,  he  durst  not  see  it;  and  indeed  he  reasons 
here  in  the  most  weak  and  injudicious  manner  possible.  See  him  at  the 
year  149. 

Chap.  III.  OF  THE  JEWS.  301 

Jews,  and  those  Samaritans  who  paid  their  worship 
to  the  temple  that  was  built  in  the  days  of  Alexander 
at  mount  Gerizzim,  did  now  make  a  sedition  one 
against  another,  and  disputed  about  their  temples 
before  Ptolemy  himself,  the  Jews  saying,  that  ac- 
cording to  the  laws  of  Moses,  the  temple  was  to 
be  built  at  Jerusalem;  and  the  Samaritans  saying, 
that  it  was  to  be  built  at  Gerizzim.  They  desired 
therefore  the  king  to  sit  with  his  friends,  and  hear 
the  debates  about  these  matters,  and  punish  those 
with  death  who  were  baffled.  Xow  Sabbeus  and 
Theodosius  managed  the  argument  for  the  Samari- 
tans, and  Andronicus  the  son  of  Messalamus,  for 
the  people  of  Jerusalem;  and  tliey  took  an  oath  by 
God  and  the  king,  to  make  their  demonstrations 
according  to  the  law;  and  they  desired  of  Ptolemy, 
that  wdiomsoever  he  should  find  that  transgressed 
what  they  had  sworn  to,  he  would  put  him  to  death. 
Accordingly  the  king  took  several  of  his  friends 
into  the  council,  and  sat  down,  in  order  to  hear  what 
the  pleaders  said.  Xow  the  Jews  that  w^ere  at  Alex- 
andria were  in  great  concern  for  those  men,  whose 
lot  it  was  to  contend  for  the  temple  at  Jerusalem; 
for  they  took  it  very  ill  that  any  should  take  away 
the  reputation  of  that  temple,  which  was  so  ancient, 
and  so  celebrated  all  over  the  habitable  earth.  Xow 
when  Sabbeus  and  Theodosius  had  given  leave  to 
Andronicus  to  speak  first,  he  began  to  demonstrate 
out  of  the  law.  and  out  of  the  successions  of  the 
high  priests,  how  they  every  one  in  succession  from 
his  father  had  received  that  dignity,  and  ruled  over 
the  temple;  and  how  all  the  kings  of  Asia  had  hon- 
oured that  temple  with  tlieir  donations,  and  with  the 
most  splendid  gifts  dedicated  thereto:  But  as  for 
that  at  Gerizzim,  he  made  no  account  of  it.  nor  re- 
garded it,  as  if  it  had  never  had   a   being.     By  this 

r;02  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

speech,  and  other  arguments,  Andronicus  persuaded 
the  king  to  ^  determine  that  the  temple  at  Jerusalem 
was  built  according  to  the  laws  of  ]Moses,  and  to 
put  Sabbeus  and  Theodosius  to  death.  And  these 
were  the  events  that  befell  the  Jews  at  Alexandria 
in  the  days  of  Ptolemy  Philometer. 


How  AhiVander  honoured  Jonathan  after  an  ex- 
traordinary manner,  and  hoic  Demetrius,  the  son 
of  Demetrius,  overcame  Alexander,  and  made  a 
league  of  friendship  witJi  Jonathan. 

1.  Demetrius  being  thus  slain  in  battle,  as  we 
have  above  related,  Alexander  took  the  kingdom  of 
Syria;  and  wrote  to  Ptolemy  Philometer,  and  desired 
his  daughter  in  marriage;  and  said,  it  was  but  just 
that  he  should  be  joined  in  affinity  to  one  that  had 

^  A  very  unfair  disputation  this!  while  the  Jewish  disputant,  knowing 
that  he  could  not  properly  prove  out  of  the  Pentateuch,  that  the  place 
vhich  the  Lord  their  God  shall  choose  to  place  his  name  there,  so  often 
referred  to  in  the  book  of  Deuteronomy,  was  Jerusalem  any  more  than 
Gerizzim,  that  being  not  determined  till  the  days  of  David,  Antiq.  B. 
yil.  ch.  xiii.  sect.  4,  Vol.  I.  proves  only,  what  the  Samaritans  did  not 
deny,  that  the  temple  at  Jerusalem  was  much  more  ancient,  and  much 
more  celebrated  and  honoured  than  that  at  Gerizzim,  which  was  nothing 
to  the  present  purpose.  The  whole  evidence,  by  the  very  oaths  of  both 
parties,  being.  Me  see,  obliged  to  be  confined  to  the  law  of  Moses,  or 
to  the  Pentateuch  alone.  However  worldly  policy  and  interest,  and  the 
multitude  prevailing,  the  court  gave  sentence,  as  usual  on  the  stronger 
side,  and  poor  Sabbeus  and  Theodosius,  the  Samaritan  disputants,  were 
martyred,  and  this  so  fhr  as  appears,  without  any  direct  hearing  at  all, 
which  is  like  the  usual  practice  of  such  political  courts  about  matters 
of  religion.  Our  copies  say,  that  the  body  of  the  Jews  were  in  a  great 
concern  about  fhoae  men  in  the  plural,  who  were  to  dispute  for  their 
temple  at  Jerusalem,  whereas  it  seems  here  they  had  but  one  disjnitant, 
Andronicus  by  name:  perhaps  more  were  prejiared  to  speak  on  the  Jews' 
side;  but  the  first  having  answered  to  his  name,  and  overcome  the  Samari- 
tans, there  was  no  necessity  for  any  other  defender  of  the  Jerusalem 

Chap.  IV.  OF  THE  JEWS.  303 

now  received  the  principahty  of  his  forefathers,  and 
had  been  promoted  to  it  by  God's  providence,  and 
had  conquered  Demetrius,  and  that  was  on  other 
accounts  not  unworthy  of  being  related  to  him. 
Ptolemy  received  this  proposal  of  marriage  gladly; 
and  wrote  him  an  answer,  saluting  him  on  account 
of  his  having  received  the  j^i'incipality  of  his  fore- 
fathers; and  promising  him  that  he  would  give  him 
his  daughter  in  marriage;  and  assured  him  that  he 
was  coming  to  meet  him  at  Ptolemais,  and  desired 
that  he  would  there  meet  him,  for  that  he  would 
accompany  her  from  Egypt  so  far,  and  would  there 
marry  his  child  to  him.  When  Ptolemy  had  written 
^  thus,  he  came  suddenly  to  Ptolemais,  and  brought 
his  cousin  Cleopatra  along  with  him:  and  as  he  found 
Alexander  there  before  him,  as  he  desired  him  to 
come,  he  gave  him  his  child  in  marriage,  and  for 
her  portion  gave  her  as  much  silver  and  gold  as 
became  such  a  king  to  give. 

2.  When  the  wedding  was  over,  Alexander  wrote 
to  Jonathan  the  high  priest,  and  desired  him  to  come 
to  Ptolemais.  So  when  he  came  to  these  kings,  and 
had  made  them  magnificent  presents,  he  was  hon- 
oured by  them  both.  Alexander  compelled  him  also 
to  put  off  his  own  garment,  and  to  take  a  purple 
garment,  and  made  him  sit  with  him  in  his  throne; 
and  commanded  his  captains  that  they  should  go 
with  him  into  the  middle  of  the  city,  and  proclaim, 
that  it  was  not  permitted  to  any  one  to  speak  against 
him,  or  to  give  him  any  disturl3ance.  And  when  the 
captains  had  thus  done,  those  that  were  prepared 
to  accuse  Jonathan,  and  who  bore  him  ill-will,  when 
they  saw  the  honour  that  was  done  him  by  proclama- 
tion, and  that  by  the  king's  order,  ran  away,  and 
were  afraid  lest  some  mischief  sliould  befall  them. 
Xay,  king  Alexander  was  so  very  kind  to  Jonathan, 

304  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

that  he  set  him  down  as  the  principal  of  his  friends. 

3.  But  then,  upon  the  hundred  and  sixty-fifth 
year,  Demetrius,  the  son  of  Demetrius,  came  from 
Crete  with  a  great  number  of  mercenary  soldiers, 
which  Lasthenes,  the  Cretian,  brought  him,  and  sailed 
to  Cilicia.  This  thing  cast  Alexander  into  great 
concern  and  disorder  when  he  heard  it;  so  he  made 
haste  immediately  out  of  Phenicia  and  came  to 
Antioch,  that  he  might  put  matters  in  a  safe  posture 
there  before  Demetrius  should  come.  He  also  left 
^  Apollonius  Daus  governor  of  Celesyria,  who  coming 
to  Jamnia  with  a  great  army,  sent  to  Jonathan  the 
high  priest,  and  told  him,  That  "it  was  not  right 
that  he  alone  should  live  at  rest,  and  with  authority,^ 
and  not  be  subject  to  the  king;  and  this  thing  had 
made  him  a  reproach  among  all  men,  that  he  had 
not  yet  made  him  subject  to  the  king.  Do  not  thou 
therefore  deceive  thyself,  and  sit  still  among  the 
mountains,  and  pretend  to  have  forces  with  thee: 
but  if  thou  hast  any  dependence  on  thy  strength, 
come  down  into  the  plain,  and  let  our  armies  be 
compared  together,  and  the  event  of  the  battle  will 
demonstrate  which  of  us  is  the  most  courageous. 
However,  take  notice,  that  the  most  valiant  men  of 
every  city  are  in  my  army,  and  that  these  are  the 
very  men  who  have  always  beaten  thy  progenitors; 
but  let  us  have  the  battle  in  such  a  place  of  the 
country  where  we  may  fight  with  weapons,  and  not 
witli  stones,  and  where  there  may  be  no  place  whither 
those  that  are  ])eaten  may  fly." 

4.  With  this  Jonathan  was  irritated;  and  choosing 

*  Of  the  several  Apollonii  about  these  ages,  see  Prideaux  at  the  year 
148.  This  Apolh)nius  Daus  was,  by  his  account,  the  son  of  that  Apollonius 
who  had  licPti  made  frovernor  of  felesyria  and  Phenicia  bv  Seleucus 
Philopator.  and  was  himself  a  confident  of  his  son  Demetrius  the  father, 
and  n-storcd  to  his  fatlierVs  go' criuiicnt  Ity  liim,  but  afterwards  revolted 
from   him   to   Alexander,  but    not   to   Demetrius   the  son,  as  he  sujiposes. 

Chap.  IV.  OF  THE  JEWS.  305 

himself  out  ten  thousand  of  his  soldiers,  he  went 
out  of  Jerusalem  in  haste  with  his  brother  Simon, 
and  came  to  Joppa,  and  pitched  his  camp  on  the 
outside  of  the  city,  because  the  people  of  Joppa 
had  shut  their  gates  against  him,  for  they  had  a 
garrison  in  the  city  put  there  by  Apollonius;  but 
when  Jonathan  was  preparing  to  besiege  them,  they 
were  afraid  he  would  take  them  by  force,  and  so 
they  opened  the  gates  to  him.  But  Apollonius,  when 
he  heard  that  Joppa  was  taken  by  Jonathan,  took 
three  thousand  horsemen,  and  eight  thousand  foot- 
men, and  came  to  Ashdod,  and  removing  thence,  he 
made  his  journey  silently  and  slowly,  and  going  up 
to  Joppa,  he  made  as  if  he  was  retiring  from  the 
place,  and  so  drew  Jonathan  into  the  plain,  as 
valuing  himself  highly  upon  his  horsemen,  and  having 
his  hopes  of  victory  principally  in  them.  However, 
Jonathan  sallied  out,  and  pursued  Apollonius  to 
Ashdod;  but  as  soon  as  Apollonius  perceived  that 
his  enemy  was  in  the  plain,  he  came  back  and  gave 
him  battle:  but  Apollonius  had  laid  a  thousand 
horsemen  in  ambush  in  a  valley,  tliat  they  might  not 
be  seen  by  their  enemies  as  behind  them:  which  when 
Jonathan  perceived,  he  was  imder  no  consternation, 
but  ordering  his  army  to  stand  in  a  square  battle 
array,  he  gave  them  a  charge  to  fall  on  the  enemy 
on  both  sides,  and  set  them  to  face  those  that  attacked 
them  both  before  and  behind:  And  while  the  fight 
lasted  till  the  evening,  he  gave  part  of  his  forces  to 
his  brother  Simon,  and  ordered  him  to  attack  the 
enemies,  but  for  himself,  he  charged  those  that  were 
with  them  to  cover  themselves  with  their  armour, 
and  receive  the  darts  of  the  horsemen,  who  did  as 
they  were  commanded;  so  that  the  enemies'  horse- 
men, while  they  threw  their  darts  till  they  had  no 
more  left,  did  them  no  harm,  for  the  darts  that  were 

306  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

thrown  did  not  enter  into  their  bodies,  being  thrown 
upon  the  shields,  that  were  united  and  conjoined 
together,  the  closeness  of  which  easily  overcame  the 
forces  of  the  darts,  and  they  flew  about  without 
any  effect.  But  when  the  enemy  grew  remiss  in 
throwing  their  darts  from  morning  till  late  at  night, 
Simon  perceived  their  weariness,  and  fell  upon  the 
body  of  men  before  him;  and  because  his  soldiers 
showed  great  alacrity,  he  put  the  enemy  to  flight, 
and  when  the  horsemen  saw  that  the  footmen  ran 
away,  neither  did  they  stay  themselves,  but  they 
being  very  weary,  by  the  duration  of  the  fight  till 
the  evening,  and  their  hope  from  the  footmen  being 
quite  gone,  they  basely  ran  away,  and  in  great  con- 
fusion also,  till  they  were  separated  one  from  another, 
and  scattered  over  all  the  plain.  Upon  which  Jona- 
than pursued  them  as  far  as  Ashdod,  and  slew  a 
great  many  of  them,  and  compelled  the  rest,  in  despair 
of  escaping,  to  fly  to  the  temple  of  Dagon,  which 
was  at  Ashdod;  but  Jonathan  took  the  city  on  the 
first  onset,  and  burnt  it,  and  the  villages  about  it, 
nor  did  he  abstain  from  the  temple  of  Dagon  itself, 
and  burnt  it  also,  and  destroyed  those  that  had  fled 
to  it.  Now  the  entire  multitude  of  the  enemies  that 
fell  in  the  battle,  and  were  consumed  in  the  temple, 
were  eight  thousand.  When  Jonatlian  therefore  had 
overcome  so  great  an  army,  he  removed  from  Ash- 
dod, and  came  to  Askelon:  and  when  he  had  pitched 
his  camp  without  the  city,  the  people  of  Askelon 
came  out  and  met  him,  bringing  him  hospitable 
presents,  and  honouring  him;  so  he  accepted  of  their 
kind  intentions,  and  returning  thence  to  Jerusalem 
with  a  great  deal  of  prey,  which  he  brought  thence 
when  he  conquered  his  enemies:  but  when  Alex- 
ander heard  that  Apollonius,  the  general  of  his  army, 
was  beaten,  he  pretended  to  be  glad  of  it,   because 

Chap.  IV.  OF  THE  JEWS.  307 

he  had  fought  with  Jonathan  liis  friend  and  ally 
against  his  directions.  Accordingly,  he  sent  to  Jon- 
athan, and  gave  testimony  to  his  worth;  and  gave 
him  honorary  rewards,  as  a  golden  button,  which  it 
is  the  custom  to  give  the  king's  kinsmen;  and  allowed 
him  Ekron,  and  its  toparchy,  for  his  own  inheritance. 

5.  About  this  time  it  was  that  king  Ptolemy, 
who  was  called  Philometer,  led  an  army,  part  by 
the  sea,  and  part  by  land,  and  came  to  Syria,  to 
the  assistance  of  Alexander,  who  was  his  son-in-law; 
and  accordingly  all  the  cities  received  him  willingly, 
as  Alexander  had  commanded  them  to  do,  and  con- 
ducted him  as  far  as  Ashdod;  where  they  all  made 
loud  complaints  about  the  temple  of  Dagon,  which 
was  burnt,  and  accused  Jonathan  of  having  laid  it 
waste,  and  destroyed  the  country  adjoining  ^vith  fire, 
and  slain  a  great  number  of  them.  Ptolemy  heard 
these  accusations,  but  said  nothing.  Jonathan  also 
went  to  meet  Ptolemy  as  far  as  Joppa,  and  obtained 
from  him  hospitable  presents,  and  those  glorious  in 
their  kinds,  with  all  the  marks  of  honour.  And  when 
he  had  conducted  him  as  far  as  the  river  called  Eleu- 
therus,  he  returned  again  to  Jerusalem. 

6.  But  as  Ptolemy  was  at  Ptolemais,  he  was  very 
near  to  a  most  unexpected  destruction,  for  a  treacher- 
ous design  was  laid  for  his  life  by  Alexander,  by  the 
means  of  Ammonius,  who  was  his  friend;  and  as  the 
treachery  was  very  plain,  Ptolemy  wrote  to  Alexander, 
and  required  of  him  that  he  should  bring  Ammonius 
to  condign  punishment,  informing  him  what  snares 
had  been  laid  for  him  by  Ammonius,  and  desiring 
that  he  might  be  accordingly  punished  for  it.  But 
when  Alexander  did  not  comply  with  his  demands, 
he  perceived  that  it  was  he  himself  who  laid  the 
design,  and  was  very  angry  at  liim.  Alexander  had 
also  formerly  been  in  very  ill  terms  with  the  people 

308  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xm. 

of  Antioch,  for  they  had  suffered  very  much  by 
his  means;  yet  did  Ammonius  at  length  undergo  the 
punishment  his  insolent  crimes  had  deserved,  for  he 
was  killed  in  an  opprobrious  manner,  like  a  woman, 
while  he  endeavoured  to  conceal  himself  in  a  feminine 
habit,  as  we  have  elsewhere  related. 

7.  Hereupon  Ptolemy  blamed  himself  for  having 
given  his  daughter  in  marriage  to  Alexander,  and  for 
the  league  he  had  made  with  him  to  assist  him  against 
Demetrius;  so  he  dissolved  his  relation  to  him,  and 
took  his  daughter  away  from  him,  and  immediately 
sent  to  Demetrius,  and  offered  to  make  a  league  of 
mutual  assistance  and  friendship  with  him,  and  agreed 
with  him  to  give  him  his  daughter  in  marriage,  and 
to  restore  him  to  the  principality  of  his  fathers. 
Demetrius  Avas  well  pleased  with  this  embassage,  and 
accepted  of  his  assistance,  and  of  the  marriage  of 
his  daughter.  But  Ptolemy  had  still  one  more  hard 
task  to  do,  and  that  was  to  persuade  the  people  of 
Antioch  to  receive  Demetrius,  because  they  were 
greatly  displeased  at  him,  on  account  of  the  injuries 
his  father  Demetrius  had  done  them;  yet  did  he 
bring  this  about;  for  as  the  people  of  Antioch  hated 
Alexander  on  Ammonius'  account,  as  we  have  showed 
already,  they  were  easily  prevailed  with  to  cast  him 
out  of  Antioch;  Avho  thus  expelled  out  of  Antioch, 
came  into  Cilicia.  Ptolemy  came  then  to  Antioch, 
and  was  made  king  by  its  inhabitants,  and  by  the 
army;  so  that  he  was  forced  to  put  on  two  diadems, 
the  one  of  Asia,  the  other  of  Egypt:  but  being 
naturally  a  good  and  a  righteous  man,  and  not  de- 
sirous of  what  belonged  to  others,  and  besides  these 
dispositions,  being  also  a  wise  man  in  reasoning 
about  futurities,  he  determined  to  avoid  the  en^y  of 
the  Romans,  so  he  called  the  people  of  Antioch  to- 
gether to  an  assembly,  and  persuaded  them  to  receive 

Chap.  IT.  OF  THE  JEWS.  309 

Demetrius;  and  assured  them,  that  "he  would  not 
be  mindful  of  what  they  did  to  his  father  in  case 
he  should  now  be  obliged  by  them;  and  he  undertook 
that  he  would  himself  be  a  good  monitor  and  governor 
to  him;  and  promised  that  he  would  not  permit  him 
to  attempt  any  bad  actions;  but  that  for  his  own 
part,  he  was  contented  with  the  kingdom  of  Egypt." 
By  which  discourse  he  persuaded  the  people  of  An- 
tioch  to  receive  Demetrius. 

8.  But  now  Alexander  made  haste  with  a  numer- 
ous and  great  army,  and  came  out  of  Cilicia  into 
Syria,  and  burnt  the  country  belonging  to  Antioch, 
and  pillaged  it;  whereupon  Ptolemy,  and  his  son- 
in-law  Demetrius,  brought  their  army  against  him, 
(for  he  had  already  given  him  his  daughter  in 
marriage,)  and  beat  Alexander,  and  put  him  to  flight: 
and  accordingly  he  fled  into  Arabia.  iVow  it  hap- 
pened, in  the  time  of  battle,  that  Ptolemy's  horse, 
upon  hearing  the  noise  of  an  elephant,  cast  him  off 
his  back,  and  threw  him  on  the  ground;  upon  the 
sight  of  which  accident,  his  enemies  fell  upon  him, 
and  gave  him  many  wounds  upon  his  head,  and 
brought  him  into  danger  of  death;  for  when  his 
guards  caught  him  up,  he  was  so  very  ill,  that  for 
four  days'  time  he  was  not  able  either  to  understand, 
or  to  speak.  However,  Zabdiel,  a  prince  among  the 
Arabians,  cut  off  Alexander's  head,  and  sent  it  to 
Ptolemy,  who  recovering  of  his  wounds,  and  return- 
ing to  his  understanding  on  the  fifth  day,  heard  at 
once  a  most  agi'eeable  hearing,  and  saw  a  most 
agreeable  sight,  which  were  the  death  and  the  head 
of  Alexander;  yet  a  little  after  this  his  joy  for  the 
death  of  Alexander,  with  which  he  was  so  greatly 
satisfied,  he  also  departed  this  life.  Xow,  Alexander, 
who  was  called  Balas,  reigned  over  Asia  five  years; 
as  we  have  elsewhere  related. 

310  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

9.  But  when  Demetrius,  who  was  styled  ^  Nicator, 
had  taken  the  kingdom,  he  was  so  wicked  as  to  treat 
Ptolemy's  soldiers  very  hardly,  neither  remembering 
the  league  of  mutual  assistance  that  was  between 
them,  nor  that  he  was  his  son-in-law  and  kinsman, 
by  Cleopatra's  marriage  to  him;  so  the  soldiers  fled 
from  his  wicked  treatment  to  Alexandria,  but  De- 
metrius kept  his  elephants.  But  Jonathan  the  high 
priest  levied  an  army  out  of  all  Judea,  and  attacked 
the  citadel  at  Jerusalem,  and  besieged  it;  it  was  held 
by  a  garrison  of  Macedonians,  and  by  some  of  those 
wicked  men  who  had  deserted  the  customs  of  their 
forefathers.  These  men  at  first  despised  the  attempts 
of  Jonathan  for  taking  the  place,  as  depending  on 
its  strength;  but  some  of  those  wicked  men  went 
out  by  night  and  came  to  Demetrius,  and  informed 
him,  that  the  citadel  was  besieged;  who  was  irritated 
with  what  he  heard,  and  took  his  army,  and  came 
from  Antioch,  against  Jonathan.  And  when  he  was 
at  Antioch,  he  wrote  to  him,  and  commanded  him 
to  come  to  him  quickly  to  Ptolemais:  upon  which 
Jonathan  did  not  intermit  the  siege  of  the  citadel, 
but  took  with  him  the  elders  of  the  people,  and  the 
priests,  and  carried  with  him  gold,  and  silver,  and 
garments,  and  a  great  numl)er  of  presents  of  friend- 
ship, and  came  to  Demetrius,  and  presented  him  witli 
them,  and  thereby  pacified  the  king's  anger.  So  he 
was  honoured  by  him,  and  received  from  him  the 
confirmation  of  his  high  priesthood,  as  he  had  pos- 
sessed it  by  the  grants  of  the  kings  his  prede- 
cessors. And  when  the  Jewish  deserters  accused  him, 
Demetrius  was  so  far  from  giving  credit  to  them, 
that  when  he  petitioned  him  that  he  would  demand 

*  This  name  Bcmetrlus  Xirafnr,  or  Demefriu.t  fhp  rnnqvernr,  is  so 
written  on  his  coins  still  extant;  as  Hudson  and  Spanlieim  inform  us; 
the  latter  of  whom  gives  us  here  the  entire  inscri])tion,  Kinc/  Demetrius 
the  God,  Philadelphiis  Nicator. 

Chap.  IV.  OF  THE  JEWS.  311 

no  more  than  three  hundred  talents  for  the  tribute 
of  all  Judea,  and  the  three  toparchies  of  Samaria, 
and  Perea,  and  Galilee,  he  complied  with  the  pro- 
posal, and  gave  him  a  letter  confirming  all  those 
grants,  whose  contents  were  as  follows:  "King  De- 
metrius to  Jonathan  his  brother,  and  to  the  nation 
of  the  Jews,  sendeth  greeting:  We  have  sent  you  a 
copy  of  that  epistle  which  we  have  written  to  Las- 
thenes  our  kinsman,  that  you  ma}^  know  its  contents. 
King  Demetrius  to  Lasthenes  our  father,  sendeth 
greeting:  I  have  determined  to  return  thanks,  and 
to  show  favour  to  the  nation  of  the  Jews,  which 
hath  observed  the  rules  of  justice  in  our  concerns. 
Accordingly,  I  remit  to  them  the  three  prefectures, 
Apherimo,  and  Lydda,  and  Ramatha,  which  have 
been  added  to  Judea  out  of  Samaria,  with  their 
appurtenances:  As  also  what  the  kings  my  prede- 
cessors received  from  those  that  offered  sacrifices 
in  Jerusalem,  and  what  are  due  from  the  fruits  of 
the  earth,  and  of  the  trees,  and  what  else  belongs  to 
us;  with  the  salt  pits  and  the  crowns  that  used  to 
be  presented  to  us!  Xor  shall  they  be  compelled 
to  pay  any  of  these  taxes  from  this  time  to  all  fu- 
turity. Take  care  therefore  that  a  copy  of  this 
epistle  be  taken,  and  given  to  Jonathan,  and  be  set 
up  in  an  eminent  place  of  their  holy  temple."  And 
these  were  the  contents  of  this  writing.  And  now 
when  Demetrius  saw  that  there  was  peace  every 
M'here;  and  that  there  was  no  danger,  nor  fear  of 
war,  he  disbanded  the  greatest  part  of  his  army,  and 
diminished  tlieir  pay,  and  even  retained  in  pay  no 
others  but  such  foreigners  as  came  up  with  him  from 
Crete,  and  from  the  other  islands.  However,  this 
procured  him  ill-will  and  hatred  from  the  soldiers, 
on  whom  he  bestowed  nothing  from  this  time,  while 
the  kings   before   him  used   to   pay   them   in   time   of 

312  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

peace,  as  they  did  before,  that  they  might  have  their 
good-will,  and  that  they  might  be  very  ready  to 
undergo  the  difficulties  of  war,  if  any  occasion  should 
require  it. 


How  Trypho,  after  he  ^had  beaten  Demetrius,  de- 
livered the  kingdom  to  Antiochus,  the  son  of  Alex- 
ander, and  gained  Jonathan  for  his  assistant:  And 
concerning  the  actions  and  embassies  of  Jonathan. 

1.  Now  there  was  a  certain  commander  of  Alex- 
ander's forces,  an  Apenemian  by  birth,  whose  name 
was  Diodotus,  and  was  also  called  Trypho,  took 
notice  of  the  ill-will  the  soldiers  bare  to  Demetrius, 
and  went  to  Malchus  the  Arabian,  who  brought  up 
Antiochus  the  son  of  Alexander,  and  told  him  what 
ill-will  the  army  bare  Demetrius,  and  persuaded  him 
to  give  him  Antiochus,  because  he  would  make  him 
king,  and  recover  to  him  the  kingdom  of  his  father. 
Malchus  at  the  first  ojjposed  him  in  this  attempt, 
because  he  could  not  believe  him,  but  when  Trypho 
lay  hard  at  him  for  a  long  time,  he  over-persuaded 
him,  to  comply  with  Trypho's  intentions  and  en- 
treaties.    And  this  was  the  state  Trypho  was  now  in. 

2.  But  Jonathan  the  high  priest,  being  desirous 
to  get  clear  of  those  that  were  in  the  citadel  at  Jeru- 
salem, and  of  the  Jewish  deserters,  and  wicked  men, 
as  well  as  of  those  in  all  the  garrisons  in  the  country, 
sent  presents  and  ambassadors  to  Demetrius,  and 
entreated  him  to  take  away  his  soldiers  out  of  the 
strongholds  of  Judea.  Demetrius  made  answer,  That 
after  the  war,  which  he  was  now  deeply  engaged  in, 
was   over,    he   would    not    only   grant    him    that,    but 

Chap.  V.  OF  THE  JEWS.  313 

greater  things  than  that  also,  and  he  desired  he  would 
send  him  some  assistance;  and  informed  him  that  his 
army  had  deserted  him.  So  Jonathan  chose  out  three 
thousand  of  his  soldiers,  and  sent  them  to  Demetrius. 
3.  Now  the  people  of  Antioch  hated  Demetrius, 
both  on  account  of  what  mischief  he  had  himself  done 
them,  and  because  they  were  his  enemies  also  on 
account  of  his  father  Demetrius,  who  had  greatly 
abused  them,  so  they  watched  some  opportunity  which 
they  might  lay  hold  on,  to  fall  upon  him.  And 
when  they  were  informed  of  the  assistance  that  was 
coming  to  Demetrius  from  Jonathan,  and  consid- 
ered at  the  same  time  that  he  would  raise  a  numerous 
army,  unless  they  prevented  him,  and  seized  upon 
him,  they  took  their  weapons  immediately,  and  en- 
compassed his  palace  in  the  way  of  a  siege,  and 
seizing  upon  all  the  ways  of  getting  out,  they  sought 
to  subdue  their  king.  And  when  he  saw  that  the 
people  of  Antioch  were  become  his  bitter  enemies, 
and  that  they  were  thus  in  arms,  he  took  the  mer- 
cenary soldiers,  which  he  had  with  him,  and  those 
Jews  who  were  sent  by  Jonathan,  and  assaulted  the 
Antiochians;  but  he  was  overpowered  by  them,  for 
they  were  many  ten  thousands,  and  was  beaten.  But 
when  the  Jews  saw  that  the  Antiochians  were  su- 
perior, they  went  up  to  the  top  of  the  palace,  and 
shot  at  them  from  thence;  and  because  they  were 
so  remote  from  them  by  their  height,  that  they  suf- 
fered nothing  on  their  side,  but  did  great  execution 
on  the  others,  as  fighting  from  such  an  elevation, 
they  drove  them  out  of  the  adjoining  houses,  and 
immediately  set  them  on  fire,  whereupon  the  flames 
spread  itself  over  the  whole  city,  and  burnt  it  all 
down.  This  happened  by  reason  of  the  closeness  of 
the  houses,  and  because  they  were  generally  built  of 
wood:  so  the  Antiochians,  when  they  were  not  able 

314  AXTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

to  help  themselves,  nor  to  stop  the  fire,  were  put 
to  flight.  And  as  the  Jews  leaped  from  the  top  of 
one  house  to  the  top  of  another,  and  pursued  them 
after  that  manner,  it  thence  happened  that  the  pur- 
suit was  so  very  surprising.  But  when  the  king  saw 
that  the  Antiochians  were  very  busy  in  saving  their 
children  and  their  wives,  and  so  did  not  fight  any 
longer,  he  fell  upon  them  in  the  narrow  passages, 
and  fought  them,  and  slew  a  great  many  of  them, 
till  at  last  they  were  forced  to  throw  down  their 
arms,  and  to  deliver  themselves  up  to  Demetrius. 
So  he  forgave  them  this  their  insolent  behaviour,  and 
put  an  end  to  the  sedition:  and  when  he  had  given 
rewards  to  the  Jews  out  of  the  rich  spoils  he  had 
gotten,  and  had  returned  them  thanks,  as  the  cause 
of  his  victory,  he  sent  them  away  to  Jerusalem,  to 
Jonathan,  with  an  ample  testimony  of  the  assistance 
they  had  afforded  him.  Yet  did  he  prove  an  ill 
man  to  Jonathan  afterward,  and  broke  the  promises 
he  had  made;  and  he  threatened  that  he  would  make 
war  upon  him,  unless  he  would  pay  all  that  tribute 
which  the  Jewish  nation  owed  to  the  first  kings  [of 
Syria.]  And  this  he  had  done,  if  Trypho  had  not 
hindered  him,  and  diverted  his  preparations  against 
Jonathan,  to  a  concern  for  his  own  j^i'eservation : 
for  he  now  returned  out  of  Arabia  into  SjTia,  with 
the  child  Antiochus,  for  he  was  in  age  but  a  youth, 
and  put  the  diadem  on  his  head:  And  as  the  whole 
forces  that  had  left  Demetrius,  because  they  had  no 
pay,  came  to  his  assistance,  he  made  war  upon 
Demetrius,  and  joining  battle  with  him,  overcame 
him  in  the  fight,  and  took  from  him  both  his  elephants 
and  the  city  Antioch. 

4.  Demetrius,  upon  this  defeat,  retired  into  Cilicia: 
but  the  child  Antiochus  sent  ambassadors,  and  an 
epistle  to  Jonathan,   and  made  him  his   friend   and 

Chap.  V.  OF  THE  JEWS.  315 

confederate,  and  confirmed  to  him  the  high  priest- 
hood, and  yielded  up  to  him  the  four  prefectures 
which  had  been  added  to  Judea.  Moreover  he  sent 
him  vessels  and  cups  of  gold,  and  a  purple  garment; 
and  gave  him  leave  to  use  them.  He  also  presented 
him  with  a  golden  button,  and  styled  him  one  of 
his  principal  friends,  and  appointed  his  brother 
Simon  to  be  the  general  over  the  forces,  from  the 
ladder  of  Tyre  unto  Egypt.  So  Jonathan  was  so 
well  pleased  with  these  grants  made  him  by  Antiochus, 
that  he  sent  ambassadors  to  him,  and  to  Trypho,  and 
professed  himself  to  be  their  friend  and  confederate, 
and  said  he  would  join  with  him  in  a  war  against 
Demetrius,  informing  him  that  he  had  made  no  proper 
returns  for  the  kindnesses  he  had  done  him;  for  that 
when  he  had  received  many  marks  of  kindness  from 
him,  when  he  stood  in  great  need  of  them,  he  for 
such  good  turns,  had  requited  him  with  further  in- 

5.  So  Antiochus  gave  Jonathan  leave  to  raise 
himself  a  numerous  army  out  of  Syria  and  Phenicia, 
and  to  make  war  against  Demetrius'  generals;  where- 
upon he  went  in  haste  to  the  several  cities,  which 
receiA^ed  him  splendidly  indeed,  but  put  no  forces 
into  his  hands.  And  when  he  was  come  from  thence 
to  Askelon,  the  inhabitants  of  Askelon  came  and 
brought  him  presents,  and  met  him  in  a  splendid 
manner.  He  exliorted  them,  and  every  one  of  the 
cities  of  Celesyria,  to  forsake  Demetrius,  and  to 
join  with  Antiochus;  and  in  assisting  him,  to  en- 
deavour to  punish  Demetrius  for  what  offences  he 
had  been  guilty  of  against  themselves;  and  told 
them  there  were  many  reasons  for  that  their  pro- 
cedure, if  they  had  a  mind  so  to  do.  And  when 
he  had  persuaded  those  cities  to  promise  their  as- 
sistance   to    Antiochus,    he    came    to    Gaza,    in    order 

316  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

to  induce  them  also  to  be  friends  to  Antiochus;  but 
he  found  the  inhabitants  of  Gaza  much  more  ahenated 
from  him  than  he  expected,  for  they  had  shut  their 
gates  against  him,  and  although  they  had  deserted 
Demetrius,  they  had  not  resolved  to  join  them- 
selves to  Antiochus.  This  provoked  Jonathan  to 
besiege  them,  and  to  harass  their  country,  for  as 
he  set  a  part  of  his  army  round  about  Gaza,  itself, 
so  with  the  rest  he  overran  their  land,  and  spoiled 
it,  and  burnt  what  was  in  it.  When  the  inhabitants 
of  Gaza  saw  themselves  in  this  state  of  affliction,  and 
that  no  assistance  came  to  them  from  Demetrius, 
that  what  distressed  them  was  at  hand,  but  what 
should  profit  them  was  still  at  a  great  distance,  and 
it  was  uncertain  whether  it  would  come  at  all  or 
not,  they  thought  it  would  be  prudent  conduct  to 
leave  off  any  longer  continuance  with  him,  and  to 
cultivate  friendship  with  the  other;  so  they  sent  to 
Jonathan,  and  professed  they  would  be  his  friends, 
and  afford  him  assistance;  for  such  is  the  temper  of 
men,  that  before  they  have  had  the  trial  of  great 
afflictions,  they  do  not  understand  what  is  for  their 
advantage;  but  when  they  find  themselves  under 
such  afflictions,  they  then  change  their  minds,  and 
what  it  had  been  better  for  them  to  have  done  before 
they  had  been  at  all  damaged,  they  choose  to  do, 
but  not  till  after  they  have  suffered  such  damages. 
However,  he  made  a  league  of  friendship  with  them, 
and  took  from  them  hostages  for  their  performance 
of  it,  and  sent  these  hostages  to  Jerusalem,  while  he 
went  himself  over  all  the  country  as  far  as  Damascus. 
6.  But  when  he  heard  that  the  generals  of  De- 
metrius' forces  were  come  to  the  city  Kadesh  with 
a  numerous  army,  (the  place  lies  between  the  land 
of  the  Tyrians  and  Galilee,)  for  they  supposed  they 
should   hereby   draw   him    out   of    Syria,    in   order   to 

Chap.  V.  OF  THE  JEWS.  317 

preserve  Galilee,  and  that  he  would  not  overlook 
the  Galileans,  who  were  his  own  people,  when  war 
was  made  upon  them,  he  went  to  meet  them,  having 
left  Simon  in  Judea,  who  raised  as  great  an  army 
as  he  was  able  out  of  the  country,  and  then  sat  down 
before  Bethsura,  and  besieged  it,  that  being  the 
strongest  place  in  all  Judea;  and  a  garrison  of 
Demetrius'  kept  it,  as  we  have  already  related.  But 
as  Simon  was  raising  banks,  and  bringing  his  en- 
gines of  war  against  Bethsura,  and  was  very  earnest 
about  the  siege  of  it,  the  garrison  was  afraid  lest 
the  place  should  be  taken  of  Simon  by  force,  and 
they  put  to  the  sword;  so  they  sent  to  Simon,  and 
desired  the  security  of  his  oath,  that  they  should 
come  to  no  harm  from  him,  and  that  they  would 
leave  the  place,  and  go  away  to  Demetrius.  Ac- 
cordingly he  gave  them  his  oath,  and  ejected  them 
out  of  the  city,  and  he  put  therein  a  garrison  of 
his  own. 

7.  But  Jonathan  removed  out  of  Galilee,  and 
from  the  waters  which  are  called  Gennesar,  for  there 
he  was  before  encamped,  and  came  into  the  plain 
that  is  called  Asor,  without  knowing  that  the  enemy 
was  there.  When  therefore  Demetrius'  men  knew 
a  day  beforehand,  that  Jonathan  was  coming  against 
them,  they  laid  an  ambush  in  the  mountain,  who  were 
to  assault  him  on  the  sudden,  while  they  themselves 
met  him  with  an  army  in  the  plain:  which  army  when 
Jonathan  saw  ready  to  engage  him,  he  also  got  ready 
his  own  soldiers  for  the  battle  as  well  as  he  was 
able;  but  those  that  were  laid  in  ambush  by  De- 
metrius' generals  being  behind  them,  the  Jews  were 
afraid  lest  they  should  be  caught  in  the  midst  be- 
tween two  bodies,  and  perish,  so  they  ran  away  in 
haste,  and  indeed  all  the  rest  left  Jonathan;  but 
a  few  there  were,  in  number  about  fifty,  who  staved 

318  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xm. 

with  hliii,  and  with  them  INIattathias  the  son  of  Ab- 
salom, and  Judas  the  son  of  Chapseus,  who  were 
commanders  of  the  whole  army.  These  marched 
boldly,  and  like  men  desperate,  against  the  enemy, 
and  so  pushed  them,  that  by  their  courage  they 
daunted  them,  and  with  their  weapons  in  their  hands, 
they  put  them  to  flight.  And  when  those  soldiers 
of  Jonathan  that  had  retired,  saw  the  enemy  giving 
way,  they  got  together  after  their  flight,  and  pur- 
sued them  with  great  violence,  and  this  did  they  as 
far  as  Kadesh,  where  the  camp   of  the   enemy  lay. 

8.  Jonathan  having  thus  gotten  a  glorious  victory, 
and  slain  two  thousand  of  the  enemy,  returned  to 
Jerusalem.  So  when  he  saw  that  all  his  affairs 
prospered,  according  to  his  mind,  by  the  providence 
of  God,  he  sent  ambassadors  to  the  Romans,  being 
desirous  of  renewing  that  friendship  which  their  na- 
tion had  with  them  formerly.  He  enjoined  the  same 
ambassadors,  that,  as  they  came  back,  they  should 
go  to  the  Spartans,  and  put  them  in  mind  of  their 
friendship  and  kindred.  So  when  the  ambassadors 
came  to  Rome,  they  went  into  their  senate,  and 
said  what  they  were  commanded  by  Jonathan  the 
high  priest  to  say,  how  he  had  sent  them  to  confirm 
their  friendship.  The  senate  then  confirmed  what 
had  been  formerly  decreed  concerning  their  friend- 
ship with  the  Jews;  and  gave  them  letters  to  carry 
to  all  the  kings  of  Asia  and  Europe,  and  to  the 
governors  of  the  cities,  that  they  might  safely  conduct 
them  to  their  own  country.  Accordingly,  as  they 
returned,  they  came  to  Sparta,  and  delivered  the 
epistle  which  they  had  received  of  Jonathan  to  them; 
a  copy  of  which  here  follows:  "Jonathan  the  higli 
priest  of  the  Jewish  nation,  and  the  senate,  and 
body  of  the  people  of  the  Jews,  to  the  ephori  and 
senate,  and  people  of  the  Lacedemonians,  send  greet- 

Chap.  V.  OF  THE  JEWS.  310 

ing:  If  you  be  well,  antl  both  your  public  and  private 
affairs  be  agreeable  to  your  mind,  it  is  according 
to  our  wishes.  We  are  well  also.  When  in  former 
times  an  epistle  was  brought  to  Onias,  who  was  then 
our  high  priest,  from  Areus,  who  at  that  time  was 
your  king,  by  Demoteles,  concerning  the  kindred 
that  was  between  us  and  you,  a  copy  of  w^hich  is 
here  subjoined,  we  both  joyfully  received  the  epistle, 
and  \vere  well  pleased  with  Demoteles  and  Areus, 
although  we  did  not  need  such  a  demonstration,  be- 
cause '  we  were  satisfied  about  it  from  the  sacred 
writings,  yet  did  not  we  think  fit,  first  to  begin  the 
claim  of  this  relation  to  you,  lest  we  'should  seem 
too  early  in  taking  to  ourselves  the  glory  which  is 
now  given  us  by  you.  It  is  a  long  time  since  this 
relation  of  ours  to  you  hath  been  renewed;  and  when 
we,  upon  holy  and  festival  days,  offer  sacrifices  to 
God,  we  pray  to  him  for  your  ^^reservation  and 
victory.  As  to  ourselves,  although  we  have  had  many 
wars  that  have  compassed  us  around,  by  reason  of 
the  covetousness  of  oiu'  neighbours,  yet  did  we  not 
determine  to  be  troublesome  either  to  you,  or  to  others 
that  were  related  to  us;  but  since  we  have  now 
overcome  our  enemies,  and  have  occasion  to  send 
Xinnenius,  the  son  of  Antiochus,  and  Antipater,  the 
son  of  Jason,  who  are  both  honourable  men  belonging 
to  our  senate,  to  the  Romans,  we  gave  them  this 
epistle  to  you  also,  that  they  might  renew  that  friend- 
ship which  is  between  us.  You  will  therefore  do 
well  yourselves  to  write  to  us,  and  send  us  an  account 
of  what  you  stand  in  need  of  from  us,  since  we  are 

^  This  clause  is  otherwise  rendered  in  the  first  book  of  Maccabees, 
xii.  9,  "For  that  we  have  the  holy  books  of  scripture  in  our  hands  to 
comfort  us."  The  Hebrew  original  lieing  lost,  we  cannot  certainly  judge 
which  was  the  truest  version,  only  tlie  coherence  favours  Josephus.  But 
it  this  were  the  Jews'  meaning,  that  they  were  satisfied  out  of  their 
Bible  that  the  Jews  and  Lacedemonians  were  of  kin,  that  part  of  their 
Bible  is  now  lost,  for  we  find  no  such  assertion  in  our  present  copies. 

320  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

in  all  things,  disposed  to  act  according  to  your  de- 
sires." So  the  Lacedemonians  received  the  ambas- 
sadors kindly,  and  made  a  decree  for  friendship 
and  mutual  assistance  and  sent  it  to  them. 

9.  At  this  time  there  were  three  sects  among  the 
Jews,  who  had  different  opinions  concerning  human 
actions;  the  one  was  called  the  sect  of  the  Pharisees, 
another  the  sect  of  the  Sadducees,  and  the  other  the 
sect  of  the  Essens.  Xow  for  the  ^  Pharisees,  they 
say  that  some  actions,  but  not  all,  are  the  work  of 
fate,  and  some  of  them  are  in  our  own  power,  and 
that  they  are  liable  to  fate,  but  are  not  caused  by 
fate.  But  the  sect  of  the  Essens  affirm,  that  fate 
governs  all  things,  and  that  nothing  befalls  men 
but  what  is  according  to  its  determination.  And  for 
the  Sadducees  they  take  away  fate  and  say  there 
is  no  such  thing,  and  that  the  events  of  human  affairs 
are  not  at  its  disposal,  but  they  suppose  that  all  our 
actions  are  in  our  own  power,  so  that  we  are  our- 
selves the  causes  of  what  is  good,  and  receive  what 
is  evil  from  our  own  folly.     However,   I  have  given 

^  Those  that  suppose  Josephus  to  contradict  himself  in  his  three 
several  accounts  of  the  notions  of  the  Pliarisees,  this  here,  and  that 
earlier  one,  which  is  the  largest,  Of  the  War,  B.  II.  ch.  viii.  sect.  14,  ^'ol. 
III.  and  the  latter,  Antiq.  B.  XVIII.  ch.  i.  sect.  3,  Vol.  III.  as  if  he 
sometimes  said  thev  introduced  an  absolute  fatality,  and  denied  all 
freedom  of  human  actions,  is  almost  wholly  groundless ;  he  ever,  as  the 
very  learned  Casauhon  here  truly  observes,  asserting,  that  the  Pharisees 
were  between  the  Essens  and  Sadducees,  and  did  so  far  ascribe  all  to 
fate  or  divine  providence  as  was  consistent  with  the  freedom  of  human 
actions.  However,  their  perplexed  way  of  talking  alrout  fate  or  provi- 
dence, as  overruling  all  things,  made  it  commonly  thought  they  were 
willing  to  excuse  their  sins  by  ascribing  them  to  fate,  as  in  the  Apos- 
tolical Constitutions,  B.  VI.  ch.  vi.  Perhaps  under  the  same  general 
name  some  difference  of  opinions  in  this  point  might  be  propagated,  as 
is  very  common  in  all  parties,  especially  in  points  of  metaphysical 
subtilty:  However  our  Josephus,  who  in  his  heart  was  a  great  admirer 
of  the  piety  of  the  Essens,  was  yet  in  practice  a  Pharisee,  as  he  himself 
informs  us,  in  his  own  life,  sect.  2,  Vol.  III.  And  his  account  of  this 
doctrine  of  the  Pharisees,  is  for  certain  agreeable  to  his  own  opinion, 
who  ever  both  fully  allowed  the  freedom  of  human  actions,  and  yet 
strongly  believed  the  powerful  interposition  of  divine  providence.  See 
concerning  this  matter  a  remarkable  clause,  Antiq.  B.  XVI.  ch.  xi,  sect.  7. 

Chap.  V.  OF  THE  JEWS.  321 

a  more  exact  account  of  these  opinions  in  the  second 
book  of  the  Jewish  war. 

10.  But  now  the  generals  of  Demetrius  being 
wilhng  to  recover  the  defeat  they  had  had,  gathered 
a  greater  army  together  than  they  had  before,  and 
came  against  Jonathan;  but  as  soon  as  he  was  in- 
formed of  their  coming,  he  went  suddenly  to  meet 
them,  to  the  country  of  Hamoth,  for  he  resolved 
to  give  them  no  opportunity  of  coming  into  Judea, 
so  he  pitched  his  camp  at  fifty  furlongs  distant  from 
the  enemy,  and  sent  out  spies  to  take  a  view  of  their 
camp,  and  after  what  manner  they  were  encamped. 
When  his  spies  had  given  him  full  information,  and 
had  seized  upon  some  of  them  by  night,  who  told 
him  the  enemy  would  soon  attack  him,  he,  thus  ap- 
prized beforehand,  provided  for  his  security,  and 
placed  watchmen  beyond  his  camp,  and  kept  all  his 
forces  armed  all  night;  and  he  gave  them  a  charge 
to  be  of  good  courage,  and  to  have  their  minds  pre- 
pared to  fight  in  the  night  time,  if  they  should  be 
obhged  to  do  so,  lest  their  enemies'  designs  should 
seem  concealed  from  them.  But  when  Demetrius' 
commanders  were  informed,  that  Jonathan  knew  what 
they  intended,  their  counsels  were  disordered,  and 
it  alarmed  them  to  find,  that  the  enemy  had  discov- 
ered those  their  intentions,  nor  did  they  expect  to 
overcome  them  any  other  way,  now  they  had  failed 
in  the  snares  they  had  laid  for  them;  for  should  they 
hazard  an  open  battle,  they  did  not  think  they  should 
be  a  match  for  Jonathan's  army,  so  they  resolved  to 
fly:  and  having  lighted  many  fires,  that  when  the 
enemy  saw  them  they  might  suppose  they  were 
there  still,  they  retired.  But  when  Jonathan  came 
to  give  them  battle  in  the  morning  in  their  camp, 
and  found  it  deserted,  and  understood  they  were 
fled,  he  pursued  them,  yet  he  could  not  overtake  them. 

322  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

for  they  had  ah'eady  passed  over  the  river  Eleutherus, 
and  were  out  of  danger.  So  when  Jonathan  was 
returned  thence,  he  went  into  Arabia,  and  fought 
against  the  Nabateans,  and  drove  away  a  great  deal 
of  their  prey,  and  took  [many]  captives,  and  came 
to  Damascus,  and  there  sold  of  that  he  had  taken. 
About  the  same  time  it  was,  that  Simon  his  brother 
went  over  all  Judea  and  Palestine,  as  far  as  Askelon, 
and  fortified  the  strongholds;  and  when  he  had  made 
them  very  strong,  both  in  the  edifices  erected,  and  in 
the  garrisons  placed  in  them,  he  came  to  Joppa, 
and  when  he  had  taken  it,  he  brought  a  great  gar- 
rison into  it,  for  he  heard  that  the  people  of  JojDpa 
were  disposed  to  deliver  up  the  city  to  Demetrius' 

11.  When  Simon  and  Jonathan  had  finished  these 
affairs,  they  returned  to  Jerusalem,  where  Jonathan 
gathered  all  the  people  together  and  took  counsel 
to  restore  the  walls  of  Jerusalem,  and  to  rebuild  the 
wall  that  encompassed  the  temple,  which  had  been 
thrown  down,  and  to  make  the  places  adjoining 
stronger  by  very  high  towers;  and  besides  that,  to 
build  another  wall  in  the  midst  of  the  city,  in  order 
to  exclude  tlie  market-place  from  tlie  garrison,  which 
was  in  tlie  citadel,  and  by  that  means  to  hinder  them 
from  any  plenty  of  provisions;  and  moreover,  to 
make  the  fortresses  that  were  in  the  country  much 
stronger,  and  more  defensible,  than  they  were  be- 
fore. And  when  these  things  were  approved  of  by 
the  multitude,  as  rightly  proposed,  Jonatlian  him- 
self took  care  of  the  building  that  belonged  to  the 
city,  and  sent  Simon  away  to  make  the  fortresses 
in  the  country  more  secure  than  formerly.  But 
Demetrius  passed  over  [Euphrates,]  and  came  into 
Mesopotamia,  as  desirous  to  retain  tliat  country  still, 
as  well  as  Bal)yl{)n;  and  when  he  should  have  obtained 

Chap.  Yi.  OF  THE  JEWS.  323 

the  dominion  of  Iiis  upper  provinces,  to  lay  a  foun- 
dation for  recovering  his  entire  kingdom;  for  those 
Greeks  and  Macedonians  who  dwelt  there,  frequently 
sent  ambassadors  to  him,  and  promised,  that  if  he 
would  come  to  them,  they  would  deliver  themselves 
up  to  him,  and  assist  him  in  fighting  against  ^  Ar- 
saces,  the  king  of  the  Parthians.  So  he  was  elevated 
with  these  hojDcs,  and  came  hastily  to  them,  as  having 
resolved  that,  if  he  had  once  overthrown  the  Parthians, 
and  gotten  an  army  of  his  own,  he  would  make  war 
against  Trypho,  and  eject  him  out  of  Syria;  and 
the  people  of  that  country  received  him  with  great 
alacrity.  So  he  raised  forces,  with  which  he  fought 
against  Arsaces,  and  lost  all  his  army,  and  was  him- 
self taken  alive,  as  we  have  elsewhere  related. 


How  Jonathan  was  slain  by  treachery;  and  how 
thereupon  the  Jews  made  Simon  their  general  and 
high  jwiest:  what  courageous  actions  also  he  per- 
formed, esp'ecially  against  Trypho. 

1.  Now  when  Trypho  knew  what  had  befallen 
Demetrius,  he  was  no  longer  firm  to  Antiochus,  but 
contrived  by  subtilty  to  kill  him,  and  then  take  pos- 
session of  his  kingdom;  but  the  fear  that  he  was  in 
of  Jonathan  was  an  obstacle  to  this  his  design,  for 
Jonathan  was  a  friend  to  Antiochus,  for  which  cause 

*  This  king,  who  was  of  the  famous  race  of  Arsaces,  is  bofh  here, 
and  1  Mac.  xiv.  3,  called  by  the  family  name  Arsaces,  but  Appion  says, 
his  proper  name  was  Phrates.  He  is  here  also  called  by  Josephus  the 
khi(/  of  the  Parfhin))s.  as  the  Greeks  used  to  call  them,  but  by  the  elder 
author  of  the  first  Maccabees  the  king  of  the  Persians  and  Medes,  ac- 
cording to  the  language  of  the  eastern  nations.  See  Authent.  Rec.  Part 
II.  p.  1108. 

324  AXTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

he  resolved  first  to  take  Jonathan  out  of  the  way, 
and  then  to  set  about  his  design  relating  to  Antiochus; 
but  he  judging  it  best  to  take  hin:  off  by  deceit  and 
treachery,  came  from  Antioch  to  Bethshan,  which  by 
the  Greeks  is  called  Scijtliopolis,  at  which  place  Jon- 
athan met  him  with  forty  thousand  chosen  men, 
for  he  thought  that  he  came  to  fight  him;  but  when  he 
perceived  that  Jonathan  was  ready  to  fight,  he  at- 
tempted to  gain  him  by  presents,  and  kind  treat- 
ment, and  gave  order  to  his  captains  to  obey  him,  and 
by  these  means  was  desirous  to  give  assurance  of  his 
good-will,  and  to  take  away  all  suspicions  out  of  his 
mind,  that  so  he  might  make  him  careless  and  incon- 
siderate, and  might  take  him  when  he  was  unguarded. 
He  also  advised  him  to  dismiss  his  army,  because 
there  was  no  occasion  for  bringing  it  with  him  when 
there  was  no  war,  but  all  was  in  peace.  However, 
he  desired  him  to  retain  a  few  about  him,  and  go  with 
him  to  Ptolemais,  for  that  he  would  deliver  the  city 
up  to  him,  and  would  bring  all  the  fortresses  that  were 
in  tlie  country  under  his  dominion;  and  he  told  him, 
that  he  came  with  those  very  designs. 

2.  Yet  did  not  Jonathan  suspect  any  thing  at  all 
by  this  his  management,  but  believed"  that  Trypho 
gave  him  this  advice  out  of  kindness,  and  with  a 
sincere  design.  Accordingly,  he  dismissed  his  army; 
and  retained  no  more  than  three  thousand  of  them 
with  liim,  and  left  two  thousand  in  Galilee,  and  he 
himself,  with  one  thousand,  came  with  Trypho  to 
Ptolemais:  But  when  the  people  of  Ptolemais  had  shut 
their  gates,  as  it  had  been  commanded  by  Trypho 
to  do,  he  took  Jonathan  alive,  and  slew  all  that  were 
with  liim.  He  also  sent  soldiers  against  those  two 
thousand  that  were  left  in  (ialilee,  in  order  to  destroy 
them:  but  those  men  having  heard  the  report  of  what 
had  happened  to  Jonathan,  tliey  prevented  the  execu- 

Chap.  Yi.  OF  THE  JEWS.  325 

tion,  and  before  those  that  were  sent  by  Trypho  came, 
they  covered  themselves  with  their  armour,  and  went 
away  out  of  the  country.  Now  when  those  that  were 
sent  against  them  saw  that  they  were  ready  to  fight 
for  their  hves,  they  gave  them  no  disturbance,  but 
returned  back  to  Trypho. 

3.  But  when  the  people  of  Jerusalem  heard  that 
Jonathan  was  taken,  and  that  the  soldiers  who  were 
with  him  were  destroyed,  they  deplored  his  sad  fate, 
and  there  was  earnest  inquiry  made  about  him  by 
every  body,  and  a  great  and  just  fear  fell  upon 
them,  and  made  them  sad,  lest,  now  they  were  de- 
prived of  the  courage  and  conduct  of  Jonathan,  the 
nations  about  them  should  bear  them  ill-will;  and 
as  they  were  before  quiet  on  account  of  Jonathan, 
they  should  now  rise  up  against  them,  and  by  making 
war  with  them,  should  force  them  into  the  utmost 
dangers.  And  indeed  what  they  suspected  really 
befell  them,  for  when  those  nations  heard  of  the  death 
of  Jonathan,  they  began  to  make  war  with  the  Jews 
as  now  destitute  of  a  governor;  and  Trypho  himself 
got  an  army  together,  and  had  an  intention  to  go  up 
to  Judea;  and  make  war  against  its  inhabitants.  But 
when  Simon  saw  that  the  people  of  Jerusalem  were 
terrified  at  the  circumstances  they  were  in,  he  desired 
to  make  a  speech  to  them,  and  thereby  to  render  them 
more  resolute  in  opposing  Trypho  when  he  should 
come  against  them.  He  then  called  the  people  to- 
gether into  the  temple,  and  thence  began  thus  to 
encourage  them,  "O  my  countrymen,  you  are  not 
ignorant  that  oui-  father,  myself,  and  my  brethren, 
have  ventured  to  hazard  our  lives,  and  that  willingly 
for  the  recovery  of  your  liberty;  since  I  have  there- 
fore such  plenty  of  examples  before  me,  and  we  of 
our  family  have  determined  with  ourselves  to  die  for 
our  laws,  and  our  divine  worship,  there  shall  no  terror 

326  Antiquities         Book  xm. 

be  so  great  as  to  banish  this  resolution  from  our  souls, 
nor  to  introduce  in  its  place  a  love  of  life,  and  a 
contempt  of  glory.  Do  you  therefore  follow  me  with 
alacrity  whithersoever  I  shall  lead  you,  as  not  destitute 
of  such  a  captain  as  is  willing  to  suffer,  and  to  do  the 
greatest  things  for  you;  for  neither  am  I  better  than 
my  brethren  that  I  should  be  sparing  of  my  own  life, 
nor  so  far  worse  than  they  as  to  avoid  and  refuse 
what  they  thought  the  most  honoin'able  of  all  things, 
I  mean  to  undergo  death  for  your  laws,  and  for  that 
worship  of  God  which  is  peculiar  to  you;  I  will  there- 
fore give  such  proper  demonstrations  as  will  show 
that  I  am  their  own  brother;  and  I  am  so  bold  as 
to  expect  that  I  shall  avenge  their  blood  upon  our 
enemies,  and  deliver  you  all  with  your  wives  and 
children,  from  the  injuries  they  intend  against  you, 
and  with  God's  assistance,  to  preserve  your  temple 
from  destruction  by  them,  for  I  see  that  these  nations 
have  you  in  contempt,  as  being  without  a  governor, 
and  that  they  thence  are  encouraged  to  make  war 
against  you." 

4.  By  this  speech  of  Simon's  he  inspired  the 
multitude  with  courage,  and  as  they  had  been  before 
dispirited  through  fear,  they  were  now  raised  to  a 
good  hope  of  better  things,  insomuch,  that  the  whole 
multitude  of  the  people  cried  out  all  at  once,  that 
Simon  should  be  their  leader;  and  that  instead  of 
Judas  and  Jonathan  his  brethren,  he  should  have 
the  government  over  them:  and  they  promised  that 
they  would  readily  obey  him  in  whatsoever  he  sliould 
command  them.  So  he  got  together  immediately  all 
his  own  soldiers  that  were  fit  for  war,  and  made  haste 
in  relniilding  tlie  walls  of  the  city,  and  strengthening 
them  l)v  vei'v  lii<'li  and  strong  towers,  and  sent  a  friend 
of  his,  one  Jonatlian  the  son  of  Absalom,  to  Joppa, 
and  gave  him  orders  to  eject  the  inhabitants  out  of 

Chap.  Yi.  OF  THE  JEWS.  327 

the  city,  for  he  was  afraid  lest  they  should  deliver  up 
the  city  to  Trypho,  but  he  himself  stayed  to  secure 

5.  But  Trypho  removed  from  Ptolemais  with  a 
great  army,  and  came  into  Judea,  and  brought  Jon- 
athan with  him  in  bonds.  Simon  also  met  him  with 
his  army  at  the  city  Adida,  which  is  upon  a  hill,  and 
beneath  it  lie  the  plains  of  Judea.  And  when  Trypho 
knew  that  Simon  was  by  the  Jews  made  their  governor, 
he  sent  to  him,  and  would  have  imposed  upon  him 
by  deceit  and  treachery;  and  desired  him,  if  he  would 
have  his  brother  Jonathan  released,  that  he  would  send 
him  a  hundred  talents  of  silver,  and  two  of  Jonathan's 
sons  as  hostages,  that  when  he  shall  be  released,  he 
may  not  make  Judea  revolt  from  the  king,  for  that 
at  present  he  was  kept  in  bonds  on  account  of  the 
money  he  had  borrowed  of  the  king,  and  now  owed 
it  to  him.  But  Simon  was  aware  of  the  craft  of 
Trypho,  and  although  he  knew  that  if  he  gave  him 
the  money  he  should  lose  it,  and  that  Trypho  would 
not  set  his  brother  free,  and  withal,  should  deliver  the 
sons  of  Jonathan  to  the  enemy,  yet  because  he  was 
afraid  that  he  should  have  a  calumny  raised  against 
him  among  the  multitude  as  the  cause  of  his  brother's 
death,  if  he  neither  gave  the  money,  nor  sent  Jon- 
athan's sons,  he  gathered  his  army  together,  and  told 
them  what  offers  Trypho  had  made,  and  added  this, 
that  the  offers  were  ensnaring  and  treacherous,  and 
yet  that  it  was  more  eligible  to  send  the  money  and 
Jonathan's  sons  than  to  be  liable  to  the  imputation 
of  not  complying  with  Trypho's  offers,  and  thereby 
refusing  to  save  his  brother.  Accordingly,  Simon 
sent  the  sons  of  Jonathan  and  the  money;  but  when 
Trypho  had  received  them,  he  did  not  keep  his 
promise,  nor  set  Jonathan  free,  but  took  his  army, 
a-nd  went  about  all  the  country,  and  resolved  to  go 

328  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

afterward  to  Jerusalem  by  the  way  of  Idumea,  while 
Simon  went  over  against  him  with  his  army,  and  all 
along  pitched  his  own  camp  over  against  his. 

6.  But  when  those  that  were  in  the  citadel  had 
sent  to  Trypho,  and  besought  him  to  make  haste  and 
come  to  them,  and  to  send  them  provisions,  he  pre- 
pared his  cavalry  as  though  he  would  be  at  Jerusa- 
lem that  very  night,  but  so  great  a  quantity  of  snow 
fell  in  the  night,  that  it  covered  the  roads,  and  made 
them  so  deep,  that  there  was  no  passing,  especially 
for  the  cavalry.  This  hindered  him  from  coming  to 
Jerusalem;  whereupon  Trypho  removed  thence,  and 
came  into  Celesyria,  and  falling  vehemently  upon  the 
land  of  Gilead,  he  slew  Jonathan  there,  and  when  he 
had  given  order  for  his  burial,  he  returned  himself 
to  Antioch.  However,  Simon  sent  some  to  the  city 
Basca  to  bring  away  his  brother's  bones,  and  buried 
them  in  their  own  city  INIodin;  and  all  the  people 
made  great  lamentation  over  him.  Simon  also  erected 
a  very  large  monument  for  his  father  and  his  brethren, 
of  white  and  polished  stone,  and  raised  it  a  great 
height,  and  so  as  to  be  seen  a  long  way  off,  and  made 
cloisters  about  it,  and  set  up  pillars,  which  were  of 
one  stone  a-piece;  a  work  it  was  wonderful  to  see. 
INIoreover,  he  built  seven  pyramids  also  for  his  parents 
and  his  brethren,  one  for  each  of  them,  which  were 
made  very  surprising,  both  for  their  largeness  and 
beauty,  and  which  have  been  preserved  to  this  day; 
and  we  know  that  it  was  Simon  who  bestowed  so 
much  zeal  a}>out  the  burial  of  Jonathan,  and  the  build- 
ing of  these  monuments  for  his  relations.  Now  Jon- 
athan died  when  he  had  been  high  priest  ^  four  years, 

^  There  is  some  error  in  tlic  eopies  liere,  when  no  more  than  four 
years  are  aseribed  to  tlie  liigli  jiriesthood  of  Jonathan.  We  know  by 
Josephus'  last  Jewish  chronology,  Antiq.  B.  XX.  eh.  x.  Vol.  III.  that  there 
was  an  interval  of  seven  years  between  the  death  of  Alcimus  or  Jacimus, 
the   last   high   priest,   and   the   real   jiriesthood   of   Jonathan,   to   whom   yet 


vi.     "         OF  THE  JEWS.  329 

and  had  been  also  the  governor  of  his  nation.  And 
these  were  the  circumstances  that  concerned  his  death. 
7.  But  Simon,  who  w^as  made  high  priest  by  the 
multitude,  on  the  very  first  year  of  his  high  priest- 
hood set  his  people  free  from  their  slavery  under  the 
JNIacedonians,  and  permitted  them  to  pay  tribute  to 
tliem  no  longer;  which  liberty  and  freedom  from 
tribute  they  obtained  after  a  '  hundred  and  seventy 
years  of  the  kingdom  of  the  Ass^Tians,  which  was 
after  Seleucus,  who  was  called  Nicator,  got  the  domin- 
ion over  Syria.  Now  the  affection  of  the  multitude 
towards  Simon  was  so  great,  that  in  their  contracts 
one  with  another,  and  in  the  public  records,  they 
wrote,  "In  the  first  year  of  Simon  the  benefactor 
and  ethnarch  of  the  Jews:"  for  under  him  they  were 
very  happy,  and  overcame  the  enemies  that  were 
round  about  them,  for  Simon  overthrew  the  city 
Gazara,  and  Joppa,  and  Jamnia.  He  also  took  the 
citadel  of  Jerusalem  by  siege,  and  cast  it  down  to  the 
ground,  that  it  might  not  be  any  more  a  place  of 
refuge  to  their  enemies  w^hen  they  took  it,  to  do  them 
a  mischief,   as   it  had   been  till  now.     And   when   he 

those  seven  years  seem  here  to  be  ascribed,  as  a  part  of  tliem  Mere  to 
Judas  before,  Antiq.  B.  XII.  ch.  x.  sect.  6,  A'ol.  II.  Now  since,  besides 
these  seven  years'  interregimm  in  the  pontificate,  we  are  told,  Antiq.  B. 
XX.  ch.  X.  that  Jonathan's  real  high  priesthood  lasted  seven  years  more; 
these  two  seven  years  will  make  up  fourteen  years,  which  I  suppose  was 
Josephus'  own  number  in  this  place,  instead  of  the  four  in  our  present 

^  These  170  years  of  the  Assyrians  mean  no  more,  as  Josephus  explains 
himself  here,  than  from  the  aera  of  Seleucus,  which,  as  it  is  known  to  have 
began  on  the  31^th  year  before  the  Christian  aera,  from  its  spring  in  the 
first  book  of  Maccabees,  and  from  its  autumn  in  the  second  book  of 
Maccabees,  so  did  it  not  begin  at  Babylon  till  the  next  spring,  on  the 
31Ith  year.  See  Prid.  at  the  year  313.  And  it  is  truly  observed  by  Dr. 
Hudson  on  this  place,  that  "the  Syrians  and  Assyrians  are  sometimes 
confounded  in  ancient  authors,  according  to  the  words  of  Justin  the 
epitoniizer  of  Trogus  Pompeius,  who  says.  That  "the  Assyrians  were 
afterwards  called  Syrlnnn,"  B.  I.  ch.  xi.  See  Of  the  War,  B.  V.  ch.  ix. 
sect.  4,  Vol.  IV.  where  the  Philistines  themselves,  at  the  very  south  limit 
of  Syria,  in  its  utmost  extent,  are  called  Assyrians  by  Josephus,  as 
Spanheim  observes. 

330  ANTIQUITIES  'Book  xiii. 

had  done  this,  he  thought  it  their  best  way,  and  most 
for  their  advantage,  to  level  the  very  mountain  itself 
upon  which  the  citadel  happened  to  stand,  that  so  the 
temple  might  he  higher  than  it.  And  indeed,  when 
he  had  called  the  multitude  to  an  assembly,  he  per- 
suaded them  to  have  it  so  demolished,  and  this  by 
putting  them  in  mind  what  miseries  they  had  suf- 
fered by  its  garrison,  and  the  Jewish  deserters,  and 
what  miseries  they  might  hereafter  suffer  in  case  any 
foreigner  should  ol)tain  the  kingdom,  and  put  a  gar- 
rison into  that  citadel.  This  speech  induced  the  multi- 
tude to  a  compliance,  because  he  exhorted  them  to 
do  nothing  but  what  was  for  their  own  good:  so  they 
all  set  themselves  to  the  work,  and  levelled  the  mountain, 
and  in  that  work  spent  both  day  and  night  without  any 
intermission,  w^hich  cost  him  three  whole  years  before  it 
was  removed,  and  brought  to  an  entire  level  with  the 
plain  of  the  rest  of  the  city.  After  which  the  temple 
was  the  highest  of  all  the  buildings,  now  the  citadel,  as 
well  as  the  mountain  whereon  it  stood,  were  demolished. 
And  these  actions  were  thus  performed  under  Simon. 


How  Simon  confederated  himself  with  Antiochus 
Pius,  and  made  war  against  Tryplio:  and  a  little 
afterward  against  Cendeheus,  the  general  of  An- 
tiochus' army:  As  also  how  Simon  was  murdered 
hy  his  son-i7i-law  Ptolemy,  and  that  by  treachery. 

1.     ^  Now  a  little  while  after  Demetrius  had  been 
carried  into  captivity,  Trypho  his  governor  destroyed 

*  It    must    here    hv    diliffcntly    noted,    tli;it    .T()se])lius'    co])}'    of    the    first 
l)Ook    of   Maccabees,    wliich    he    h;i(l    so    carefully    followed,    aud    faithfully 

Chap.  VII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  331 

Antiochus  ^  the  son  of  Alexander,  who  was  also  called 
-  the  God,  and  this  when  he  had  reigned  four  years, 
tliough  he  gave  it  out  that  he  died  under  the  hands 
of  the  surgeons.  He  then  sent  his  friends,  and  those 
that  were  most  intimate  with  him,  to  the  soldiers;  and 
promised  that  he  would  give  them  a  great  deal  of 
money  if  they  would  make  him  king.  He  intimated 
to  them  that  Demetrius  was  made  a  captive  by  the 
Parthians;  and  that  Demetrius'  brother  Antiochus, 
if  he  came  to  be  king,  would  do  them  a  great  deal 

abridged,  as  far  as  the  50th  verse  of  the  twelfth  chapter,  seems  there 
to  have  ended.  What  few  things  there  are  afterward  common  to  both, 
might  probably  be  learned  by  him  from  some  other  more  imperfect 
records.  However,  we  nmst  exactly  observe  here,  what  the  remaining 
part  of  that  book  of  the  Maccabees  informs  us  of,  and  what  Josephus 
would  never  have  omitted,  had  his  copy  contained  so  much,  that  this 
Simon  the  Great,  the  Maccabee,  made  a  league  with  Antiochus  Soter, 
the  son  of  Demetrius  Soter,  and  brother  of  the  other  Demetrius,  who 
was  now  a  captive  in  Parthia,  that  upon  his  coming  to  the  crown,  about 
the  140th  year  before  the  Christian  aera,  he  granted  great  privileges  to 
the  Jewish'  nation,  and  to  Simon  their  high  priest  and  ethnarch,  which 
privileges  Simon  seems  to  have  taken  of  his  own  accord  about  three 
years  before.  In  particular,  he  gave  him  leave  to  coin  money  for  his 
country  with  his  own  stamji;  and  as  concerning  Jerusalem,  and  the 
sanctuary,  that  they  should  be  frte,  or  as  the  vulgar  Latin  hath  it, 
hoUj  and  free,  1  Maccal).  xv.  6,  7,  which  I  -take  to  be  the  true  reading, 
as  being  the  very  worils  of  his  father's  concession  offered  to  Jonathan 
several  years  before,  ch.  x.  31,  and  Antiq.  B.  XIII.  ch.  li.  sect.  3,  Vol.  II. 
Now  wliat  makes  this  date,  and  these  grants,  greatly  remarkable,  is  the 
state  of  the  remaining  genuine  shekels  of  the  Jews  with  Samaritan 
characters,  which  seem  to  have  been  (most  of  them  at  least)  coined  in 
the  four  first  years  of  this  Simon  the  Asamonean,  and  having  upon  th.em 
these  words  on  one  side,  Jerusalem  the  holj/,  and  on  the  reverse.  In  the 
year  of  freedom,  1,  or  -2,  or  3,  or  \,  which  shekels  therefore  are  original 
monuments  of  these  times,  and  undeniable  marks  of  the  truth  of  the 
history  in  these  chapters,  though  it  be  in  a  great  measure  omitted  by 
Josephus.  See  Essay  on  the  Old  Test.  pp.  157,  158.  The  reason  why  I 
rather  suppose  that  his  copy  of  the  Maccabees  wanted  these  chap- 
tefs,  than  that  his  own  copies  are  here  imperfect,  is  this,  that  ail 
their  contents  are  not  here  omitted,  though  mfR-h  the  greatest  part 

"■  How  Trypho  killed  this  Antiochus,  the  epitome  of  Livy  informs  us, 
ch.  55,  viz.  that  he  corrupted  his  jihysicians  or  surgeons,  who  falsely 
pretending  to  the  ])eoi)le  that  he  was  perishing  with  the  stone,  as  they 
cut  him   for  it,  killed   him,  which  exactly  agrees   with  Josephus. 

'■'That  this  Antiochus,  the  son  of  Alexander  Balas,  was  called  the 
God,  is  evident  from  his  coins,  which  vSpanheim  assures  us  bear  this 
inscri]iti(in,    A'/zc/    A ittioclms    the    (lod,   EpiphaucK    the    Victorious. 

332  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

of  mischief,  in  way  of  revenge  for  their  revolting 
from  his  brother.  So  the  soldiers,  in  expectation  of 
the  v/ealth  they  should  get  by  bestowing  the  kingdom 
on  Trypho,  made  him  their  ruler.  However,  when 
Trypho  had  gained  the  management  of  affairs,  he 
demonstrated  his  disposition  to  be  wicked;  for  while 
he  was  a  private  person,  he  cultivated  a  familiarity 
with  the  multitude,  and  pretended  to  great  modera- 
tion, and  so  drew  them  on  artfully  to  whatsoever  he 
pleased;  but  when  he  had  once  taken  the  kingdom, 
he  laid  aside  any  farther  dissimulation,  and  was  true 
Tryplio,  which  behaviour  made  his  enemies  superior 
to  him,  for  the  soldiery  hated  him,  and  revolted  from 
him  to  Cleopatra  the  wife  of  Demetrius,  who  was 
then  shut  up  in  Seleucia  with  her  children.  But  as 
Antiochus,  the  brother  of  Demetrius,  who  was  called 
Soter,  w^as  not  admitted  by  any  of  the  cities  on  ac- 
count of  Trypho,  Cleopatra  sent  to  him,  and  invited 
him  to  marry  her,  and  to  take  the  kingdom.  The 
reasons  why  she  made  this  invitation  were  these: 
That  her  friends  persuaded  her  to  it,  and  that  she 
was  afraid  for  herself,  in  case  some  of  the  people  of 
Seleucia  should  deliver  up  the  city  to  Trypho. 

2.  As  Antiochus  was  now  come  to  Seleucia,  and 
his  forces  increased  every  day,  he  marched  to  fight 
Trypho;  and  having  beaten  him  in  the  battle,  he 
ejected  him  out  of  the  Upper  Syria  into  Phenicia, 
and  pursued  him  thither,  and  besieged  him  in  Dora, 
which  was  a  fortress  hard  to  be  taken,  whither  he 
had  fled.  He  also  sent  ambassadors  to  Simon  the 
Jewish  high  priest,  about  a  league  of  friendship  and 
mutual  assistance;  who  readily  accepted  of  the  in- 
vitation, and  sent  to  Antiochus  great  sums  of  money, 
and  provisions,  for  those  that  besieged  Dora,  and 
there})y  sup])lied  tliem  very  plentifully,  so  that  for 
a  little  while  lie  was  looked  upon  as  one  of  his  most 

Chap.  rii.  OF  THE  JEWS.  333 

intimate  friends:  but  still  Trypho  fled  from  Dora 
to  Apamia,  where  he  was  taken  during  the  siege,  and 
23ut  to  death,  when  he  had  reigned  three  years. 

3.  However,  Antiochus  forgot  the  kind  assistance 
that  Simon  had  afforded  him  in  his  necessity,  by 
reason  of  his  covetous  and  wicked  disposition,  and 
committed  an  army  of  soldiers  to  his  friend  Cendebeus, 
and  sent  him  at  once  to  ravage  Judea,  and  to  seize 
Simon.  When  Simon  heard  of  Antiochus'  breaking 
his  league  with  him,  although  he  were  now  in  years, 
yet,  provoked  with  the  unjust  treatment  he  had  met 
with  from  Antiochus,  and  taking  a  resolution  brisker 
than  his  age  could  well  bear,  he  went  like  a  young 
man  to  act  as  general  of  his  army.  He  also  sent 
his  sons  before  among  the  most  hardy  of  his  soldiers, 
and  he  himself  marched  on  with  his  army  another 
way,  and  laid  many  of  his  men  in  ambushes  in  the 
narrow  valleys  between  the  mountains;  nor  did  he 
fail  of  success  in  any  one  of  his  attempts,  but  was 
too  hard  for  his  enemies  in  e^^ery  one  of  them.  So 
he  led  the  rest  of  his  life  in  peace,  and  did  also  him- 
self make  a  league  with  the  Romans. 

4.  Now  he  was  the  ruler  of  the  Jews  in  all  eight 
years;  but  at  a  feast  came  to  his  end.  It  was  caused 
by  the  treachery  of  his  son-in-law  Ptolemy;  who 
caught  also  his  wife,  and  two  of  his  sons,  and  kept 
them  in  bonds.  He  also  sent  some  to  kill  John  the 
third  son,  whose  name  was  Hyrcanus;  but  the  young 
man  perceiving  them  coming,  he  ^  avoided  the  danger 

^  Here  Josephus  begins  to  follow,  and  to  abridge  the  next  sacred 
Hel)re\v  book,  stjied  in  the  end  of  the  first  book  of  Maccabees,  The 
Chronicle  of  John's  \Hi/rcoiiys-']  hujh  priesthood,  but  in  some  of  the 
(Jreek  copies  the  fourth  book  of  Mdccabces.  A  Greek  version  of  this 
chronicle  was  extant  not  very  long  ago,  in  the  days  of  Santes  Pagnimis 
and  Sixtus  wSenensis,  at  Lyons,  tliongh  it  seem  to  have  been  there  burnt, 
and  to  be  now  utterly  lost.  See  Sixtus  Senensis'  account  of  it,  of  its 
many  Hebraisms,  and  its  great  agreement  with  Josephus'  abridgment, 
in  the  Authent.   Rec.  Part   I.   306,  207,  208. 

334  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

he  was  in  from  them,  and  made  haste  into  the  city 
[Jerusalem,]  as  relying  on  the  good-will  of  the 
multitude,  because  of  the  benefits  they  had  received 
from  his  father,  and  because  of  the  hatred  the  same 
multitude  bare  to  Ptolemy;  so  that  when  Ptolemy 
was  endeavouring  to  enter  the  city  by  another  gate, 
they  drove  him  away,  as  having  alreadj^  admitted  of 


Hyrcanus  receives  the  high  priesthood,  and  ejects 
Ptolemy  out  of  the  country.  ^Lntiochus  makes 
tear  against  Hyrcanus,  and  aftertcards  makes  a 
league  tcith  him. 

1.  So  Ptolemy  retired  to  one  of  the  fortresses 
that  was  above  Jericho,  which  was  called  Dagon:  but 
Hyrcanus  having  taken  the  priesthood  that  had  been 
his  father's  before,  and  in  the  first  place  propitiated 
God  by  sacrifices,  he  tlien  made  an  expedition  against 
Ptolemy;  and  when  he  made  his  attacks  upon  the 
place,  in  other  points  he  was  too  hard  for  him,  but 
was  rendered  weaker  than  he,  by  the  commiseration 
he  had  for  his  mother  and  brethren,  and  by  that  only, 
for  Ptolemy  brought  tliem  upon  the  wall,  and  tor- 
mented them  in  the  sight  of  all,  and  threatened  that 
he  would  throw  them  down  headlong,  unless  Hyrcanus 
would  leave  off  the  siege.  And  as  he  thought,  that  so 
far  as  he  relaxed  as  to  the  siege  and  taking  of  the 
place,  so  much  favour  did  he  show  to  those  that  were 
dearest  to  him  by  preventing  their  misery,  his  zeal 
about  it  was  cooled.  However,  his  mother  spread 
out  her  hands,  and  begged  of  him  that  he  would  not 
grow  remiss  on  her  account,  ])ut  indulge  liis  indigna- 

Chap.  VIII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  335 

tion  so  much  the  more,  and  that  he  would  do  his 
utmost  to  take  the  place  quickly,  in  order  to  get  their 
enemy  under  his  power,  and  then  to  avenge  upon 
him  what  he  had  done  to  these  that  were  dearest  to 
himself;  for  that  death  would  be  to  her  sweet,  though 
with  torment,  if  that  enemy  of  theirs  might  but  be 
brought  to  punishment  for  his  wicked  dealings  to 
them.  Now,  when  his  mother  said  so,  he  resolved 
to  take  the  fortress  immediately;  but  when  he  saw 
her  beaten,  and  torn  to  pieces,  his  courage  failed  him, 
and  he  could  not  but  sympathize  with  what  his  mother 
suffered,  and  was  thereby  overcome.  And  as  the 
siege  was  drawn  out  into  length  by  this  means,  that 
year  on  which  the  Jews  use  to  rest  came  on,  for  the 
Jews  observe  this  rest  every  seventh  year,  as  they 
do  every  seventh  day;  so  that  Ptolemy  being  ^  for 
this  cause  released  from  the  war,  he  slew  the  brethren 
of  Hyrcanus,  and  his  mother:  and  when  he  had  so 
done  he  fled  to  Zeno,  who  was  called  Coiylas,  who 
was  then  the  tyrant  of  the  city  of  Philadelphia. 

2.  But  Antiochus  being  very  uneasy  at  the  miseries 
that  Simon  had  brought  upon  him,  he  invaded  Judea 
in  the  fourth  year  of  his  reign,  and  the  first  year 
of  the  principality  of  Hyrcanus,  in  -  the  hundred  and 

^  Hence  we  le.-irn,  that  in  the  days  of  this  excellent  high  priest,  John 
Hyrcanus,  the  observation  of  the  Sabbafic  year,  as  Josephus  supposed, 
required  a  rest  from  var,  as  did  that  of  the  ireekl;/  Sabbalh  from  irork: 
T  mean  this,  imless  in  the  case  of  necessity,  when  the  Jews  were  attacked 
by  their  enemies,  in  which  case  indeed,  and  in  which  alone,  they  then 
allowed  defensive  fighting  to  be  lawful  even  on  the  Sabbath  day,  as  we 
see  in  several  places  of  Josephus,  Antiq.  B.  XII.  ch.  vi.  sect.  -2,  B.  XIII. 
ch.  1,  sect.  -2,  Vol.  II.  Of  the  War,  B.  I.  ch.  vii.  sect.  2,  Vol.  HI.  But 
then  it  must  be  noted,  that  this  rest  from  war  no  way  appears  in  the 
first  book  of  Maccabees,  ch.  xvi.  but  the  direct  contrary;  though  indeed 
the  Jews,  in  the  days  of  Antiochus  Epiphanes,  did  not  venture  upon 
fighting  on  the  Sabbath  day,  even  in  the  defence  of  their  own  lives,  till 
the  Asamonians  or  Maccabees  decreed  so  to  do,  1  ^lac.  ii.  3:3-41,  Antiq. 
B.  XII.  ch.  vii.  sect.  2. 

"  Josephus'  copies,  both  Greek  and  I^atin,  have  here  a  gross  mistake, 
when  they  say,  that  this  first  year  of  John  Hyrcanus,  which  we  have 
just  now  seen   to   luive  been   a   Sabballc  year,  was  in  the   \(}2([   Olympiatl, 

336  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

sixty-second  Olympiad.     And  when  he  had  burnt  the 
country,  he  shut  up  Hyrcanus  in  the  city,  which  he 
encompassed  round  with  seven  encampments,  but  did 
nothing  at  the   first,   because  of  the   strength   of  the 
walls,    and    because    of    the    valour    of    the    besieged; 
although  they  were  once  in  want  of  water,  which  yet 
they  were  delivered  from  by  a  large  shower  of  rain, 
which  fell  at  the  ^  setting  of  the  Pleiades.     However, 
about  the  north  part  of  the  wall,  where  it  happened 
the  city  was  upon  a  level  with  the  outward  ground, 
the  king  raised  a  hundred  towers  of  three  stories  high, 
and  placed  bodies  of  soldiers  upon  them,  and  as  he 
made  his   attacks   every  day,   he   cut   a   double   ditch, 
deep  and  broad,  and  confined  the  inhabitants  within 
it  as  within  a  wall;  but  the  besieged  contrived  to  make 
frequent  sallies  out,  and  if  the  enemy  were  not  any 
where  upon  their  guard,  they  fell  upon  them,  and  did 
them  a  great  deal  of  mischief,  and  if  they  perceived 
them,  they  then  retired  into  the  city  with  ease.     But 
because  Hyrcanus  discerned  the  inconvenience  of   so 
great  a  number   of  men  in   the  city,  while  the   pro- 
visions were  the  sooner  spent  by  them,  and  yet,  as  is 
natural  to  suppose  those  great  numbers  did  nothing, 
he  separated  the  useless  part  and  excluded  them  out 
of  the  city,  and  retained  that  part  only  which  were  in 
the  flower  of  their  age,   and  fit   for  war.     However 
Antiochus  would  not  let  those  that  were  excluded  go 
away,    who    therefore    wandering    about    between    the 
walls,  and  consuming  away  by  famine,  died  miserably; 

whereas   it   was    for   certain   the   second   year   of   the   161st.     See    the   like 
before,  B.  XII.  ch.  vi.  sect.  6. 

^  Tliis  heliacal  setting  of  the  Pleiades,  or  seven  stars,  was,  in  the 
days  of  Hyrcanus  and  Josephus,  early  in  the  sjiring,  about  February, 
the  time  of  the  latter  rain  in  Judca,  and  this  so  far  as  I  remember,  is 
the  only  astronomical  character  of  time,  besides  one  eclipse  of  the  moon 
in  the  reign  of  Herod,  that  we  meet  with  in  all  Josephus,  the  Jews  being 
little  accustomed  to  astronomical  observations,  any  farther  than  for  the 
uses  of  their  calendar,  and  utterly  forbidden  those  astrological  uses 
which   the  heathens   commonly  made   of   them. 

Chap.  VIII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  337 

but  when  the  feast  of  tabernacles  was  at  hand,  those 
that  were  within  commiserated  their  condition  and 
received  them  in  again.  And  when  HjTcanus  sent  to 
Antiochus,  and  desired  there  might  be  a  truce,  for 
seven  days,  because  of  the  festival,  he  gave  way  to 
his  piety  towards  God,  and  made  that  truce  accord- 
ingly: and  besides  that,  he  sent  in  a  magnificent  sacri- 
fice, bulls  with  their  ^  horns  gilded  with  all  sorts  of 
sweet  spices,  and  with  cups  of  gold  and  silver.  So 
those  that  were  at  the  gates  received  the  sacrifices 
from  those  that  brought  them,  and  led  them  to  the 
temple,  Antiochus  the  meanwhile  feasting  his  army; 
which  was  a  quite  different  conduct  from  Antiochus 
Epiphanes,  who,  when  he  had  taken  the  city,  'he  of- 
fered swine  upon  tlie  altar,  and  sprinkled  the  temple 
with  the  broth  of  their  flesh,  in  order  to  violate  the 
laws  of  the  Jews,  and  the  religion  they  derived  from 
their  forefathers;  for  which  reason  our  nation  made 
war  with  him,  and  would  never  be  reconciled  to  him: 
but  for  this  Antiochus,  all  men  called  him  Antiochus 
the  Pious,  for  the  great  zeal  he  had  about  religion. 

3.  Accordingly  Hyrcanus  took  this  moderation  of 
his  kindly;  and  when  he  understood  how  religious  he 
was  towards  the  Deity,  he  sent  an  embassage  to  him, 
and  desired  that  he  would  restore  the  settlements  they 
received  from  their  forefathers.  So  he  rejected  the 
counsel  of  those  that  "  would  have  him  utterly  destroy 
the  nation  by  reason  of  their  way  of  li^dng,  which  was 
to  others  unsociable,  and  did  not  regard  what  they 
said.  But  being  persuaded  that  all  they  did  was 
out  of  a  religious  mind,  he  answered  the  ambassadors, 

'  Dr.  Hudson  tells  us  here,  that  this  custom  of  gilding  the  horns  of 
those  oxen  that  were  to  be  sacrificed,  is  a  known  thing  both  in  the  poets 
and  orators. 

^  This  account  in  Josephus,  that  the  present  Antiochus,  was  per- 
suaded, though  in  vain,  not  to  make  peace  with  the  Jews,  but  to  cut 
them  off  utterly,  is  fully  confirmed  by  Diodorus  Siculus,  in  Photius' 
extracts  out   of   his   S+th   Book. 

338  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

That  if  the  besieged  would  deKver  up  their  arms  and 
pay  tribute  for  Joppa,  and  the  other  cities  which 
bordered  uj^on  Judea,  and  admit  a  garrison  of  his, 
on  these  terms  he  would  make  war  against  them  no 
longer.  But  the  Jews,  although  they  were  content 
with  the  other  conditions,  did  not  agree  to  admit  the 
garrison,  because  they  could  not  associate  with  other 
people,  nor  converse  with  them;  yet  were  they  willing, 
instead  of  the  admission  of  the  garrison,  to  give  him 
hostages,  and  five  hundred  talents  of  silver,  of  which 
they  paid  down  three  hundred,  and  sent  the  hostages 
immediately,  which  king  Antiochus  accepted.  One 
of  those  hostages  was  Hyrcanus'  brother;  but  still 
he  broke  down  the  fortifications  that  encompassed  the 
city:  and  upon  these  conditions  Antiochus  broke  up 
the  siege  and  departed. 

4.  But  Hyrcanus  opened  the  sepulchre  of  David, 
who  excelled  all  other  kings  in  riches,  and  took  out 
of  it  three  thousand  talents.  He  was  also  the  first 
of  the  Jews  that,  relying  on  this  wealth,  maintained 
foreign  troops.  There  was  also  a  league  of  friend- 
ship and  mutual  assistance  made  between  them:  Upon 
which  Hyrcanus  admitted  him  into  the  city,  and 
furnished  him  with  whatsoever  his  army  wanted  in 
rjreat  plenty,  and  with  great  generosity,  and  marched 
along  with  him  when  he  made  an  expedition  against 
the  Parthians;  of  which  Xicolaus  of  Damascus  is  a 
witness  for  us;  who  in  his  history  writes  thus:  "When 
Antiochus  had  erected  a  trophy  at  tlie  river  Lycus, 
upon  his  conquest  of  Indates,  the  general  of  the 
Parthians,  he  stayed  there  two  days.  It  was  at  the 
desire  of  Hyrcanus  the  Jew,  because  it  was  such  a 
festival  derived  to  them  from  their  forefathers,  whereon 
the  law  of  the  Jews  did  not  allow  them  to  travel." 
And  truly  he  did  not  speak  falsely  in  saying  so;  for 
that  festival,  which  we  call  Pentecost,  did  then  fall 

Chap.  IX.  OF  THE  JEWS.  339 

out  to  be  the  next  daj^  to  the  Sabbath:  nor  is  it  ^  law- 
ful for  us  to  journey,  either  on  the  Sabbath  day,  or 
on  a  festival  day.  But  when  Antiochus  joined  battle 
with  xVrsaces,  the  king  of  Parthia,  he  lost  a  great  part 
of  his  army,  and  was  himself  slain:  and  his  brother 
Demetrius  succeeded  in  the  kingdom  of  Syria  by  the 
permission  of  Arsaces,  who  freed  him  from  his 
captivity,  at  the  same  time  that  Antiochus  attacked 
Parthia,  as  we  have  formerly  related  elsewhere. 


How,  after  the  death  of  Antiochus,  Hijrcanus  made 
an  ejcpedition  against  Syria,  and  made  a  league 
tcith  the  Romans.  Concerning  the  death  of  hing 
Demetrius  and  AlecVander. 

1.  But  when  Hyrcanus  heard  of  the  death  of 
Antiochus,  he  presently  made  an  expedition  against 
the  cities  of  Syria,  hoping  to  find  them  destitute  of 
lighting  men,  and  of  such  as  were  able  to  defend 
them.  However,  it  was  not  till  the  sixth  month  that 
he  took  ^Nledaba,  and  that  not  without  the  great 
distress  of  his  army.  After  this  he  took  Samega, 
and  the  neighbouring  places;  and  besides  these, 
Shechem  and  Gerizzim,  and  the  nation  of  the 
Cutheans,  who  dwelt  at  the  temple  which  Alexander 
permitted  Sanballat,  the  general  of  his  army,  to  build 
for  the  sake  of  JNIanasseh,  who  was  son-in-law  to 
Jaddua  the  higli  priest,  as  we  have  formerly  related; 
which  temple   was   now   deserted   two   hundred   years 

*  The  Jews  were  not  to  march  or  journey  on  the  Sabbath,  or  on  such 
a  great  festival  as  was  equivalent  to  the  Sabbath,  any  farther  than  a 
Sabbath  dai/'s  journei/,  or  -2000  cubits.  See  the  note  on  Antiq.  B.  XX. 
ch.  vii.  sect.  6,  Vol.   III. 

34.0  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

after  it  was  built.  HjTcanus  took  also  Dora  and 
JNIarissa,  cities  of  Idumea,  and  subdued  all  the 
Idumeans ;  and  permitted  them  to  stay  in  that  country, 
if  they  would  circumcise  their  genitals,  and  make  use 
of  the  laws  of  the  Jews;  and  they  were  so  desirous 
of  living  in  the  country  of  their  forefathers,  that 
they  ^  submitted  to  the  use  of  circumcision,  and  of 
the  rest  of  the  Jewish  ways  of  living;  at  which  time 
therefore  this  befell  them,  that  they  were  hereafter 
no  other  than  Jews. 

2.  But  Hyrcanus  the  high  priest  was  desirous  to 
renew  that  league  of  friendship  they  had  with  the 
Romans.  Accordingly  he  sent  an  embassage  to  them: 
and  when  the  senate  had  received  their  epistle,  they 
made  a  league  of  friendship  with  them,  after  the 
manner  following:  "Fanius,  the  son  of  Marcus  the 
pretor,   gathered   the   senate   together   on   the   eighth 

*  This  account  of  the  Idumeans  admitting  circumcision,  and  the  entire 
Jewish  law,  from  this  time,  or  from  tlie  days  of  Hyrcanus,  is  confirmed 
by  their  entire  history  afterward.  See  Antiq.  B.  XIV.  ch.  viii.  sect.  1, 
B.  XV.  ch.  vii.  sect.  9,  Vol.  II.  Of  the  AVar,  B.  II.  ch.  iii.  sect.  1,  Vol. 
III.  B.  IV.  ch.  iv.  sect.  5,  Vol.  IV.  This,  in  the  opinion  of  Josephus, 
made  them  proselytes  of  justice,  or  entire  Jews,  as  here  and  elsewhere, 
Antiq.  B.  XIV.  ch.  viii.  sect.  1.  However,  Antigonus,  the  enemy  of 
Herod,  though  Herod  were  derived  from  such  a  proselvte  of  justice 
for  several  generations,  will  allow  him  to  be  no  more  than  a  half  Jew, 
B.  XIV.  ch.  XV.  sect.  -2.  But  still  take  out  of  Dean  Prideaux,  at  the 
year  1:?9,  the  words  of  Ammonius  a  grammarian,  which  fully  confimis 
this  account  of  the  Idumeans  in  Josephus.  "The  Jews,"  says  lie,  "are 
such  b}'  nature,  and  from  the  begimiing,  whilst  the  Idumeans  were  not 
Jews  from  the  beginning,  but  Phenicians  and  Syrians;  but  being  after- 
ward subdued  by  the  Jews,  and  compelled  to  be  circumcised,  and  to 
unite  into  one  nation,  and  be  subject  to  the  same  law«,  they  were  called 
Jews."  Dio  also  says,  as  the  Dean  there  quotes  him,  from  B.  XXXVI. 
p.  37,  "That  country  is  called  Judea,  and  the  people  Jews;  and  this  name 
is  given  also  to  as  many  others  as  embrace  their  religion,  though  of 
other  nations."  But  then  upon  what  foundation  so  good  a  governor  as 
Hyrcanus  took  upon  him  to  compel  those  Idumeans  either  to  become 
Jews  or  to  leave  the  country,  deserves  great  consideration.  I  suppose 
it  was  because  they  had  long  ago  been  driven  out  of  the  land  of  Edom, 
and  seized  on  and  jjossessed  the  tribe  of  Simeon,  and  all  the  southern 
parts  of  the  tribe  of  Judah,  which  was  the  jieculiar  inheritance  of  the 
worshippers  of  the  true  God  without  idolatry,  as  the  reader  may  learn 
from  Heland,  Palestine,  Part  I.  pp.  Iji,  UOj,  and  from  Prideaux,  at  the 
vears    MO,   ;ind    l(i5. 

Chap.  IX.  OF  THE  JEWS.  341 

day  before  the  ides  of  February,  in  the  senate  house, 
when  Lucius  Manhus,  the  son  of  Lucius,  of  the 
Mentine  tribe,  and  Caius  Sempronius,  the  son  of 
Caius,  of  the  Falernian  tribe,  were  present.  The 
occasion  was,  that  the  ambassadors  sent  by  the  ^  people 
of  the  Jews,  Simon,  the  son  of  Dositheus,  and  Apol- 
lonius,  the  son  of  Alexander,  and  Diodorus,  the 
son  of  Jason,  who  were  good  and  virtuous  men,  had 
somewhat  to  propose  about  that  league  of  friendship 
and  mutual  assistance  which  subsisted  between  them 
and  the  Romans,  and  about  other  public  affairs,  who 
desired  that  Joppa,  and  the  havens,  and  Gazara, 
and  the  springs  [of  Jordan,]  and  the  several  other 
cities  and  countries  of  theirs,  which  Antiochus  had 
taken  from  them  in  the  war,  contrary  to  the  decree 
of  the  senate,  might  be  restored  to  them;  and  that 
it  might  not  be  lawful  for  the  king's  troops  to  pass 
through  their  country,  and  the  countries  of  those 
that  are  subject  to  them:  And  that  what  attempts 
Antiochus  had  made  during  that  war,  without  the 
decree  of  the  senate,  might  be  made  void:  and  that 
they  would  send  ambassadors,  who  should  take  care 
that  restitution  be  made  them  of  what  Antiochus 
had  taken  from  them,  and  that  they  should  make  an 
estimate  of  the  country  that  had  been  laid  waste  in 
the  war,  and  that  they  would  grant  them  letters  of 
protection  to  the  kings,  and  free  people,  in  order 
to  their  quiet  return  home.  It  was  therefore  decreed, 
as  to  those  points,  to  renew  their  league  of  friendship 
and  mutual  assistance  with  these  good  men,  and 
who  were  sent  by  a  good  and  a  friendly  people." 
But  that  as  to  the  letters  desired,  their  answer  was, 
that    the    senate    would    consult    about    that    matter, 

^  In  this  decree  of  the  Roman  Senate,  it  seems  that  these  ambassadors 
were  sent  from  the  people  of  the  Jews,  as  well  as  from  their  prince,  or 
hi(/li   priest,  John  Hi/rcanus. 

342  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

when  their  own  affairs  would  give  them  leave,  and 
that  they  would  endeavour,  for  the  time  to  ccme, 
that  no  like  injury  should  be  done  them;  and  that 
their  pretor  Fanius  should  give  them  money  out  of 
the  public  treasury  to  bear  their  expenses  home. 
And  thus  did  Fanius  dismiss  the  Jewish  ambassadors, 
and  gave  them  money  out  of  the  public  treasury; 
and  gave  the  decree  of  the  senate  to  those  that  were 
to  conduct  them,  and  take  care  that  they  should 
return  home  in  safety. 

3.  And  thus  stood  the  affairs  of  Hyrcanus  the 
high  priest.  But  as  for  king  Demetrius,  who  had 
a  mind  to  make  war  against  Hyrcanus,  there  was 
no  opportunity  nor  room  for  it,  while  both  the 
Syrians  and  the  soldiers  bare  ill  will  to  him,  because 
he  was  an  ill  man.  But  when  they  had  sent  am- 
bassadors to  Ptolemy,  who  was  called  Physcon,  that 
he  would  send  them  one  of  the  family  at  Seleucus, 
in  order  to  take  the  kingdom,  and  he  had  sent  them 
Alexander,  who  was  called  Zebina,  with  an  army, 
and  there  had  been  a  battle  between  them,  Demetrius 
was  beaten  in  the  light,  and  fled  to  Clecpatra  his 
wife,  to  Ptolemais,  but  his  wife  would  not  receive 
him.  He  went  thence  to  Tyre,  and  was  there  caught; 
and  when  he  had  suffered  much  from  his  enemies 
before  his  death,  he  was  slain  by  them.  So  Alex- 
ander took  the  kingdom,  and  made  a  league  with 
Hyrcanus,  who  yet,  when  he  afterward  fought  with 
Antiochus  the  son  of  Demetrius,  who  was  called 
Grypus,  was  also  beaten  in  the  fight,  and  slain. 

Chap.  X.  OF  THE  JEWS.  343 


How,  upon  the  quarrel  between  Antiochus  Grypm, 
and  Antioekus  Cydcenus,  about  the  kingdom,  Hyr- 
canus  took  Samaria,  and  utterly  demolished  it; 
and  how  Hyrcanus  joined  himself  to  the  sect  of 
the  Sadducees,  and  left  that  of  the  Pharisees. 

1.  Whex  Antiochus  had  taken  the  kingdom,  lie 
was  afraid  to  make  war  against  Judea,  because  lie 
heard  that  his  brother,  by  the  same  mother,  who  was 
also  called  Antiochus,  was  raising  an  army  against 
him  out  of  Cyzicum,  so  he  stayed  in  his  own  land, 
and  resolved  to  prepare  himself  for  the  attack  he 
expected  from  his  brother,  who  was  called  Cyzicenus, 
because  he  had  been  brought  up  in  that  city.  He 
was  the  son  of  Antiochus  that  was  called  Soter, 
who  died  in  Parthia.  He  was  the  brother  of  De- 
metrius, the  father  of  Grypus,  for  it  had  so  happened, 
that  one  and  the  same  Cleopatra  was  married  to 
two,  who  were  brethren,  as  we  have  related  else- 
where. But  Antiochus  Cyzicenus  coming  into  Syria, 
continued  many  years  at  war  with  his  brother.  Now 
Hyrcanus  hved  all  this  while  in  peace;  for  after  the 
death  of  Antiochus,  he  ^  revolted  from  the  INIace- 
donians,  nor  did  he  any  longer  pay  them  the  least 
regard,  either  as  their  subject  or  their  friend,  but 
his  affairs  were  in  a  very  improving  and  flourishing 
condition  in  the  times  of* Alexander  Zebina,  and 
especially   under   these   brethren,    for   the   war    which 

'  Prideaiix  takes  notice  at  the  year  130,  that  Justin,  in  agreement 
with  Josephus,  says,  "The  power  of  the  Jews  was  now  grown  so  great, 
that  after  this  Antiochus,  they  would  not  bear  any  Macedonian  i<ing 
over  them,  and  that  they  set  u])  a  government  of  their  own,  and  infested 
Syria  witli  great   wars." 

3U  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

they  had  with  one  another  gave  Hyrcanus  the  op- 
portunity of  enjoying  himself  in  Judea  quietly,  in- 
somuch that  he  got  an  immense  quantity  of  money. 
However,  when  Antiochus  Cyzicenus  distressed  his 
land,  he  then  openly  showed  what  he  meant.  And 
when  he  saw  that  Antiochus  was  destitute  of  Egyp- 
tian auxiliaries,  and  that  both  he  and  his  brother 
were  in  an  ill  condition  in  the  struggles  they  had 
with  one  another,  he  despised  them  both. 

2.  So  he  made  an  expedition  against  Samaria, 
which  was  a  very  strong  city;  of  whose  present  name 
Sebaste,  and  its  rebuilding  ]3y  Herod,  we  shall  sj^eak 
at  a  proper  time:  but  he  made  his  attack  against  it, 
and  besieged  it  Avith  a  great  deal  of  pains,  for  he 
was  greatly  displeased  with  the  Samaritans  for  the 
injuries  they  had  done  to  the  people  of  ]Merissa,  a 
colony  of  the  Jews,  and  confederate  with  tliem,  and 
this  in  compliance  to  the  kings  of  Syria.  When  he 
had  therefore  drawn  a  ditch,  and  built  a  double  Avail 
round  the  city,  which  were  fourscore  furloners  Ions, 
he  set  Ills  sons  Antigonus  and  Aristobulus  over  the 
siege,  w^.ncli  brought  the  Samaritans  to  that  great 
distress  by  famine,  that  they  were  forced  to  eat  what 
used  not  to  be  eaten,  and  to  call  for  Antiochus 
Cyzicenus  to  help  them,  who  came  readily  to  their 
assistance,  but  was  beaten  by  Aristobulus,  and  when 
he  Avas  pursued  as  far  as  Scythopolis  by  the  two 
brethren,  he  got  aAvay:  So  they  returned  to  Samaria, 
and  shut  them  again  within  the  Avail,  till  they  were 
forced  to  send  for  the  same  Antiochus  a  second  time 
to  help  them,  Avho  procured  about  six  thousand  men 
from  Ptolemy  Lathyrus,  Avhich  Avere  ser.t  them  Avith- 
out  his  mother's  consent,  aa^Iio  had  tlien  in  a  manner 
turned  liim  out  of  his  government.  With  these 
Egyptians  Antiochus  did  at  first  OA^errun  and  raA^age 
the    country    of    Hyrcanus    after    the    manner    of    a 

Chap.  X.  OF  THE  JEWS.  345 

robber,  for  he  durst  not  meet  him  in  the  face  to 
fight  with  him,  as  not  liaving  an  army  sufficient  for 
that  purpose,  but  only  from  this  supposal,  that  by 
thus  harassing  his  land  he  should  force  Hyrcanus 
to  raise  the  siege  of  Samaria;  but  because  he  fell  into 
snares,  and  lost  many  of  his  soldiers  therein,  he  went 
away  to  Tripoli,  and  committed  the  prosecution  of  the 
war  against  the  Jews  to  Callimander  and  Epicrates. 

3.  But  as  to  Callimander,  he  attacked  the  enemy 
too  rashly,  and  was  put  to  flight,  and  destroyed  im- 
mediately; and  as  to  Epicrates,  he  was  such  a  lover 
of  money,  that  he  openly  betrayed  Sc}i:hopolis,  and 
other  places  near  it,  to  the  Jews,  but  was  not  able 
to  make  them  raise  the  siege  of  Samaria.  And  when 
Hyrcanus  had  taken  that  city,  which  was  not  done 
till  after  a  year's  siege,  he  was  not  contented  with 
doing  that  only,  but  he  demolished  it  entirely,  and 
brought  riMjlets  to  it  to  drown  it,  for  he  dug  such 
hollows  as  might  let  the  water  run  under  it;  nay, 
he  took  away  the  very  marks  that  there  had  ever 
been  such  a  city  there.  Xow  a  very  surprising  thing 
is  related  of  this  high  priest  Hyrcanus,  how  God 
came  to  discourse  with  him:  for  they  say,  that  on 
the  very  same  day  on  which  his  sons  fought  ^vith 
Antiochus  Cyzicenus,  he  was  alone  in  the  temple,  as 
high  priest  offering  incense,  and  heard  a  voice,  that 
"his  sons  had  just  then  overcome  Antiochus."  And 
this  he  openly  declared  before  all  the  multitude  upon 
his  coming  out  of  the  temj^le;  and  it  accordingly 
proved  true:  and  in  this  posture  were  the  affairs 
of  HjTcanus. 

4.  Xow  it  happened  at  this  time,  that  not  only 
those  Jews  who  werq^  at  Jerusalem  and  in  Judea 
were  in  prosperity,  but  also  those  of  them  that  were 
at  Alexandria,  and  in  Egypt  and  Cyprus,  for  Cleo- 
patra the  queen  was  at  variance  with  her  son  Ptolemy, 

34G  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xm. 

who  was  called  Lathyrus,  and  appointed  for  her 
generals,  Chelcias  and  Ananias,  the  sons  of  that 
Onias  who  built  the  temple  in  the  prefecture  of 
Heliopolis,  like  to  that  at  Jerusalem,  as  we  have 
elsewhere  related.  Cleopatra  intrusted  these  men 
with  her  army;  and  did  nothing  without  their  advice, 
as  Strabo  of  Cappadocia  attests,  when  he  saith  thus, 
"Xow  the  greater  part,  both  those  that  came  to 
Cyprus  with  us,  and  those  that  were  sent  afterward 
thither,  revolted  to  Ptolemy  immediately;  only  those 
that  were  called  Onias'  party,  being  Jews,  continued 
faithful,  because  their  countrymen  Chelcias  and 
Ananias  were  in  chief  favour  with  the  queen."  These 
are  the  words  of  Strabo. 

5.  However,  this  prosperous  state  of  affairs  moved 
the  Jews  to  envy  Hyrcanus,  but  they  that  were  the 
worst  disposed  to  him  were  the  ^  Pharisees,  who  were 
one  of  the  sects  of  the  Jews,  as  we  have  informed 
you  already.  These  have  so  great  a  power  over  the 
multitude,  that  when  they  say  any  thing  against 
the  king,  or  against  the  high  priest,  they  are  pres- 
ently believed.  Xow  Hyrcanus  was  a  disciple  of 
theirs,  and  greatly  beloved  by  them.  And  when  he 
once  invited  them  to  a  feast,  and  entertained  them 
very  kindly,  when  he  saw  them  in  a  good  humour, 
he  began  to   say   to   them,   that   "they   knew  he   was 

*  The  original  of  the  Sadducees,  as  a  considerable  party  among  the 
Jews,  being  contained  in  this,  and  the  two  following  sections,  take  Dean 
Prideaiix's  note  upon  this  their  first  public  ajipearance,  which  I  suppose 
to  be  true:  Hyrcanus,  says  he,  "went  over  to  the  ]Kirty  of  tlie  Sadducees, 
that  is,  by  embracing  the  doctrine  against  the  tradition  of  the  elders, 
added  to  the  written  law,  and  made  of  equal  authority  with  it,  but  not 
their  doctrine  against  the  resurrection  and  a  future  state,  for  this  can- 
not be  supposed  of  so  good  and  righteous  a  man  as  John  Hyrcanus  is 
said  to  be.  It  is  most  probable,  that  at  this  time  the  Sadducees  had 
gone  no  farther  in  the  doctrines  of  tha!f  sect  than  to  deny  all  the  un- 
written traditions,  which  the  Pharisees  were  so  fond  of;  for  Josephus 
mentions  no  other  difference  at  this  time  between  them;  neither  dotii 
he  say  that  Hyrcanus  went  over  to  the  Sadducees  in  any  other  })articular 
than  in  the  abolishing  of  all  the  traditionary  constitutions  of  the  Pharisees," 

Chap.  X.  OF  THE  JEWS.  347 

desirous  to  be  a  righteous  man,  and  to  do  all  things 
whereby  he  might  please  God,  which  was  the  pro- 
fession of  the  Pharisees  also.  However,  he  desired, 
if  they  observed  him  offending  in  any  point,  and 
going  out  of  the  right  way,  they  would  call  him 
l)ack  and  correct  him."  On  which  occasion  they  at- 
tested to  his  being  entirely  virtuous,  with  which 
commendation  he  was  well  pleased.  But  still  there 
was  one  of  his  guests  there,  whose  name  was  ^  Eleazar, 
a  man  of  an  ill  temper,  and  delighting  in  seditious 
practices.  This  man  said,  "since  thou  desirest  to 
know  the  truth,  if  thou  wilt  be  righteous  in  earnest, 
lay  down  the  high  priesthood,  and  content  thyself 
with  the  civil  government  of  the  people."  And  when 
lie  desired  to  know  for  what  cause  he  ought  to  lay 
down  the  high  priesthood,  the  other  replied,  "We 
have  heard  it  from  old  men,  that  thy  mother  had 
been  a  captive  under  the  reign  of  Antiochus  Epiph- 
anes."  This  story  was  false,  and  Hyrcanus  was 
provoked  against  him;  and  all  the  Pharisees  had  a 
very  great  indignation  against  him. 

6.  Now  there  was  one  Jonathan,  a  very  great 
friend  of  Hyrcanus',  but  of  the  sect  of  the  Sadducees, 
whose  notions  are  quite  contrary  to  those  of  the 
Pharisees.  He  told  Hyrcanus,  that  "Eleazar  had 
cast  such  a  reproach  upon  him,  according  to  the 
conmion  sentiments  of  all  the  Pharisees,  and  that 
this  would  be  made  manifest,  if  he  would  but  ask 
them  the  question,  what  punishment  they  thought 
this  man  deserved?  for  that  he  might  depend  upon 
it,  that  the  reproach  was  not  laid  on  him  v/ith  their 
apjDrobation,   if  they  were   for  punishing  him  as  his 

'  This  slander,  that  arose  from  a  Pharisee,  has  been  preserved  by 
their  successors  the  Rabbins,  to  these  later  ages,  for  Dr.  Hudson  assures 
us,  that  David  Gantz,  in  his  Chronology,  S.  pr.  p.  77,  in  \''orstius'  version, 
relates  that  Hyrcanus'  mother  was  taken  captive  in  mount  Modiith.  See 
ch.  xiii.  sect.  5. 

348  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

crime  deserved."  So  the  Pharisees  made  answer, 
that  "he  deserved  stripes  and  bonds,  but  that  it  did 
not  seem  right  to  punish  reproaches  with  death." 
And  indeed  the  Pharisees,  even  upon  other  occa- 
•sions,  are  not  apt  to  be  severe  in  punishments.  At 
this  gentle  sentence,  Hyrcanus  was  very  angry,  and 
thought  that  this  man  reproached  him  by  their  ap- 
probation. It  was  this  Jonathan  who  chiefly  irri- 
tated him,  and  influenced  him  so  far,  that  he  made 
him  leave  the  party  of  the  Pharisees,  and  abolish  the 
decrees  they  had  imposed  on  the  people,  and  to 
punish  those  that  observed  them.  From  this  source 
arose  that  hatred  which  he  and  his  sons  met  with 
from  the  multitude;  but  of  these  matters  we  shall 
speak  hereafter.  What  I  would  now  explain  is 
this,  that  the  Pharisees  have  delivered  to  the  people 
a  great  many  observances  by  succession  from  their 
fathers,  which  are  not  written  in  the  laws  of  Moses; 
and  for  that  reason  it  is  that  the  Sadducees  reject 
them,  and  say,  that  we  are  to  esteem  those  observ- 
ances to  be  obligatory  which  are  in  the  written  word, 
but  are  not  to  observe  what  are  derived  from  the 
tradition  of  our  forefathers.  And  concerning  these 
things  it  is  that  great  disputes  and  dift'erences  have 
arisen  among  them,  while  the  Sadducees  are  able 
to  persuade  none  but  the  rich,  and  have  not  the 
populace  obsequious  to  them,  but  the  Pharisees  have 
the  multitude  on  their  side.  But  about  these  two 
sects,  and  that  of  the  Essens,  I  have  treated  ac- 
curately in  the   second  book  of   Jewish   aft'airs. 

7.  But  when  Hyrcanus  had  put  an  end  to  this 
sedition,  he  after  that  lived  happily,  and  administered 
the  government  in  the  best  manner  for  thirty-one 
years,  and  then  ^  died,  leaving  behind  him  five  sons. 

*  Here  ends  the  high  priesthood,  and  the  life  of  this  excellent  person 
John   Hyrcanus,  and  together  with  him  the   holy   theocracy  or  divine  gov- 

Chap.  X.  OF  THE  JEWS.  349 

He  was  esteemed  by  God  worthy  of  the  three  greatest 
privileges,  the  government  of  his  nation,  the  dignity 
of  the  high  priesthood,  and  prophecy,  for  God  was 
with  him,  and  enabled  him  to  know  futurities;  and 
to  foretell  this  in  particular,  that  as  to  his  two  eldest 
sons,  he  foretold  that  they  would  not  long  continue 
in  the  government  of  public  affairs;  whose  unhappy 
catastrophe  will  be  w^orth  our  description,  that  we 
may  thence  learn  how  very  much  they  were  inferior 
to  their  father's  happiness. 

cniment  of  the  Jewish  nation,  and  its  concomitant  oracle  by  Urim. 
Xow  follows  the  profane  and  tyrannical  Jewish  monarchy,  first  of  the 
Assanionians  or  ^laccabees,  and  then  of  Herod  the  Great,  the  Idumean. 
See  the  note  on  Antiq.  B,  III.  ch.  viii.  sect.  9.  Hear  Strabo's  testimony 
on  this  occasion,  B.  XVI.  pp.  761,  762.  "Those  that  succeeded  Moses, 
continued  for  some  time  in  earnest,  both  in  righteous  actions,  and  in 
jiiety;  but  after  a  while,  there  were  others  that  took  upon  them  the 
high  priesthood;  a.t  first  superstitious,  and  afterwards  tyrannical  persons. 
Such  a  prophet  was  Closes  and  those  that  succeeded  liim,  beginning  in 
a  way  not  to  be  blamed,  but  changing  for  the  worse.  And  when  it 
openly  appeared  that  the  government  was  become  tyrannical,  Alexander 
was  the  first  that  set  up  himself  for  a  king  instead  of  a  priest;  and 
his  sons  were  Hyrcanus  and  Aristobuhis."  All  in  agreement  with  Jo- 
sephus,  excepting  this,  that  Strabo  omits  the  first  king  Aristol)ulus,  whose 
reign  being  but  a  single  year,  seems  hardly  to  have  come  to  his  knowledge. 
Nor  indeed  does  Aristobuhis,  the  son  of  Alexander,  pretend  that  the 
name  of  king  was  taken  before  his  father  Alexander  took  it  himself. 
Antiq.  B.  XIV.  ch.  iii.  sect.  3.  See  also  ch.  xii.  sect.  1,  which  favour 
Strabo  also.  And  indeed  if  we  may  judge  from  the  very  different 
characters  of  the  Egyptian  Jews  under  high  priests,  and  of  the  Palestine 
Jews  under  kings,  in  the  two  next  centuries,  we  may  Mell  suppose,  that 
the  divine  Shechinah  was  removed  into  Egypt,  and  that  the  worshippers 
at  the  temple  of  Onias  were  better  men  than  those  at  the  temple  of 

350  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 


How  AristobuluSj  tchen  he  had  taken  the  government, 
first  of  all  put  a  diadem  on  Jils  head,  and  was  most 
harharously  cruel  to  his  mother  and  his  brethren;  and 
how  after  he  had  slain  Antigonus  lie  himself  died. 

1.  Xow  when  their  father  Hyrcanus  was  dead, 
the  eldest  son  Arist()])uhis,  intending  to  change  the 
goverinnent  into  a  kingdom,  for  so  he  resolved  to 
do,  first  of  all  put  a  diadem  on  his  head,  four  hundred 
eighty  and  one  years  and  three  months  after  the 
people  had  been  deli^'ered  from  the  Babylonish 
slavery,  and  were  returned  to  their  own  country 
again.  This  Aristo])ulus  loved  his  next  brother  An- 
tigonus, and  treated  him  as  his  equal,  but  the  others 
he  held  in  bonds.  He  also  cast  his  mother  into 
prison,  because  she  disputed  the  government  with 
him,  for  Hyrcanus  had  left  her  to  be  mistress  of  all. 
He  also  proceeded  to  that  degree  of  barbarity,  as 
to  kill  her  in  prison  with  hunger;  nay,  he  was  alien- 
ated from  his  brother  Antigonus  by  calumnies,  and 
added  him  to  the  rest  whom  he  slew,  yet  he  seemed 
to  have  an  affection  for  him,  and  made  him  above 
the  rest  a  partner  with  him  in  the  kingdom.  Those 
calumnies  he  at  first  did  not  give  credit  to,  partly 
because  he  loved  him,  and  so  did  not  g\\e  heed  to 
what  was  said  against  him,  and  partly  because  he 
thought  the  reproaches  were  derived  from  the  envy 
of  the  relaters.  But  when  Antigonus  was  once  re- 
turned from  the  army,  and  that  feast  was  then  at 
hand  when  they  make  tabernacles  to  the  [honour 
of]  God,  it  happened  that  Aristolmlus  was  fallen 
sick,   and   that    Antigonus    went   up    most    splendidly 

Chap.  XI.  Ol'  THE  JEWS.  351 

adorned,  and  with  his  soldiers  about  him  in  their 
armour,  to  the  temple  to  celebrate  the  feast,  and  to 
put  up  many  prayers  for  the  recovery  of  his  brother, 
when  some  wicked  persons,  who  had  a  great  mind 
to  raise  a  difference  between  the  brethren,  made  use 
of  this  opportunity  of  the  pompous  appearance  of 
Antigonus,  and  of  the  great  actions  which  he  had 
done,  and  went  to  the  king,  and  spitefully  aggra- 
vated the  pompous  show  of  his  at  the  feast,  and 
pretended  that  all  these  circumstances  were  not  like 
those  of  a  private  f)erson;  that  these  actions  were 
indications  of  an  affectation  of  royal  authority;  and 
that  his  coming  with  a  strong  body  of  men  must 
be  with  an  intention  to  kill  him;  and  that  his  way 
of  reasoning  was  this,  that  it  was  a  silly  thing  in 
him,  while  it  was  in  his  power  to  reign  himself,  to 
look  upon  it  as  a  great  favour  that  he  was  honoured 
with  a  lower  dignity  by  his  brother. 

2.  Aristobulus  yielded  to  these  imputations,  but 
took  care  both  tliat  his  brother  should  not  suspect 
him,  and  that  lie  himself  might  not  run  the  hazard 
of  his  own  safety;  so  lie  ordered  his  guards  to  lie 
in  a  certain  place  that  was  underground,  and  dark, 
(he  himself  then  lying  sick  in  the  tower  which  was 
called  Antonia, )  and  he  commanded  them,  that  in 
case  Antigonus  came  in  to  him  unarmed,  they  should 
not  touch  any  body,  but  if  armed,  they  should  kill 
him;  yet  did  he  send  to  Antigonus,  and  desired  that 
he  would  come  unarmed:  But  the  queen,  and  those 
that  joined  with  her  in  the  plot  against  Antigonus, 
persuaded  the  messenger  to  tell  him  the  direct  con- 
trary: How  his  brother  had  heard  that  he  had  made 
himself  a  fine  suit  of  armour  for  war,  and  desired 
him  to  come  to  him  in  that  armour,  that  he  might 
see  how  fine  it  was.  So  Antigonus  suspecting  no 
treachery,    but    depending    on    the    good-will    of    his 

352  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

brother,  came  to  Aristobulus  armed,  as  lie  used  to 
be,  with  his  entire  armour,  in  order  to  show  it  to 
him;  but  when  he  was  come  at  a  place  which  was 
called  Strato's  Tower,  where  the  passage  happened 
to  be  exceeding  dark,  the  guards  slew  him;  which 
death  of  his  demonstrates  that  nothing  is  stronger 
than  envy  and  calumny,  and  that  nothing  does  more 
certainly  divide  the  good-will  and  natural  affections 
of  men  than  those  passions.  But  here  one  may  take 
occasion  to  wonder  at  one  Judas,  who  was  of  the 
sect  of  the  Essens,  and  who  never  missed  the  truth 
in  his  predictions;  for  this  man  when  he  saw  Antig- 
onus  passing  by  the  temple,  cried  out  to  his  com- 
panions and  friends,  who  abode  with  him  as  his 
^  scholars,  in  order  to  learn  the  art  of  foretelling 
things  to  come,  "That  it  was  good  for  him  to  die 
now,  since  he  had  spoken  falsely  about  Antigonus, 
who  is  still  alive,  and  I  see  him  passing  by,  although 
he  had  foretold  he  should  die  at  the  place  called 
Strato's  Tower,  that  very  day,  while  yet  the  place 
is  six  hundred  furlongs  off,  where  he  had  foretold 
he  should  be  slain;  and  still  this  day  is  a  great  part 
of  it  already  past,  so  that  he  was  in  danger  of  proving 
a  false  prophet."  As  he  was  saying  this,  and  that 
in  a  melancholy  mood,  the  news  came  tliat  Antigonus 
was  slain  in  a  place  underground,  which  itself  was 
called  also  Strato's  Tower,  or  of  the  same  name 
with  that  Cesarea  which  is  seated  at  the  sea.  This 
event  put  the  prophet  into  a  great  disorder. 

3.  But  Aristobulus  repented  immediately  of  this 
slaughter  of  his  brother,  on  which  account  his  disease 

'  Hence  we  learn  that  the  Essens  pretended  to  have  rules  whereby 
men  niifrlit  foretell  things  to  come,  and  that  this  Judas  the  Essen,  taught 
those  rules  to  his  scholars;  but  whether  their  jjretences  were  of  an 
astrologicHJ  or  magical  nature,  which  yet  in  such  religious  Jews,  who 
were  utterly  foriiidden  such  arts,  is  no  way  ))roi)ahle,  or  to  any  Bath 
Col,  spoken  of  bv  the  latter  Ral)i)ins,  or  otherwise,  I  cannot  tell.  See 
Of  the  War,  B.   II.  ch.   viil.  sect.  12,  Vol.   ill. 

Chap.  XL  OF  THE  JEWS.  3.53 

increased  upon  him,  and  he  was  disturbed  in  his 
mind,  upon  the  guilt  of  such  wickedness,  insomuch 
that  his  entrails  were  corrupted  by  his  intolerable 
pain,  and  he  vomited  blood:  at  which  time  one  of 
the  servants  that  attended  upon  him,  and  was  carry- 
ing his  blood  away,  did,  by  divine  j^i'o^'iflence,  as 
I  cannot  but  suppose,  slip  down  and  shed  part  of 
his  blood  at  the  very  place  where  there  were  spots 
of  Antigonus'  blood  there  slain,  still  remaining;  and 
when  there  was  a  cry  made  by  the  spectators,  as 
if  the  servant  had  on  purpose  shed  the  blood  on 
that  place,  Aristobulus  heard  it  and  inquired  what 
the  matter  was?  And  as  they  did  not  answer  him, 
he  was  the  more  earnest  to  know  what  it  was,  it 
being  natural  to  men  to  susj^ect  that  what  is  thus 
concealed,  is  verj^  bad:  so  upon  his  threatening,  and 
forcing  them  by  terrors  to  speak,  they  at  length  told 
him  the  truth;  whereupon  he  shed  many  tears,  in 
that  disorder  of  mind  which  arose  from  his  conscious- 
ness of  what  he  had  done,  and  gave  a  deep  groan, 
and  said,  "I  am  not  therefore,  I  perceive,  to  be 
concealed  from  God,  in  the  impious  and  horrid  crimes 
I  have  been  guilty  of,  but  a  sudden  punishment  is 
coming  upon  me  for  the  shedding  the  blood  of  my 
relations.  And  now,  O  thou  most  impudent  body 
of  mine,  how  long  wilt  thou  retain  a  soul  that  ought 
to  die,  in  order  to  appease  the  ghosts  of  my  brother, 
and  my  mother?  Wliy  dost  thou  not  give  it  all  up 
at  once?  And  why  do  1  deliver  up  my  blood  drop 
by  drop,  to  those  wliom  I  have  so  wickedly  mur- 
dered?" In  saying  wliich  last  words,  he  died,  liaving 
reigned  a  year.  He  was  called  a  lover  of  the 
Grecians,  and  had  conferred  many  benefits  on  his 
own  country,  and  made  war  against  Iturea,  and 
added  a  great  part  of  it  to  Judea,  and  compelled 
the  inhabitants,  if  they  would  continue  in  that  country, 

354  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

to  be  circumcised,  and  to  live  according  to  the  Jewish 
laws.  He  was  naturally  a  man  of  candour,  and 
of  great  modesty,  as  Strabo  bears  witness,  in  the 
name  of  Timagenes;  who  says  thus:  "This  man  was 
a  person  of  candour,  and  very  serviceable  to  the 
Jews,  for  he  added  a  country  to  them,  and  obtained 
a  part  of  the  nation  of  the  Itureans  for  them,  and 
bound  them  to  them  by  the  bond  of  the  circumcision 
of  their  genitals." 


How  Aleocander,  tcheu  lie  had  tahrn  the  government, 
made  an  eiTpedition  against  Ptolemais,  and  then 
raised  the  siege  out  of  fear  of  Ptolemy  Lathijrus: 
and  Jioic  Ptohmy  made  tear  against  him,  because  lie 
had  sent  to  Cleopatra  to  persuade  her  to  make  near 
against  Ptolemy,  and  yet  pretended  to  he  in  friend- 
ship tcith  him,  tchen  he  beat  the  Jews  in  the  battle. 

1.  Whex  Aristobulus  was  dead,  his  wife  Salome, 
who,  by  the  Greeks,  was  called  Alexandra,  let  his 
brethren  out  of  prison,  for  Aristobulus  had  kept 
them  in  bonds,  as  we  have  said  already,  and  made 
Alexander  Janneus  king,  who  was  the  superior  in 
age  and  in  moderation.  This  child  happened  to  be 
hated  by  his  father  as  soon  as  he  was  born,  and  could 
never  be  permitted  to  come  into  his  father's  sight  till 
he  died.  The  occasion  of  which  hatred  is  thus  re- 
ported: When  Hyrcanus  chiefly  loved  the  two  eldest 
of  his  sons,  Antigonus  and  Aristobulus,  God  appeared 
to  him  in  his  sleej),  of  whom  he  inquired,  which 
of  his  sons  should  be  his  successor?  Upon  God's 
representing  to   liim    the   countenance    of   Alexander, 

Chap.  XII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  355 

he  was  grieved  that  he  was  to  be  the  lieir  of  all  his 
goods,  and  suffered  him  to  be  brought  up  in  ^  Galilee. 
However,  God  did  not  deceive  Hyrcanus,  for  after 
the  death  of  Aristobulus,  he  certainly  took  the  king- 
dom, and  one  of  his  brethren,  who  affected  the 
kingdom,  he  slew,  and  the  other,  who  chose  to  live 
a  private  and  quiet  life,  he  had  in  esteem. 

2.  When  Alexander  Janneus  had  settled  the  gov- 
ernment in  the  manner  that  he  judged  best,  he 
made  an  expedition  against  Ptolemais;  and  having 
overcome  the  men  in  battle,  he  shut  them  up  in  the 
city,  and  sat  round  about  it,  and  besieged  it;  for  of 
the  maritime  cities  there  remained  only  Ptolemais 
and  Gaza  to  be  conquered,  besides  Strato's  Tower, 
and  Dora,  which  were  held  by  the  tyrant  Zoiliis. 
Now  while  Antiochus  Philomcter,  and  Antiochus  who 
was  called  Cyzicenus,  were  making  war  one  against 
another,  and  destroying  one  another's  armies,  the 
people  of  Ptolemais  could  have  no  assistance  from 
them;  ])ut  when  they  were  distressed  with  this  siege, 
Zoilus,  who  possessed  Strato's  Tower  and  Dora,  and 
maintained  a  legion  of  soldiers,  and  on  occasion  of 
the  contest  between  the  kings,  affected  t\Tanny  him- 
self, came  and  brought  some  small  assistance  to  the 
people  of  Ptolemais;  nor  indeed  had  the  kings  such 
a  friendship  for  them,  as  that  they  should  hope  for 
any  advantage  from  them:  Both  these  kings  were 
in  the  case  of  wrestlers,  who  finding  themselves  de- 
ficient in  strength,  and  yet  being  ashamed  to  yield, 
put  off  the  fight  by  laziness  and  by  lying  still  as 
long  as  they  could.     The  only  hope  they  had  remain- 

^  The  reason  why  Hyrcanus  suffered  not  this  son  of  liis,  whom  he 
did  not  love,  to  come  to  Judea,  l)ut  ordered  him  to  he  hrought  up  in 
Galilee,  is  suggested  by  Dr.  Hudson,  that  Cialilee  was  not  esteemed  so 
happy  and  well  cultivated  a  country  as  Judea,  ^latt.  xxvi.  73,  John  vii. 
5-2,  Acts  ii.  7,  although  another  obvious  reason  occurs  also,  that  he  was 
farther  out  of  his  sight  in   Galilee   than  he  would   have  I)een   in  Judea. 

356  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

ing  was  from  the  king  of  Egypt,  and  from  Ptolemy 
Lathyrus,  who  now  held  Cyprus,  and  who  came  to 
Cyprus  when  he  was  driven  from  the  government 
of  Egypt,  by  Cleopatra  his  mother:  So  the  people  of 
Ptolemais  sent  to  this  Ptolemy  I^athyrus,  and  desired 
him  to  come  as  a  confederate,  to  deliver  them,  now  they 
were  in  such  danger,  out  of  the  hands  of  Alexander. 
And  as  the  ambassadors  gave  him  hopes,  that  if  he 
would  pass  over  into  Syria,  he  would  have  the  people 
of  Gaza,  on  the  side  of  those  of  Ptolemais;  as  also  they 
said,  that  Zoilus,  and  besides  these  the  Sidonians,  and 
many  others,  would  assist  them,  so  he  was  elevated  at 
this,  and  got  his  fleet  ready  as  soon  as  possible. 

3.  But  in  this  interval  Demenetus,  one  that  was 
of  abilities  to  persuade  men  to  do  as  he  would  have 
them,  and  a  leader  of  the  populace,  made  those  of 
Ptolemais  change  their  opinions:  and  said  to  them, 
That  "it  was  l^etter  to  run  the  hazard  of  being  sub- 
ject to  the  Jews,  than  to  admit  of  evident  slavery 
by  delivering  themselves  up  to  a  master:  and  besides 
that,  to  have  not  only  a  war  at  present,  but  to  expect 
a  much  greater  war  from  Egypt,  for  that  Cleopatra 
would  not  overlook  an  army  raised  by  Ptolemy  for 
himself  out  of  the  neighbourhood,  but  would  come 
against  them  with  a  great  army  of  her  own,  and 
this  because  she  was  labouring  to  eject  her  son  out 
of  Cyprus  also;  that  as  for  Ptolemy,  if  he  fail  of  his 
hopes  he  can  still  retire  to  Cyprus,  but  that  they 
will  be  left  in  the  greatest  danger  possible."  Now 
Ptolemy,  although  he  had  heard  of  the  change  that 
was  made  in  tlie  people  of  Ptolemais,  yet  did  he 
still  go  on  with  his  voyage,  and  came  to  the  country 
called  Sycamine,  and  there  set  his  army  on  shore. 
This  army  of  his  in  the  whole,  horse  and  foot  to- 
gether, were  about  thirty  thousand,  with  which  he 
marched    near    to    Ptolemais,    and    there    j^itched    his 

Chap.  XII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  357 

camp;  But  when  the  people  of  Ptolemais  neither 
received  his  ambassadors,  nor  would  hear  what  they 
had  to  say,  he  was  under  a  very  great  concern. 

4.  But  when  Zoilus  and  the  people  of  Gaza  came 
to  him,  and  desired  his  assistance,  because  their 
country  was  laid  waste  by  the  Jews,  and  by  Alex- 
ander, Alexander  raised  the  siege,  for  fear  of  Ptol- 
emy: And  when  he  had  drawn  off  his  army  into  his 
own  country,  he  used  a  stratagem  afterwards,  by 
privately  inviting  Cleopatra  to  come  against  Ptolemy, 
but  publicly  pretending  to  desire  a  league  of  friend- 
ship and  mutual  assistance  with  him;  and  promising 
to  give  him  four  hundred  talents  of  silver,  be  desired 
that,  by  way  of  requital,  he  w^ould  take  off  Zoilus 
the  tjTant,  and  give  his  country  to  the  Jews.  And 
then  indeed  Ptolemy,  with  pleasure,  made  such  a 
league  of  friendship  with  Alexander,  and  subdued 
Zoilus;  but  when  he  afterward  heard  that  he  had 
privily  sent  to  Cleopatra  his  mother,  he  broke  the 
league  with  him,  which  yet  he  had  confirmed  with 
an  oath,  and  fell  upon  him,  and  besieged  Ptolemais, 
bec<ause  it  would  not  receive  him.  However,  leaving 
his  generals,  with  some  part  of  his  forces,  to  go  on 
with  the  siege,  he  went  himself  immediately  with 
the  rest  to  lay  Judea  waste;  and  when  Alexander 
understood  this  to  be  Ptolemy's  intention,  he  also 
got  together  about  fifty  thousand  soldiers  out  of 
his  own  country;  nay,  ^  as  some  writers  have  said, 
eighty  thousand.  He  then  took  his  army,  and  went 
to  meet   Ptolemy;   but   Ptolemy   fell   upon   Assochis, 

*  From  these  and  other  occasional  expressions,  dropped  by  Josephus, 
we  may  learn,  that  where  the  sacred  books  of  the  Jews  were  deficient, 
he  had  several  other  histories  then  extant,  but  now  most  of  them  lost, 
which  he  faithfully  followed  in  his  own  history. — Xor  indeed  have  we 
any  other  records  of  those  times,  relating  to  Judea,  that  can  be  com- 
pared to  these  accounts  of  Josephus,  tliough  when  we  do  meet  with 
authentic  fragments  of  such  original  records,  they  do  almost  always 
confirm  his  history. 

358  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

a  city  of  Galilee,  and  took  it  by  force  on  the  sabbath 
day,  and  there  he  took  about  ten  thousand  slaves, 
and  a  great  deal  of  other  prey. 

5.  He  then  tried  to  take  Sepphoris,  which  was 
a  city  not  far  from  that  which  was  destroyed,  but 
lost  many  of  his  men;  yet  did  he  then  go  to  fight 
with  Alexander,  which  Alexander  met  him  at  the 
river  Jordan,  near  a  certain  place  called  Sappoth, 
[not  far  from  the  river  Jordan,]  and  pitched  his 
camp  near  to  the  enemy.  He  had  however  eight 
thousand  in  the  first  rank,  which  he  styled  Hccaton- 
tomachi,  having  shields  of  brass.  Those  in  the  first 
rank  of  Ptolemy's  soldiers,  also  had  shields  covered 
with  brass:  but  Ptolemy's  soldiers  in  other  respects 
were  inferior  to  those  of  Alexander,  and  therefore 
were  more  fearful  of  running  hazards:  but  Philo- 
stephanus  the  camp  master  put  great  courage  into 
them,  and  ordered  them  to  pass  the  river,  which  was 
between  their  camps:  Nor  did  Alexander  think  fit 
to  hinder  their  passage  over  it,  for  he  thought,  that 
if  the  enemy  had  once  gotten  the  river  on  their  back, 
that  he  should  the  easier  take  them  prisoners,  when 
they  could  not  flee  out  of  the  battle:  In  the  beginning 
of  which,  the  acts  on  both  sides,  with  their  hands, 
and  with  their  alacrity,  were  alike,  and  a  great 
slaughter  was  made  by  both  the  armies;  but  Alex- 
ander was  superior,  till  Philostephanus  opportunely 
brought  up  the  auxiliaries,  to  help  those  that  were 
giving  way;  but  as  there  were  no  auxiliaries  to  afford 
help  to  that  part  of  the  Jews  that  gave  way,  it  fell 
out  that  they  fled,  and  those  near  them  did  not  assist 
them,  but  fled  along  with  them.  However,  Ptol- 
emy's soldiers  acted  quite  otherwise;  for  they  fol- 
lowed the  Jews,  and  killed  them,  till  at  length  those 
that  slew  them  pursued  after  them,  when  they  had 
made   them   all   run    away,    and    slew   them    so   long. 

Chap.  xiTi.  OF  THE  JEWS.  359 

that  their  weapons  of  iron  were  blunted,  and  tlieir 
hands  quite  tired  with  the  slaughter;  for  the  report 
was,  that  thirty  thousand  men  were  then  slain.  Ti- 
magenes  says,  they  were  fifty  thousand.  As  for  the 
rest,  they  were  part  of  them  taken  captives,  and 
the  other  part  ran  away  to  their  own  country. 

6.  After  this  victory,  Ptolemy  overran  all  the 
country;  and  when  night  came  on,  he  abode  in  certain 
villages  of  Judea,  which  when  he  found  full  of 
women  and  children,  he  commanded  his  soldiers  to 
strangle  them,  and  to  cut  them  in  pieces,  and  then 
to  cast  them  into  boiling  caldrons,  and  then  to 
devour  their  limbs  as  sacrifices.  This  commandment 
was  given,  that  such  as  fled  from  the  battle,  and 
came  to  them,  might  suppose  their  enemies  were 
cannibals,  and  eat  men's  flesh,  and  might  on  that 
account  be  still  more  terrified  at  them  upon  such  a 
sight.  And  both  Strabo  and  Nicolaus  [of  Damas- 
cus] aflirm,  that  they  used  these  people  after  this 
manner,  as  I  have  already  related.  Ptolemy  also  took 
Ptolemais  by  force,  as  we  have  declared  elsewhere. 


How  Aleocander,  upon  the  league  of  mutual  defence 
which  Cleopatra  had  agreed  with  him,  made  an 
eocpedition  against  Celesyria,  ajid  utterly  overthrew 
the  city  of  Gaza;  and  how  he  slew  many  ten 
thousands  of  Jews  that  rebelled  against  him:  Also 
concerning  Antiochus  Grypus,  Seleucus,  Antiochus 
Cyzicenus,  and  Antiochus  Pius,  and  others. 

1.     When  Cleopatra  saw  that  her  son  was  grown 
great,    and    laid    Judea    waste    without    disturbance, 

360  AXTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

and  had  gotten  the  city  of  Gaza  under  his  power, 
she  resolved  no  longer  to  overlook  what  he  did,  when 
he  was  almost  at  her  gates;  and  she  concluded,  that 
now  he  was  so  much  stronger  than  before,  he  would 
be  very  desirous  of  the  dominion  over  the  Egyptians; 
])ut  she  immediately  marched  against  him  with  a 
fleet  at  sea,  and  an  army  of  foot  on  land,  and  made 
Chelcias  and  Ananias  the  Jews,  generals  of  her 
whole  army,  while  she  sent  the  greatest  part  of  her 
riches,  her  grand-children,  and  her  testament,  to  the 
people  of.  ^  Cos.  Cleopatra  also  ordered  her  son 
Alexander  to  sail  with  a  great  fleet  to  Phenicia:  and 
when  that  country  had  revolted,  she  came  to  Ptol- 
emais;  and  because  the  people  of  Ptolemais  did  not 
receive  her,  she  besieged  the  city;  but  Ptolemy  went 
out  of  Sp'ia,  and  made  haste  into  Egypt,  supposing 
that  he  should  find  it  destitute  of  an  army  and  soon 
take  it,  though  he  failed  of  his  hopes.  At  this  time 
Chelcias,  one  of  Cleopatra's  generals,  happened  to 
die  in  Celesyria,  as  he  was  in  pursuit  of  Ptolemy. 

2.  When  Cleopatra  heard  of  her  son's  attempt, 
and  that  his  Egyj^tian  expedition  did  not  succeed 
according  to  his  expectations,  she  sent  thither  part 
of  her  army,  and  drove  him  out  of  that  country, 
so  when  he  was  returned  out  of  Egypt  again,  he 
abode  during  the  winter  at  Gaza,  in  which  time 
Cleopatra  took  the  garrison  that  was  in  Ptolemais 
by  siege,  as  well  as  the  city;  and  when  Alexander 
came  to  her,  he  gave  her  presents,  and  such  marks 
of  respect  as  were  but  proper,  since  under  the  mis- 
eries he  endured  by  Ptolemy,  he  had  no  other  refuge 
but  her.     Now  there  were  some  of  her  friends  who 

^  The  city,  or  island  Cos,  is  not  that  remote  island  in  the  Egean  Sea, 
famous  for  the  l)irth  of  the  great  Hippocrates,  but  a  city  or  island  of 
the  same  name,  adjoining  to  Egj'pt,  mentioned  both  by  Stephanus  and 
Ptolemy,  as  Dr.  Hudson  informs  us.  Of  wliich  Cos,  and  the  treasures  there 
laid  up  by  Cleopatra  and  the  Jews,  see  Antlq.  B.  XIV.  ch.  vii.  sect.  2. 

Chap.  XIII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  361 

persuaded  her  to  seize  Alexander,  and  to  overrun 
and  take  possession  of  the  country,  and  not  to  sit 
still  and  see  such  a  multitude  of  brave  Jews  subject 
to  one  man.  But  Ananias'  counsel  was  contrary  to 
theirs,  who  said,  that,  "she  would  do  an  unjust  action, 
if  she  deprived  a  man  that  was  her  ally,  of  that 
authority  which  belonged  to  him,  and  this  a  man 
who  is  related  to  us;  for,  said  he,  I  would  not  have 
thee  ignorant  of  this,  that  what  injustice  thou  dost 
to  him,  will  make  all  us  that  are  Jews  to  be  thy 
enemies."  This  desire  of  Ananias'  Cleopatra  com- 
plied with,  and  did  no  injury  to  Alexander,  but 
made  a  league  of  mutual  assistance  with  him,  at 
Scythopolis,  a  city  of  Celesyria. 

3.  So  when  Alexander  was  delivered  from  the 
fear  he  was  in  of  Ptolemy,  he  presently  made  an 
expedition  against  Celesyria.  He  also  took  Gadara, 
after  a  siege  of  ten  months.  He  took  also  Amathus, 
a  very  strong  fortress  belonging  to  the  inhabitants 
above  Jordan,  where  Theodorus,  the  son  of  Zeno,  had 
his  chief  treasure,  and  what  he  esteemed  most  precious. 
This  Zeno  fell  unexpectedly  upon  the  Jews,  and 
slew  ten  thousand  of  them,  and  seized  uj)on  Alex- 
ander's baggage:  Yet  did  not  this  misfortune  terrify 
Alexander,  but  he  made  an  expedition  ujDon  the 
maritime  parts  of  the  country,  Raphia  and  Anthedon, 
(the  name  of  which  king  Herod  afterwards  changed 
to  Agrippias,)  and  took  even  that  by  force,  but 
when  Alexander  saw  that  Ptolemy  was  retired  from 
Gaza  to  Cyprus,  and  his  mother  Cleopatra  was  re- 
turned to  Egypt,  he  grew  angry  at  the  people  of 
Gaza,  because  they  had  invited  Ptolemy  to  assist 
them,  and  besieged  their  city  and  ravaged  their  coun- 
try. But  as  Apollodotus,  the  general  of  the  army 
of  Gaza,  fell  upon  the  camp  of  the  Jews  by  night, 
with  two  thousand  foreign,  and  ten  thousand  of  his 

362  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

own  forces,  while  the  night  lasted,  those  of  Gaza 
prevailed,  because  the  enemy  was  made  to  believe 
that  it  was  Ptolemy  who  attacked  them:  but  when 
day  was  come  on,  and  that  mistake  was  corrected, 
and  the  Jews  knew  the  truth  of  the  matter,  they 
came  back  again  and  fell  upon  those  of  Gaza,  and 
slew  of  them  about  a  thousand;  but  as  those  of  Gaza 
stoutly  resisted  them,  and  would  not  yield  for  either 
their  want  of  any  thing,  nor  for  the  great  multitude 
that  were  slain,  for  they  would  rather  suffer  any  hard- 
ship whatever-  than  come  under  the  power  of  their 
enemies,  Aretus,  king  of  the  Arabians,  a  ]3erson  then 
very  illustrious,  encouraged  them  to  go  on  with 
alacrity,  and  promised  them  that  he  would  come  to 
their  assistance;  but  it  happened,  that  before  he 
came,  Apollodotus  was  slain,  for  his  brother  Ly- 
simachus  envying  him  for  the  great  rejjutation  he 
had  gained  among  the  citizens,  slew  him,  and  got 
the  army  together,  and  delivered  up  the  city  to  Alex- 
ander, who,  when  he  came  in  at  first,  lay  quiet,  and 
afterv/ard  set  his  army  upon  the  inhabitants  of  Gaza, 
and  gave  them  leave  to  punish  them;  so  some  went 
one  way,  and  some  went  another,  and  slew  the  in- 
habitants of  Gaza;  yet  were  not  they  of  cowardly 
hearts;  but  opposed  those  that  came  to  slay  them, 
and  slew  as  many  of  the  Jews;  and  some  of  them, 
when  they  saw  themselves  deserted,  burnt  their  own 
houses,  that  the  enemy  might  get  none  of  their  spoils; 
nay,  some  of  them  with  their  own  hands,  slew  their 
children  and  their  wives,  having  no  other  way  but 
this  of  avoiding  slavery  for  them;  but  the  senators, 
who  were  in  all  five  hundred,  fled  to  AjdoHo's  temple 
(for  this  attack  liappened  to  be  made  as  they  were 
sitting,)  whom  Alexander  slew;  and  when  he  had 
utterly  overtlirown  tlieir  city,  he  returned  to  Jeru- 
salem, having  spent  a  year  in  that  siege. 

Chap.  XIII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  363 

4.  About  this  very  time  '  Antiochus,  who  was 
called  Grypus,  died.  His  death  was  caused  by  Hera- 
cleoii's  treachery,  when  he  had  lived  forty-five  years, 
and  had  reigned  "  twenty-nine.  His  son  Seleucus 
succeeded  him  in  his  kingdom;  and  made  war  with 
Antiochus,  his  father's  l)rother,  who  was  called  An- 
tiochus Cyzicenus,  and  beat  him,  and  took  him  pris- 
oner, and"  slew  him.  But  after  a  while  •'  Antiochus, 
the  son  of  Cyzicenus,  who  was  called  Pius,  came 
to  Aradus,  and  put  the  diadem  on  his  own  head; 
and  made  war  with  Seleucus,  and  beat  him,  and 
drove  him  out  of  all  Syria.  But  when  he  fled  out 
of  Syria,  he  came  to  INIopsuestia  again,  and  levied 
money  upon  them;  but  the  people  of  Mopsuestia 
had  indignation  at  what  he  did,  and  burnt  down 
his  palace,  and  slew  him,  together  with  his  friends. 
But  when  Antiochus,  the  son  of  Cyzicenus,  was  king 
of  Syria,  ^  Antiochus,  the  brother  of  Seleucus,  made 
war  upon  him  and  was  overcome,  and  destroyed,  he 
and  his  army.  After  him,  his  brother  Philip  put 
on  the  diadem,  and  reigned  over  some  part  of  Syria ; 
but  Ptolemy  Lathyrus  sent  for  his  fourth  brother 
Demetrius,  who  was  called  Eucerus  from  Cnidus, 
and  made  him  king  of  Damascus.  Both  these  brothers 
did  Antiochus  vehemently  oppose,  but  presently 
died ;  for  when  he  was  come  as  an  auxiliary  to  Laodice, 
^  queen  of  the  Gileadites,  when  she  was  making  war 

*  This  account  of  the  death  of  Antiochus  Grypus  is  confirmed  hy 
Appian,  Syriac.  p.   13:?,  here  cited   l)y  SiKuilieim. 

^  Porpliyry  says,  tiiat  tiiis  Antiochus  Grypus  reigned  hut  26  years, 
as  Dr.  Hudson  ol)serves. 

'  The  co])ies  of  Josephus,  hoth  Greelc  and  Latin,  have  here  so  grossly 
false  a  reading,  Antiochus  and  Antoninus,  or  Antonius  Pius  for  Antiochus 
Pius,  that  the  editors  are  forced  to  correct  the  text  from  the  otlier 
historians,  who  all  agree  that  this  king's  name  was  nothing  more  than 
Antiochus   Pius. 

*  These  two  hrothers,  Antiochus  and  Philippus,  are  called  tirius  hy 
Porphyry;  the  fourth  l)rother  was  king  of  Damascus.  Botli  which  are 
the  observations  of  Spanl.eiin. 

^  This    Laodicea     a     r'd\     of    Gilead     l)evond     .Tordan.     However^ 

364  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

against  the  Parthians,  and  as  he  was  fighting  cou- 
rageously, he  fell,  while  Demetrius  and  Philip  gov- 
erned Syria,  as  hath  been  elsewhere  related. 

5.  As  to  Alexander,  his  own  people  were  sedi- 
tious against  him;  for  at  a  festival  which  was  then 
celebrated,  when  he  stood  upon  the  altar,  and  was 
going  to  sacrifice,  the  nation  rose  upon  him,  and 
pelted  him  with  citrons,  [which  they  then  had  in 
their  hands,]  because  the  law  of  the  Jews  required, 
that  at  the  feast  of  tabernacles  every  one  should 
have  branches  of  the  palm-tree  and  citron-tree:  which 
thing  we  have  elsewhere  related.  They  also  reviled 
him,  as  ^  derived  from  a  captive,  and  so  unworthy 
of  his  dignity,  and  of  sacrificing.  At  this  he  was 
in  a  rage,  and  slew  of  them  about  six  thousand.  He 
also  built  a  partition  wall  of  wood  round  the  altar 
and  the  temple,  as  far  as  that  partition  within  which 
it  was  only  lawful  for  the  priests  to  enter,  and  by 
this  means  he  obstructed  the  multitude  from  coming 
at  him.  He  also  maintained  foreigners  of  Pisidia^ 
and  Cilicia,  for  as  to  the  Syrians,  he  was  at  war 
with  them,  and  so  made  no  use  of  them.  He  also 
overcame  the  Arabians,  such  as  the  Moabites,  and 
Gileadites,  and  made  them  bring  tribute.  Moreover, 
he  demolished  Amathus,  while  '"  Theodorus  durst  not 
fight  with  him;  but  as  he  had  joined  battle  with 
Obedas,  king  of  the  Arabians,  and  fell  into  an  am- 
bush in  the  places  that  were  rugged  and  difficidt  to 

Porphyry  says,  that  this  Antiochus  Pius  did  not  die  in  this  battle,  but 
running  away,  was  drowned  in  the  river  Orontes.  A])pian  says  that  he 
was  deprived  of  the  kingdom  of  Syria  liy  Tigranes;  but  Porphyry  makes 
this  Laodice,  Queen  of  the  Calamans — All  which  is  noted  by  Spanheim. 
In  such  confusion  of  the  latter  liistorians,  we  have  no  reason  to  prefer 
any  of  them   before  Jose])hus,   who   had   more   original   ones   before   him. 

'  This  re})roach  upon  Alexander,  that  he  was  sprung  from  a  captive, 
seems  only  the  repetition  of  the  old  Pharisaical  calumny  upon  his  father, 
ch.  X.  sect.  V. 

*  This  Theodorus  was  the  son  of  Zeno,  and  was  in  possession  of 
Amathus,  as  we  learn   from  sect.  3,   foregoing. 

Chap.  xiv.  OF  THE  JEWS.  365 

be  travelled  over,  he  was  thrown  down  into  a  deep 
valley,  by  the  multitude  of  the  camels  at  Gadara, 
a  village  of  Gilead,  and  hardly  escaped  with  his  life. 
From  thence  he  fled  to  Jerusalem,  where,  besides 
his  other  ill  success,  the  nation  insulted  him,  and  he 
fought  against  them  for  six  years,  and  slew  no  fewer 
than  fifty  thousand  of  them.  And  when  he  desired 
that  they  would  desist  from  their  ill-will  to  him, 
they  hated  him  so  much  the  more,  on  account  of 
what  had  already  happened;  and  when  he  had  asked 
them  what  he  ought  to  do,  they  all  cried  out,  that 
"he  ought  to  kill  himself."  They  also  sent  to  De- 
metrius Eucerus,  and  desired  him  to  make  a  league 
of  mutual  defence  with  them. 


How  Demetrius  Eucerus  overcame  Alexander,  and 
yet  in  a  little  time  retired  out  of  the  country  for 
fear  of  the  Jews.  As  also  how  AlccVander  slew 
many  of  the  Jews,  and  thereby  got  clear  of  his 
troubles.     Concerning  the  death   of  Demetrius. 

1.  So  Demetrius  came  with  an  army,  and  took 
those  that  invited  him;  and  pitched  his  camp  near 
the  city  Shechem;  upon  which  Alexander,  with  his 
six  thousand  two  hundred  mercenaries,  and  about 
twenty  thousand  Jews,  who  were  of  his  party,  went 
against  Demetrius,  who  had  three  thousand  horse- 
men, and  forty  thousand  footmen.  Now  there  were 
great  endeavours  used  on  both  sides,  Demetrius, 
trying  to  bring  ofl"  the  mercenaries,  that  were  with 
Alexander,  because  they  '  were  Greeks,  and  Alex- 
ander, trying  to  bring  off  the  Jews  that   were   with 

366  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

Demetrius.  However  when  neither  of  them  could 
persuade  them  so  to  do,  they  came  to  a  battle,  and 
Demetrius  was  the  conqueror,  in  which  all  Alex- 
ander's mercenaries  were  killed,  when  they  had  given 
demonstration  of  their  fidelity  and  courage.  A  great 
number  of  Demetrius'  soldiers  were  slain  also. 

2.  Now  as  Alexander  fled  to  the  mountains,  six 
thousand  of  the  Jews  hereupon  came  together,  [from 
Demetrius]  to  him,  out  of  pity  at  the  change  of 
his  fortune;  upon  which  Demetrius  was  afraid,  and 
retired  out  of  the  country;  after  which  the  Jews 
fought  against  Alexander,  and  being  beaten,  were 
slain  in  great  numbers  in  the  several  battles  which 
they  had ;  and  when  he  had  shut  up  the  most  powerful 
of  them  in  the  city  Bethome,  he  besieged  them 
therein;  and  when  he  had  taken  the  city,  and  gotten 
the  men  into  his  power,  he  brought  them  to  Jeru- 
salem, and  did  one  of  the  most  barbarous  actions 
in  the  world  to  them:  for  as  he  was  feasting  with 
his  concubines,  in  the  sight  of  all  the  city,  he  ordered 
about  eight  hundred  of  them  to  be  crucified,  and 
while  they  were  living  he  ordered  the  throats  of 
their  children  and  wives  to  be  cut  before  their  eyes. 
This  was  indeed  by  way  of  revenge  for  the  injuries 
they  had  done  him;  which  punishment  yet  was  of 
an  inhuman  nature,  though  we  suppose  that  he  had 
been  ever  so  much  distressed,  as  indeed  he  had  been, 
by  his  wars  with  them;  for  he  had  by  their  means 
come  to  the  last  degree  of  hazard,  both  of  his  life 
and  of  his  kingdom,  while  they  were  not  satisfied 
by  themselves  only  to  fight  against  him,  but  intro- 
duced foreigners  also  for  the  same  purpose;  nay, 
at  length  they  reduced  him  to  that  degree  of  necessity, 
that  he  was  forced  to  deliver  back  to  the  king  of 
Arabia  the  land  of  Moab  and  Gilead;  which  he  had 
subdued,  and  the  places  that  were  in  them,  that  they 

Chap.  XIV.  OF  THE  JEWS.  367 

might  not  join  with  them  in  the  war  against  him, 
as  they  had  done  ten  thousand  other  things  that 
tended  to  affront  and  reproach  him.  However  this 
barbarity  seems  to  have  been  without  any  necessity, 
on  which  account  he  bare  the  name  of  a  Thracian 
'  among  the  Jews;  whereupon  the  soldiers  that  had 
fought  against  him,  being  about  eight  thousand  in 
number,  ran  away  by  night,  and  continued  fugi- 
tives all  the  time  that  Alexander  lived;  who  being 
now  freed  from  any  fartlier  disturbance  from  them, 
reigned  the  rest  of  his  time  in  the  utmost  tranquillity. 
3.  But  when  Demetrius  was  departed  out  of 
Judea,  he  went  to  Berea,  and  besieged  his  brother 
Philip,  having  with  him  ten  thousand  footmen,  and 
a  thousand  horsemen.  However  Strato  the  tyrant 
of  Berea,  the  confederate  of  Philip,  called  in  Zizon, 
the  ruler  of  the  Arabian  tribes,  and  Mithridates  Sinax, 
the  ruler  of  the  Parthians,  who  coming  with  a  great 
number  of  forces  and  besieging  Demetrius  in  his 
encampment,  into  which  they  had  driven  him  with 
their  arrows,  they  compelled  those  that  were  with 
him  by  thirst  to  deliver  up  themselves.  So  they 
took  a  great  many  spoils  out  of  that  country,  and 
Demetrius  himself,  whom  they  sent  to  Mithridates, 
who  was  then  king  of  Parthia;  but  as  to  those  whom 
they  took  captives  of  the  people  of  Antioch,  they 
restored  them  to  the  Antiochians  without  any  reward. 
Now  Mithridates,  the  king  of  Parthia,  had  Demetrius 
in  great  honour,  till  Demetrius  ended  his  life  by 
sickness.  So  Philip,  presently  after  the  fight  was 
over,  came  to  Antioch,  and  took  it,  and  reigned  over 

'  This  name  Thracida.  wliifli  tlie  Jews  gave  Alexander,  must  by  the 
coherence,  denote  as  harbaroiis  ns  a  Thracian,  or  somewhat  like  it;  but 
what  it  properly  signifies  is   not  known. 

368  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 


How  Antiochus,  who  was  called  Dionysus,  and  after 
him  Aretas,  made  ea^peditions  into  Judea;  as  also 
how  Alexander  took  mani)  cities,  and  then  returned 
to  Jerusalem,  and  after  a  sickness  of  three  years 
died;  and  what  counsel  he  gave  to  Alexandra. 

1.  After  this  Antiochus,  who  was  called  ^  Diony- 
sus and  was  Philip's  brother,  aspired  to  the  do- 
minion, and  came  to  Damascus,  and  got  the  power 
into  his  hands,  and  there  he  reigned:  but  as  he  was 
making  war  against  the  Arabians,  his  brother  Philip 
heard  of  it,  and  came  to  Damascus,  where  Melesius, 
who  had  been  left  governor  of  the  citadel,  and  the 
Damascens  themselves,  delivered  up  the  city  to  him; 
yet  because  Philip  was  become  ungrateful  to  him, 
and  had  bestowed  upon  him  nothing  of  that  in  hopes 
whereof  he  had  received  him  into  the  city,  but  had 
a  mind  to  have  it  believed  that  it  was  rather  delivered 
up  out  of  fear  than  by  the  kindness  of  Melesius, 
and  because  he  had  not  rewarded  him  as  he  ought 
to  have  done,  he  became  suspected  by  him,  and  so 
he  was  obliged  to  leave  Damascus  again;  for  Melesius 
caught  him  marching  out  into  the  Hippodrome  and 
shut  him  up  in  it,  and  kej)t  Damascus  for  Antiochus 
[Eucerus],  who  hearing  how  Philip's  affairs  stood, 
came  back  out  of  Arabia.  He  also  came  immediatelj^, 
and  made  an  expedition  against  Judea,  with  eight 
thousand  armed  footmen,  and  eight  hundred  horse- 
men.    So  Alexander,  out  of  fear  of  his  coming,  dug 

'  Spniilieini  t.ikps  notice,  that  this  Antiochus  Dionysus  (the  brother 
of  rhili)),  and  of  Deinctrius  I';uccrus,  and  of  two  others)  was  the  fiftli 
son  of  Antio<'luis  (;ryi)us;  and  lliat  lie  is  styled  on  the  coins  Antiochus 
Epiphanes   Dionysus. 

Chap.  XV.  OF  THE  JEWS.  369 

a  deep  ditch,  beginning  at  Chabarzaba,  which  is  now 
called  Antipatris,  to  the  sea  of  Joppa,  on  which 
part  only  his  army  could  be  brought  against  him. 
He  also  raised  a  wall,  and  erected  wooden  towers, 
and  intermediate  redoubts,  for  one  hundred  and 
fifty  furlongs  in  length,  and  there  expected  the 
coming  of  Antiochus,  but  he  soon  burnt  them  all, 
and  made  his  army  pass  by  that  way  into  Arabia. 
The  Arabian  king  [Aretas]  at  first  retreated,  but 
afterward  appeared  on  the  sudden  with  ten  thousand 
horsemen.  Antiochus  gave  them  the  meeting,  and 
fought  desperately;  and  indeed  when  he  had  gotten 
the  victory,  and  was  bringing  some  auxiliaries  to 
that  part  of  his  army  that  was  in  distress,  he  was 
slain.  When  Antiochus  was  fallen,  his  army  fled 
to  the  village  Cana,  where  the  greatest  part  of  them 
perished  by  famine. 

2.  After  him  ^  Aretas  reigned  over  Celesyria, 
being  called  to  the  government  by  those  that  held 
Damascus,  by  reason  of  the  hatred  they  bare  to 
Ptolemy  Menneus.  He  also  made  thence  an  ex- 
pedition against  Judea,  and  beat  Alexander  in  battle, 
near  a  place  called  Adida,  yet  did  he  upon  certain 
conditions  agreed  on  between  them,  retire  out  of 

3.  But  Alexander  marched  again  to  the  city  Dios, 
and  took  it;  and  then  made  an  expedition  against 
Essa,  where  was  the  best  part  of  Zeno's  treasures, 
and  there  he  encompassed  the  place  with  three  walls; 
and  when  he  had  taken  the  city  by  fighting,  he 
marched  to  Golan  and  Seleucia;  and  when  he  had 
taken  these  cities,  he,  besides  them,  took  that  valley 

*  This  Aretas  was  the  first  king  of  the  Arahians  who  took  Damascus, 
and  reigned  there:  Which  name  liecame  afterwards  common  to  such 
Arabian  kings,  both  at  Petra  and  at  Damascus,  as  we  learn  from  Josephus 
in  many  places,  and  from  St.  Paul,  2  Cor.  xi.  3^.  See  the  note  on 
Antiq.  B.  XVI.  ch.  ix.  sect.  4, 

370  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

which  is  called  the  valley  of  Antiochus,  as  also  the 
fortress  of  Gamala.  He  also  accused  Demetrius, 
who  was  governor  of  those  places,  of  many  crimes, 
and  turned  him  out:  and  after  he  had  spent  three 
years  in  this  war,  he  returned  to  his  own  country, 
when  the  Jews  joyfully  received  him  upon  this  his 
good  success. 

4.  Now  at  this  time  the  Jews  were  in  possession 
of  the  following  cities  that  had  belonged  to  the 
Syrians,  and  Idumeans,  and  Phenicians;  at  the  sea 
side,  Strato's  Tower,  Apollonia,  Joppa,  Jamnia, 
Ashdod,  Gaza,  Anthedon,  Raphia,  and  Rhinoculura; 
in  the  middle  of  the  country,  near  to  Idumea,  Adora, 
and  Marissa;  near  the  country  of  Samaria,  Mount 
Carmel,  and  Mount  Tabor,  Scythopolis,  and  Gardara; 
of  the  country  of  Gaulonites,  Seleucia,  and  Gabala; 
in  the  country  of  Moab,  Heshbon  and  Medaba, 
Lemba,  and  Oronas,  Gelithon,  Zara,  the  valley  of 
the  Celices,  and  Pella;  which  last  they  utterly  de- 
stroyed, because  its  ^  inhabitants  would  not  bear  to 
change  their  religious  rites  for  those  peculiar  to  the 
Jews.  The  Jews  also  possessed  others  of  the  prin- 
cipal cities  in  Syria,  which  had  been  destroyed. 

5.  After  this,  king  Alexander,  although  he  fell 
into  a  distemper  ])y  hard  drinking,  and  had  a  quartan 
ague,  which  held  him  three  years,  yet  would  not 
leave  off  going  out  with  his  army,  till  he  was  quite 
spent  with  the  labours  he  had  undergone,   and  died 

^  We  may  here,  and  elsewhere,  take  notice,  that  whatever  countries 
or  cities,  the  Asamonians  conquered  from  an}'  of  the  neighbouring  nations, 
or  whatever  countries  or  cities  they  gained  from  them,  that  had  not 
belonged  to  them  before,  they,  after  the  days  of  Hyrcanus,  compelled 
the  inhabitants  to  leave  their  idolatry,  and  entirely  to  receive  the  law 
of  Moses,  as  proselytes  of  justice,  or  else  banish  them  into  other  lands. 
That  excellent  prince,  John  Hyrcanus,  did  it  to  the  Idumeans,  as  I  have 
noted  on  ch.  Ix.  sect.  1,  already,  who  lived  then  in  the  promised  land, 
and  this  I  suppose  justly;  but  by  what  right  the  rest  did  it,  even  to  the 
countries  or  cities  that  were  no  part  of  that  land,  I  do  not  at  all  know, 
This  looks  too  like  unjust  persecution   for  religion, 

Chap.  XY.  OF  THE  JEWS.  371 

in  the  bounds  of  Regaba,  a  fortress  beyond  Jordan. 
But  when  his  queen  saw  that  he  was  ready  to  die, 
and  had  no  longer  any  hopes  of  surviving,  she  came 
to  him  weeping  and  lamenting,  and  bewailed  herself, 
and  her  sons,  on  the  desolate  condition  they  should 
be  left  in:  and  said  to  him,  "To  whom  dost  thou 
thus  leave  me  and  my  children,  who  are  destitute 
of  all  other  supports,  and  this  when  thou  knowest 
how  nmch  ill-will  thy  nation  bears  thee?"  But  he 
gave  her  the  following  advice,  "That  she  need  but 
follow  what  he  would  suggest  to  her,  in  order  to 
retain  the  kingdom  securely,  with  her  children,  that 
she  should  conceal  his  death  from  the  soldiers  till 
she  should  have  taken  that  place;  after  this  she 
should  go  in  triumph,  as  upon  a  victory,  to  Jeru- 
salem, and  put  some  of  her  authority  into  the  hands 
of  the  Pharisees,  for  that  they  would  commend  her 
for  the  honour  she  had  done  them,  and  would  recon- 
cile the  nation  to  her;  for  he  told  her,  they  had 
great  authority  among  the  Jews,  both  to  do  hurt 
to  such  as  they  hated,  and  to  bring  advantages  to 
those  to  whom  they  w^ere  friendly  disposed,  for  that 
they  are  then  believed  best  of  all  by  the  multitude 
when  they  speak  any  severe  thing  against  others, 
though  it  be  only  out  of  envy  at  them.  And  he 
said,  tliat  it  was  by  their  means  that  he  had  incurred 
the  displeasure  of  the  nation,  whom  indeed  he  had 
injured.  Do  thou,  therefore,  said  he,  when  thou 
art  come  to  Jerusalem,  send  for  the  leading  men 
among  them,  and  show  them  my  body,  and  with 
great  appearance  of  sincerity,  give  them  leave  to  use 
it  as  they  themselves  please,  whether  they  will  dis- 
honour the  dead  body,  by  refusing  it  burial,  as  having 
severely  suffered  by  my  means,  or  whether  in  their 
anger  they  will  offer  any  other  injury  to  that  body. 
Promise  them  also  that  thou  wilt  do  nothing  without 

372  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

them  in  the  affaii's  of  the  kingdom.  If  thou  dost 
but  say  this  to  them,  I  shall  have  the  honour  of  a 
more  glorious  funeral  from  them  than  thou  couldst 
have  made  for  me;  and  when  it  is  in  their  power  to 
abuse  my  dead  body,  they  will  do  it  no  injury  at  all, 
and  thou  wilt  rule  in  safety."  ^  So  when  he  had 
given  his  wife  this  advice,  he  died,  after  he  had  reigned 
twenty-seven  years,  and  lived  fifty  years  within  one. 


How  Alexandra,  by  gaining  the  good-will  of  the 
Pharisees,  retained  the  kingdom  nine  years,  and 
then  having  done  many  glorious  actiofis,  died. 

1.  So  Alexandra,  when  she  had  taken  the  fortress, 
acted  as  her  husband  had  suggested  to  her,  and  spake 
to  the  Pharisees,  and  put  all  things  into  their  power, 
both  as  to  the  dead  body,  and  as  to  the  affairs  of  the 
kingdom,  and  thereby  pacified  their  anger  against 
Alexander,  and  made  them  bear  good-will  and  friend- 
ship to  him;  who  then  came  among  the  multitude,  and 
made  speeches  to  them,  and  laid  before  them  the 
actions  of  Alexander,  and  told  them  that  they  had 
lost  a  righteous  king;  and  by  the  commendation  they 
gave  him,  they  brought  them  to  grieve,  and  to  be  in 
heaviness  for  him,  so  that  he  had  a  funeral  more 
splendid  than  had  any  of  the  kings  before  him.  Alex- 
ander left  behind  him  two  sons,  Hyrcanus  and  Aris- 

*  It  seems,  by  tliis  dying  advice  of  Alexander  Janneus  to  his  wife, 
that  lie  liad  himself  pursued  the  measures  of  his  father  Hyrcanus,  and 
taken  ])art  witli  the  Sathlucecs,  who  kejit  close  to  the  written  law,  against 
the  Pharisees,  who  had  introduced  their  own  tnulitions,  ch.  xvi.  sect.  3, 
and  th;it  he  now  saw  a  i)olltical  necessity  of  submitting  to  tlie  Pharisees, 
and  their  traditions  hereafter,  if  his  widow  and  Family  minded  to  retain 
their   monarchial    <rovernmeiit    or   tvrannv    over   the   Jewish    nation. 

Chap.  XVI.  OF  THE  JEWS.  373 

tobulus,  but  coniniitted  the  kingdom  to  Alexandra. 
Now,  as  to  these  two  sons,  Hyrcanus  was  nndeed 
unable  to  manage  pubhc  affairs,  and  dehghted  rather 
in  a  quiet  life;  but  the  younger,  Aristobulus,  was  an 
active  and  a  bold  man;  and  for  this  woman  herself, 
Alexandra,  she  was  loved  by  the  multitude,  because 
she  seemed  displeased  at  the  offences  her  husband 
had  been  guilty  of. 

2.  So  she  made  Hyrcanus  high  priest,  because  he 
was  the  elder,  but  much  more  because  he  cared  not 
to  meddle  witli  politics,  and  permitted  the  Pharisees 
to  do  every  thing;  to  whom  also  she  ordered  the 
multitude  to  be  obedient.  She  also  restored  again 
those  practices  which  the  Pharisees  had  introduced, 
according  to  the  traditions  of  their  forefathers,  and 
which  her  father-in-law,  Hyrcanus,  had  abrogated. 
So  she  had  indeed  the  name  of  the  Regent,  but  the 
Pharisees  had  the  authority;  for  it  was  they  who 
restored  such  as  had  been  loanished,  and  set  such  as 
were  prisoners  at  liberty,  and,  to  say  all  at  once, 
they  differed  in  nothing  from  lords.  However,  the 
queen  also  took  care  of  the  affairs  of  the  kingdom, 
and  got  together  a  great  body  of  mercenary  soldiers, 
and  increased  her  own  army  to  such  a  degree,  that 
she  became  terrible  to  the  neighbouring  tyrants,  and 
took  hostages  of  them:  And  the  country  was  entirely 
at  peace,  excepting  the  Pharisees;  for  they  disturbed 
the  queen,  and  desired  that  she  should  kill  those  who 
persuaded  Alexander  to  slay  the  eight  hundred  men; 
after  wliich  they  cut  the  throat  of  one  of  them, 
Diogenes:  and  after  him  they  did  the  same  to  several, 
one  after  another,  till  the  men  that  were  the  most 
potent  came  into  the  palace,  and  Aristobulus  with 
them,  for  he  seemed  to  be  displeased  at  what  was 
done,  and  it  appeared  openly,  that  if  he  had  an  op- 
portunity, he  would  not  permit  his  mother  to  go  on 

374  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

so.  "These  put  the  queen  in  mind  what  great 
dangers  they  had  gone  through,  and  great  things 
they  had  done,  wherehy  they  had  demonstrated  tlie 
firmness  of  their  fidehty  to  their  master,  insomuch 
that  they  had  received  the  greatest  marks  of  favour 
from  him;  and  they  hegged  of  her,  that  she  woukl 
not  utterly  hkast  their  liopes,  as  it  now  happened, 
that  when  they  had  escaped  the  hazards  that  arose 
from  their  [open]  enemies,  they  were  to  he  cut  off 
at  home,  hy  their  [private]  enemies,  hke  brute  beasts, 
without  any  help  whatsoever.  They  said  also,  that 
if  their  adversaries  would  be  satisfied  with  those  that 
had  been  slain  already,  they  would  take  what  had 
been  done  patiently,  on  account  of  their  natural  love 
to  their  governors;  but  if  they  must  expect  the  same 
for  the  future  also,  they  implored  of  her  a  dismission 
from  her  service,  for  they  could  not  bear  to  think  of 
attempting  any  method  for  their  deliverance  without 
her,  but  would  rather  die  willingly  before  the  palace- 
gate,  in  case  she  would  not  forgive  them.  And  that 
it  was  a  great  shame  both  for  themselves,  and  for 
the  queen,  that  when  they  were  neglected  by  her, 
they  should  come  under  the  lash  of  her  husband's 
enemies;  for  that  Aretas,  the  Ara])ian  king,  and  the 
monarchs,  would  give  any  reward,  if  they  could  get 
such  men  as  foreign  auxiliaries,  to  whom  their  very 
names,  before  their  voices  be  heard,  may  perhaps 
be  terrible:  But  if  they  could  not  obtain  this  their 
second  request,  and  if  she  had  determined  to  prefer 
the  Pharisees  before  them,  they  still  insisted  that  she 
would  place  them  every  one  in  her  fortresses;  for  if 
some  fatal  demon  had  a  constant  s])ite  against  Alex- 
ander's house,  they  would  be  willing  to  bear  their 
part,  and  to  live  in  a  private  station  there." 

3.     As  these  men  said  thus,  and  called  upon  Alex- 
ander's ghost  for  commiseration  of  those  already  slain, 

Chap.  XYi.  OF  THE  JKWS.  375 

and  those  in  danger  of  it,  all  the  bystanders  broke  out 
into  tears:  But  Aristobulus  chiefly  made  manifest 
what  were  his  sentiments,  and  used  many  reproachful 
expressions  to  his  mother  [saying,]  "Nay,  indeed, 
the  case  is  this,  that  they  have  been  themselves  the 
authors  of  their  own  calamities,  who  have  permitted 
a  woman  who,  against  reason,  was  mad  with  ambi- 
tion, to  reign  over  them,  when  there  were  sons  in  the 
flower  of  their  age  fitter  for  it."  So  Alexandra  not 
knowing  what  to  do  with  any  decency,  committed 
the  fortresses  to  them,  all  but  Hyrcania  and  Alexan- 
drium,  and  JNIacherus,  where  her  principal  treasures 
were.  After  a  little  while  also,  she  sent  her  son 
Aristobulus  with  an  army  to  Damascus  against 
Ptolemy,  who  was  called  Menneus,  who  was  such  a 
bad  neighbour  to  the  city;  but  he  did  nothing  con- 
siderable there  and  so  returned  home. 

4.  About  this  time  news  was  brought  that  Ti- 
granes,  the  king  of  Armenia,  had  made  an  irruption 
into  Syria  with  ^  five  hundred  thousand  soldiers,  and 
was  coming  against  Judea.  This  news,  as  may  well 
be  supposed,  terrified  the  queen  and  the  nation.  Ac- 
cordingly they  sent  him  many  and  very  valuable 
presents;  as  also  ambassadors,  and  that  as  he  was 
besieging  Ptolemais;  for  Selene  the  queen,  the  same 
that  was  also  called  Cleopatra,  ruled  then  over 
Syria,  who  had  persuaded  the  inhabitants  to  exclude 
Tigranes.  So  the  Jewish  ambassadors  interceded  with 
him,  and  entreated  him  that  he  would  determine  noth- 
ing that  was  severe  about  their  queen  or  nation. 
He  commended  them  for  the  respects  they  paid  him 

*  The  number  of  500,000  or  even  300,000,  as  one  Greek  copy,  with  the 
Latin  copies  have  it,  Tigranes'  army,  that  came  out  of  Armenia  into 
Syria  and  Judea  seems  much  too  large.  We  have  had  already  several 
such  extravagant  numbers  in  Jose])hus'  j)resent  copies,  which  are  not  to 
be  at  all  ascrilied  to  him.  Acconlingly,  I  incline  to  Dr.  Hudson's  emenda- 
tion here,  which  supposes   them  but  40,000. 

376  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiii. 

at  so  great  a  distance:  and  gave  them  good  hopes  of 
his  favour.  But  as  soon  as  Ptolemais  was  taken, 
news  came  to  Tigranes  that  Lucullus,  in  his  pursuit 
of  ^lithridates,  could  not  hght  upon  him,  who  was 
fled  into  Iberia,  but  was  laying  waste  Armenia  and 
besieging  its  cities.  Now,  when  Tigranes  knew  this 
he  returned  home. 

5.  After  this,  when  the  queen  was  fallen  into  a 
dangerous  distemper,  Aristobulus  resolved  to  attempt 
the  seizing  of  the  government;  so  he  stole  away 
secretly  by  night,  with  only  one  of  his  servants,  and 
went  to  the  fortresses  wherein  his  friends  that  were 
such  from  the  days  of  his  father,  were  settled:  for 
as  he  had  been  a  great  while  displeased  at  his  mother's 
conduct,  so  he  was  now  much  more  afraid,  lest  upon 
her  death,  their  whole  family  should  be  under  the 
power  of  the  Pharisees,  for  he  saw  the  inability  of 
his  brother,  who  was  to  succeed  in  the  government: 
nor  was  any  one  conscious  of  what  he  was  doing  but 
only  his  wife,  whom  he  left  at  Jerusalem  with  their 
children.  He  first  of  all  came  to  Agaba,  where  was 
Galestes,  one  of  the  potent  men  before  mentioned, 
and  was  received  by  him.  When  it  was  day  the 
queen  perceived  that  Aristobulus  was  fled;  and  for 
some  time  she  supposed  that  his  departure  was  not  in 
order  to  make  any  innovation,  but  when  messengers 
came  one  after  another  with  the  news  that  he  had 
secured  the  flrst  place,  the  second  place,  and  all  the 
places,  for  as  soon  as  one  had  begun  they  all  sub- 
mitted to  his  disposal,  then  it  was  that  the  queen 
and  the  nation  were  in  the  greatest  disorder,  for  they 
were  aware  that  it  would  not  be  long  ere  Aristobulus 
would  be  able  to  settle  himself  firmly  in  the  govern- 
ment. What  they  were  principally  afraid  of  was 
this,  that  he  would  inflict  punishment  upon  them  for 
the  mad  treatment  his  house  had  had  from  them:  So 

Chap.  XVI.  OF  THE  JEWS.  377 

they  resolved  to  take  his  wife  and  children  into 
custody,  and  keep  them  in  the  ^  fortress  that  was  over 
the  temple.  Xow  there  w^s  a  mighty  conflux  of 
people  that  came  to  Aristobulus  from  all  parts,  in- 
somuch that  he  had  a  kind  of  royal  attendants  about 
him;  for  in  a  little  more  than  fifteen  days,  he  got 
twenty-two  strong  places,  which  gave  him  the  op- 
portunity of  raising  an  army  from  Libanus  and 
Trachonitis,  and  the  monarchs:  for  men  are  easily 
led  by  the  greater  number,  and  easily  submit  to  them. 
And  besides  this,  that  by  affording  him  their  as- 
sistance, when  he  could  not  expect  it,  they,  as  well 
as  he,  should  have  the  advantages  that  would  come 
by  his  being  king,  because  they  had  been  the  occasion 
of  his  gaining  the  kingdom.  Now  the  elders  of  the 
Jews,  and  Hyrcanus  with  them,  went  in  unto  the 
queen,  and  desired,  "That  she  would  give  them 
her  sentiments  about  the  present  posture  of  afl^airs, 
for  that  Aristobulus  was  in  effect  lord  of  almost  all  the 
kingdom,  by  possessing  of  so  many  strongholds,  and 
that  it  was  al3surd  for  them  to  take  any  counsel  by 
themselves,  how  ill  soever  she  w^ere,  whilst  she  was 
alive,  and  that  the  danger  would  be  upon  them  in  no 
long  time."  But  she  "bid  them  do  what  they  thought 
proper  to  be  done:  that  they  had  many  circumstances 
in  their  favour  still  remaining,  a  nation  in  good  heart, 
an  army,  and  money  in  their  several  treasuries,  for 
that  she  had  small  concern  about  public  affairs  now, 
when  the  strength  of  her  body  already  failed  her." 

6.  Xow  a  little  while  after  she  had  said  this  to 
them,  she  died,  when  she  had  reigned  nine  years,  and 
had   in   all   lived   seventy-three.     A   woman    she    was 

^  This  fortress,  castle,  citadel,  or  tower,  whither  the  wife  and  children 
of  Aristobulus  were  now  sent,  and  which  overlooked  the  temple,  could 
be  no  other  than  what  Hyrcantis  I.  iuiilt,  Antiq.  B.  XVTII.  ch.  iv.  sect.  3, 
Vol.  III.  and  Herod  the  Great  rebuilt,  and  called  the  Tower  of  Antonia, 
Antiq.  B.  XT.  ch.  xi.  sect.  5,  Vol.  II. 

378  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xm. 

who  showed  no  signs  of  the  weakness  of  her  sex,  for 
she  was  sagacious  to  the  greatest  degree  in  her  ambi- 
tion of  governing,  and  demonstrated  by  her  doings  at 
once,  that  her  mind  was  fit  for  action,  and  that  some- 
times men  themselves  show  the  httle  understanding 
they  have  by  the  frequent  mistakes  they  make  in 
point  of  government;  for  she  always  j^ref erred  the 
present  to  futurity,  and  preferred  the  power  of  an 
imperious  dominion  above  all  things,  and  in  compari- 
son of  that  had  no  regard  to  what  was  good,  or  what 
was  right.  However,  she  brought  the  affairs  of  her 
house  to  such  an  unfortunate  condition,  that  she  was 
the  occasion  of  the  taking  away  that  authority  from 
it,  and  that  in  no  long  time  afterward,  which  she  had 
obtained  by  a  vast  number  of  hazards  and  mis- 
fortunes, and  this  out  of  a  desire  of  what  does  not 
belong  to  a  woman,  and  all  by  a  compliance  in  her 
sentiments  with  those  that  bare  ill-will  to  their  family, 
and  by  leaving  the  administration  destitute  of  a 
proper  support  of  great  men:  and  indeed,  her  manage- 
ment during  her  administration,  while  she  was  alive, 
was  such,  as  filled  the  palace,  after  her  death,  with 
calamities  and  disturbance.  However,  although  this 
had  been  her  way  of  governing,  she  preserved  tho 
nation  in  peace.  And  this  is  the  conclusion  of  tho 
affairs  of  Alexandra. 





The  war  between  Aristohulus  and  Hyrcanus  about 
the  kingdom;  and  how  they  made  an  agreeinent, 
that  Anstobulus  shoidd  be  king,  and  Hyrcanus 
live  a  private  life:  as  also  how  Hyrcanus,  a  little 
afterward,  was  persuaded  by  Antipater  to  fly  to 

1.  We  have  related  the  affairs  of  Queen  Alexandra, 
and  her  death  in  the  foregoing  book,  and  will  now 
speak  of  what  followed,  and  was  connected  with  those 
histories;  declaring,  before  we  proceed,  that  we  have 
nothing  so  much  at  heart  as  this,  that  we  may  omit 
no  facts,  either  through  ignorance  or  laziness,  for  we 
are  upon  the  history  and  explication  of  such  things 
as  the  greatest  part  are  unacquainted  withal,  because 
of  their  distance  from  our  times;  and  we  aim  to  do 
it  with  a  proper  beauty  of  style,  so  far  as  that  is 
derived  from  proper  words  harmonically  disposed, 
and  from  such  ornaments  of  speech  also  as  may 
contribute  to  the  pleasure  of  our  readers,  that  we  may 


380  AXTIQUITIES  Book  xiv. 

entertain  the  knowledge  of  what  we  write  with  some 
agreeable  satisfaction  and  pleasure.  But  the  principal 
scope  that  authors  ought  to  aim  at  above  all  the  rest, 
is  to  speak  accurately,  and  to  speak  truly,  for  the 
satisfaction  of  those  that  are  otherwise  unacquainted 
with  such  transactions,  and  obhged  to  believe  what 
these  writers  inform  them  of. 

2.  Hyrcanus  then  began  his  high  priesthood  on 
the  third  year  of  the  hundred  seventy-seventh  Olym- 
piad, when  Quintus  Hortensius  and  Quintus  Me- 
tellus,  who  was  called  JNIetellus  of  Crete,  were  consuls 
at  Rome;  when  presently  Aristobulus  began  to  make 
war  against  him,  and  as  it  came  to  a  battle  with 
Hyrcanus  at  Jericho,  many  of  the  soldiers  deserted 
him,  and  went  over  to  his  brother;  upon  which 
H>Tcanus  fled  into  the  citadel,  where  Aristobulus' 
wife  and  children  were  imprisoned  by  their  mother, 
as  we  have  said  already,  and  attacked  and  overcame 
those  his  adversaries  that  had  fled  thither,  and  lay 
within  the  walls  of  the  temple.  So  when  he  had 
sent  a  message  to  his  brother  about  agreeing  the 
matters  between  them,  he  laid  aside  his  enmity  to 
him  on  these  conditions,  that  Aristobulus  should  be 
king,  that  he  should  live  without  intermeddling  with 
public  affairs,  and  quietly  enjoy  the  estate  he  had 
acquired.  When  they  had  agreed  upon  these  terms 
in  the  temple,  and  had  confirmed  the  agreement  with 
oaths,  and  the  giving  one  another  their  right  hands, 
and  embracing  one  another  in  the  sight  of  the  whole 
multitude,  they  departed;  the  one,  Aristobulus,  to 
the  palace;  and  Hyrcanus,  as  a  private  man,  to  the 
former  house  of  Aristobulus. 

3.  But  there  was  a  certain  friend  of  Hyrcanus', 
an  Idumean,  called  Antipater,  who  was  very  rich, 
and  in  his  nature  an  active  and  a  seditious  man;  who 
was  at  enmity  with  Aristobulus,  and  had  differences 

Chap.  I.  OF  THE  JEWS.  381 

with  him  on  account  of  his  good  will  to  Hyrcanus. 
It  is  true  that  Xicolaus  of  Damascus  says,  that  Anti- 
pater  was  of  the  stock  of  the  principal  Jews  who  came 
out  of  Babylon  into  Judea;  but  that  assertion  of  his 
was  to  gratify  Herod,  who  was  his  son,  and  who,  by 
certain  revolutions  of  fortune,  came  afterward  to  be 
king  of  the  Jews,  whose  history  w^e  shall  give  you 
in  its  proper  place  hereafter.  However,  this  Anti- 
pater  was  at  first  called  ^  Antipas,  and  that  was  his 
father's  name  also:  of  whom  they  relate  this,  that  king 
Alexander  and  his  wife  made  him  general  of  all 
Idumea,  and  that  he  made  a  league  of  friendship 
with  those  Arabians,  and  Gazites,  and  Ascalonites, 
that  were  of  his  own  party,  and  had,  by  many  and 
large  presents,  made  them  his  fast  friends.  But 
now,  this  younger  Antipater  was  suspicious  of  the 
power  of  Aristobulus,  and  was  afraid  of  some  mis- 
chief he  might  do  him,  because  of  his  hatred  to  him, 
so  he  stirred  up  the  most  powerful  of  the  Jews  and 
talked  against  him  to  them  privately;  and  said,  that 
"it  was  unjust  to  overlook  the  conduct  of  Aristobulus, 
who  had  gotten  the  government  unrighteously,  and 
ejected  his  brother  out  of  it,  who  was  the  elder,  and 
ought  to  retain  what  belonged  to  him  by  prerogative 
of  his  birth."  And  the  same  speeches  he  perpetually 
made  to  Hyrcanus;  and  told  him,  that  his  own  life 
would  be  in  danger,  unless  he  guarded  himself,  and 
got  shut  of  Aristobulus;  for  he  said,  that  the  friends 
of  Aristobulus  omitted  no  opportunity  of  advising 
him  to  kill  him,  as  being  then,  and  not  befo^,  sure 
to  retain  his  principality.  Hyrcanus  gave  no  credit 
to  these  words  of  his,  as  being  of  a  gentle  disposition, 

'  That  the  famous  Antipater's  or  Antipas'  father  was  also  Antipater 
or  Antipait  (which  two  may  justly  be  esteemed  one  and  the  same  name, 
the  former  with  a  Greek  or  Gentile,  the  latter  with  a  Helirew  or  Jewish 
termination,)  Josephus  here  assures  us,  though  Eusebius  indeed  says  It 
was  Herod. 

382  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiv. 

and  one  that  did  not  easily  admit  of  calumnies  against 
other  men.  This  temper  of  his,  not  disposing  him  to 
meddle  with  public  affairs,  and  want  of  spirit,  oc- 
casioned him  to  appear  to  spectators  to  be  degenerous 
and  unmanly;  while  Aristobulus  was  of  a  contrary 
temper,  an  active  man,  and  one  of  a  great  and  generous 

4.  Since  therefore  Antipater  saw  that  Hyrcanus 
did  not  attend  to  what  he  said,  he  never  ceased,  day 
by  day,  to  charge  feigned  crimes  upon  Aristobulus, 
and  to  calumniate  him  before  him,  as  if  he  had  a  mind 
to  kill  him,  and  so,  by  urging  him  perpetually,  he 
advised  him,  and  persuaded  him  to  fly  to  Aretas,  the 
king  of  Arabia,  and  promised,  that  if  he  would  comply 
with  his  advice,  he  would  also  himself  assist  him, 
[and  go  with  him.]  When  Hyrcanus  heard  this,  he 
said  that  it  was  for  his  advantage  to  fly  away  to 
Aretas.  Xow  Arabia  is  a  country  that  borders  upon 
Judea.  However,  Hyrcanus  sent  Antipater  first  to 
the  king  of  Arabia,  in  order  to  receive  assurances  from 
him.  that  when  he  should  come  in  the  manner  of  a 
supplicant  to  him,  he  would  not  deliver  him  up  to  his 
enemies.  So  Antipater  having  received  such  as- 
surances, returned  to  Hyrcanus  to  Jerusalem.  A 
while  afterward  he  took  Hyrcanus,  and  stole  out  of 
the  city  by  night,  and  went  a  great  journey,  and 
came  and  brought  him  to  the  city  called  Petra,  where 
the  palace  of  Aretas  was;  and  as  he  was  a  very 
familiar  friend  of  that  king's  he  persuaded  him  to 
bring  hack  Hyrcanus  into  Judea,  and  his  persuasion 
he  continued  every  day  without  any  intermission.  He 
also  j^roposed  to  make  him  presents  on  that  account. 
At  length  he  prevailed  with  Aretas  in  his  suit.  ]More- 
over,  Hyrcanus  })romise(l  him,  that  when  he  had  been 
brouglit  thither,  and  liad  received  his  kingdom,  he 
would   restore   that   country,    and   those    twelve    cities 

Chap.  II.  OF  THE  JP^WS.  383 

which  his  father  Alexander  had  taken  from  the 
Arabians,  which  w^ere  these,  jNIedaba,  Na hallo,  Libias, 
Tharabasa,  Agala,  Athone,  Zoar,  Orone,  Marissa, 
Rudda,  Lussa,  and  Oruba. 


How  Aretas  and  Hyrcanus  made  an  expedition 
against  Aristohuhis,  and  besieged  Jerusalem;  and 
how  Scaurus,  the  Roman  general,  raised  the  siege. 
Concerning  the  death  of  Onias. 

1.  After  these  promises  had  been  given  to  Aretas, 
he  made  an  expedition  against  Aristobulus,  with  an 
army  of  fifty  thousand  horse  and  foot,  and  beat  him 
in  the  battle.  And  when  after  that  victory  many 
went  over  to  Hyrcanus  as  deserters,  Aristobulus  was 
left  desolate,  and  fled  to  Jerusalem;  upon  w^hich  the 
king  of  Arabia  took  all  his  army  and  made  an  assault 
upon  tlie  temple,  and  ])esieged  Aristobulus  therein, 
the  people  still  supporting  Hyrcanus,  and  assisting 
him  in  the  siege,  w^hile  none  but  the  priests  continued 
with  Aristobulus.  So  Aretas  united  the  forces  of 
the  Arabians  and  of  the  Jews  together,  and  pressed 
on  the  siege  vigorously.  As  this  happened  at  the 
time  when  the  feast  of  unleavened  bread  was  cele- 
})rated,  which  we  call  the  Passover,  the  principal  men 
among  the  Jews  left  the  country  and  fled  into  Egj^pt. 
Now  there  w^as  one  whose  name  was  Onias,  a  righteous 
man  he  was,  and  beloved  of  God,  w'ho,  in  a  certain 
drought,  had  prayed  to  God  to  put  an  end  to  the 
intense  heat,  and  whose  prayers  God  had  heard,  and 
had  sent  them  rain.  This  man  had  hid  himself, 
because  he  saw  that  this  sedition  would  last  a  great 

384  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiv. 

while.  However  they  brought  him  to  the  Jewish 
camp,  and  desired,  that  as  by  his  prayers  he  had 
once  put  an  end  to  the  drought,  so  he  would  in  like 
manner  make  imprecations  on  Aristobulus,  and  those 
of  his  faction.  And  when,  upon  his  refusal,  and  the 
excuses  that  he  made,  he  was  still  by  the  multitude 
compelled  to  speak,  he  stood  up  in  the  midst  of  them, 
and  said,  "O  God,  the  king  of  the  whole  world!  since 
those  that  stand  now  with  me  are  thy  people,  and 
those  that  are  besieged  are  also  thy  priests,  I  be- 
seech thee,  that  thou  wilt  neither  hearken  to  the 
prayers  of  those  against  these,  nor  bring  to  effect 
what  these  pray  against  those."  Whereupon  such 
wicked  Jews  as  stood  about  him,  as  soon  as  he  had, 
made  this  prayer,  stoned  him  to  death. 

2.  But  God  punished  them  immediately  for  this 
their  barbarity,  and  took  vengeance  of  them  for  the 
murder  of  Onias,  in  the  manner  following:  While 
the  priests  and  Aristobidus  were  besieged,  it  hap- 
pened that  the  feast  called  the  Passover  was  come, 
at  whicli  it  is  our  custom* to  offer  a  great  number  of 
sacrifices  to  God;  but  tliose  that  were  with  Aristobu- 
lus wanted  saci'ifices,  and  desired  tliat  their  country- 
men without  would  furnish  them  with  such  sacrifices, 
and  assured  them  tliey  should  have  as  much  money 
for  them  as  they  should  desire;  and  when  they  re- 
quired them  to  pay  a  thousand  drachmae  for  eacli 
head  of  cattle,  Aristobulus  and  the  priests  willingly 
undertook  to  pay  for  them  accordingly,  and  those 
within  let  down  the  money  over  the  walls,  and  gave 
it  them.  But  when  the  others  had  received  it,  they 
did  not  deliver  the  sacrifices,  but  arrived  at  that  height 
of  wickedness  as  to  break  the  assurances  they  had 
given,  and  to  be  guilty  of  impiety  towards  God,  by 
not  furnishing  those  that  wanted  them  with  sacrifices. 
And  when  the  priests  found  they  had  been  cheated, 

Chap.  II.  OF  THE  JEWS.  885 

and  that  the  agreements  they  had  made  were  violated, 
they  prayed  to  God,  that  he  would  avenge  them  on 
their  countrymen.  Nor  did  he  delay  that  their  punish- 
ment, but  sent  a  strong  and  vehement  storm  of  wind, 
that  destroyed  the  fruits  of  the  whole  country,  till  a 
modius  of  wheat  was  then  bought  for  eleven  draclimte. 
3.  In  the  meantime  Pompey  sent  Scaurus  into 
Syria,  while  he  was  himself  in  Armenia,  and  making 
war  with  Tigranes:  But  when  Scaurus  was  come  to 
Damascus,  and  found  that  Lollius  and  ^letellus  had 
newly  taken  the  city,  he  came  himself  hastily  into 
Judea.  And  when  he  was  come  thither,  ambassadors 
came  to  him,  both  from  Aristobulus  and  Hyrcanus, 
and  both  desired  he  would  assist  them.  And  when 
both  of  them  promised  to  give  him  money,  Aristo- 
bulus four  hundred  talents,  and  Hyrcanus  no  less, 
he  accepted  of  Aristobulus'  promise,  for  he  was  rich 
and  had  a  great  soul,  and  desired  to  obtain  nothing 
but  what  was  moderate;  whereas  the  other  was  poor, 
and  tenacious,  and  made  incredible  promises  in  hopes 
of  greater  advantages;  for  it  was  not  the  same  thing 
to  take  a  city,  that  was  exceeding  strong  and  power- 
ful, as  it  was  to  eject  out  of  the  country  some  fugi- 
tives, with  a  greater  number  of  Xabateans,  who  were 
no  very  warlike  people.  He  therefore  made  an  agree- 
ment with  Aristobulus,  for  the  reasons  before  men- 
tioned, and  took  his  money,  and  raised  the  siege,  and 
ordered  Aretas  to  depart,  or  else  he  should  be  de- 
clared an  enemy  to  the  Romans.  So  Scaurus  re- 
turned to  Damascus  again;  and  Aristobulus,  with 
a  great  army,  made  war  with  Aretas  and  Hyrcanus, 
and  fought  them  at  a  place  called  Papyron,  and  beat 
them  in  the  battle,  and  slew  about  six  thousand  of 
the  enemy;  with  whom  fell  Phalion  also,  the  brother 
of  Antipater. 

380  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiv. 


How  Aristohulus  and  Hyrcanus  came  to  Pompey,  in 
order  to  argue  who  ought  to  have  the  kingdom:  and 
how  upon  the  flight  of  Aristohulus  to  the  fortress 
Alexandrium,  Pompey  led  his  army  against  him, 
and  ordered  him  to  deliver  up  the  fortresses  whereof 
he  was  possessed. 

1.  A  LITTLE  afterward  Pompey  came  to  Damascus, 
and  marched  over  Celesyria,  at  whicli  time  there  came 
ambassadors  to  him  from  all  Syria,  and  Egypt,  and 
out  of  Judea  also,  for  Aristohulus  had  sent  him  a 
great  present,  which  was  a  ^  golden  vine,  of  the  value 
of  five  hundred  talents.  Now  Straljo  of  Cappadocia 
mentions  this  present  in  these  words:  "There  came 
also  an  embassage  out  of  Egypt,  and  a  crown  of  the 
value  of  four  thousand  pieces  of  gold,  and  out  of 
Judea  there  came  another,  whether  you  call  it  a 
vine  or  a  garden:  They  called  the  thing  Terpule, 
The  delight.  However,  we  ourselves  saw  that  pres- 
ent   reposited    at    Rome,    in    the    temple    of    Jupiter 

^  This  golden  vine  or  garden,  seen  by  Strabo  at  Rome,  has  its  in- 
scription here  as  if  it  were  the  gift  of  Alexander,  the  father  of  Aris- 
tohulus, and  not  of  Aristohulus  himself,  to  whom  yet  Josephus  ascribes 
it;  and  in  order  to  prove  the  truth  of  that  part  of  liis  history,  introduces 
this  testimony  of  Strabo's;  so  that  the  ordinary  copies  seem  to  be  here 
cither  erroneous  or  defective,  and  the  original  reading  seems  to  have 
been  either  Aristohulus.  instead  of  Alexander,  with  one  Greek  copy,  or 
else  Aristohulus  the  son  of  Alexander,  with  the  Latin  copies,  which 
last  seems  to  mc  the  most  probable — For  as  to  Archbishop  Usher's  con- 
jectures, that  Alexander  made  it,  and  dedicated  it  to  God  in  the  temple, 
and  that  thence  yVristobulus  took  it,  and  sent  it  to  Pompey,  they  are 
both  very  improbable,  and  no  way  agreeable  to  Josephus,  who  would 
hardly  have  avoided  the  recording  both  these  imconunon  points  of  history, 
had  he  known  any  of  them;  nor  would  either  the  Jewish  nation,  or  even 
Pompey  himself,  then  have  relished  such  a  flagrant  instance  of  sacrilege. 

Chap.  III.  OF  THE  JEWS.  387 

Capitolinus,  with  this  inscription,  The  gift  of  Alex- 
ander the  ling  of  the  Jews.  It  was  valued  at  five 
hundred  talents;  and  the  report  is,  that  Aristobulus, 
the  governor  of  the  Jews,  sent  it." 

2.  In  a  little  time  afterward  came  ambassadors  again 
to  him,  Antipater  from  Hyrcanus,  and  Xicodemus 
from  Aristobulus;  which  last  also  accused  such  as 
had  taken  bribes,  first  Gabinius,  and  then  Scaurus, 
the  one  three  hundred  talents,  and  the  other  four 
hundred;  by  which  procedure  he  made  these  two  his 
enemies,  besides  those  he  had  before.  And  when 
Pompey  had  ordered  those  that  had  controversies 
one  with  another  to  come  to  him  in  the  beginning 
of  the  spring,  he  brought  his  army  out  of  their  winter 
quarters,  and  marched  into  the  country  of  Damascus; 
and  as  he  went  along  he  demolished  the  citadel  that 
was  at  Apamia,  which  Antiochus  Cyzicenus  had  built, 
and  took  cognizance  of  the  country  of  Ptolemy  ]Men- 
neus,  a  wicked  man,  and  not  less  so  than  Dionysius 
of  Tripoli,  who  had  been  beheaded,  who  was  also 
his  relation  by  marriage ;  yet  did  he  buy  ofi^  the  punish- 
ment of  his  crimes  for  a  thousand  talents,  with  which 
money  Pompey  paid  the  soldiers  their  wages.  He 
also  conquered  the  place  called  Lysias,  of  which  Silas 
a  Jew,  was  tyrant.  And  when  he  had  passed  over 
the  cities  of  Heliopohs  and  Chalcis,  and  got  over  the 
mountain  Mdiich  is  on  the  limit  of  Celesyria,  he  came 
from  Pella  to  Damascus;  and  there  it  was  that  he 
heard  the  causes  of  the  Jews,  and  of  their  governors 
Hyrcanus  and  Aristobulus,  who  were  at  difference 
one  with  another,  as  also  of  the  nation  against  them 
both,  which  did  not  desire  to  be  under  kingly  govern- 
ment, because  the  form  of  government  they  received 
from  their  forefathers  was  that  of  subjection  to  the 
priests  of  that  God  whom  they  worshipped,  and  [they 
complained,]  that  though  these  two  were  the  posterity 

388  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiv. 

of  priests,  yet  did  they  seek  to  change  the  government 
of  their  nation  to  another  form,  in  order  to  enslave 
them.  Hyreanus  complained,  that  although  he  were 
tlie  elder  brother,  he  was  deprived  of  the  prerogative 
of  his  birth  by  Aristobulus,  and  that  he  hath  but  a 
small  part  of  the  country  under  him,  Aristobulus 
having  taken  away  tlie  rest  from  him  by  force.  He 
also  accused  him,  that  the  incursions  which  had  been 
made  into  tlieir  neighbours'  countries,  and  the  piracies 
that  had  been  at  sea,  were  ov/ing  to  him;  and  that 
the  nation  would  not  have  revolted,  unless  Aristobulus 
had  been  a  man  given  to  violence  and  disorder:  and 
there  were  no  fewer  than  a  thousand  Jews,  of  the 
best  esteem  among  them,  who  confirmed  this  accu- 
sation: which  confirmation  was  procured  by  Antipater. 
But  Aristobulus  alleged  against  him,  that  it  was 
Hyreanus'  own  temper,  which  was  inactive,  and  on 
that  account  contempti])le,  M'hich  caused  him  to  be 
deprived  of  the  government;  and  that  for  himself  he 
was  necessitated  to  take  it  upon  him,  for  fear  lest 
it  should  be  transferred  to  others.  And  that  as  to 
his  title  [of  king,]  it  was  no  other  than  what  his 
father  had  taken  [before  him.]  He  also  called  for 
witnesses  of  what  he  said,  some  persons  who  were 
both  young  and  insolent:  whose  purple  garments,  fine 
heads  of  hair,  and  other  ornaments,  were  detested  [by 
the  court,]  and  which  they  appeared  in,  not  as  though 
they  were  to  plead  their  cause  in  a  court  of  justice, 
but  as  if  they  were  marching  in  a  pompous  procession. 
3.  When  Pompey  had  heard  the  causes  of  these 
two,  and  had  condemned  Aristobulus  for  his  violent 
procedure,  he  then  spake  civilly  to  them,  and  sent 
them  away;  and  told  them,  that  when  he  came  again 
into  their  country  he  wouhl  settle  all  their  affairs, 
after  he  had  first  taken  a  view  of  the  affairs  of  the 
Nabateans.     In   tlie   mean   time,   he   ordered   them   to 

Chap.  III.  OF  THE  JEWS.  389 

be  quiet;  and  treated  Aristobulus  civilly,  lest  he  should 
make  the  nation  revolt,  and  hinder  his  return:  which 
j^et  Aristobulus  did;  for  without  expecting  any  further 
determination,  which  Pomj^ey  had  promised  them, 
he  went  to  the  city  Delius,  and  thence  marched  into 

4.  At  this  behaviour  Pompey  was  angry;  and 
taking  wdtli  him  that  army  which  he  was  leading 
against  the  Xabateans,  and  the  auxiliaries  that  came 
from  Damascus,  and  the  other  parts  of  Syria,  with 
the  other  Roman  legions  which  he  had  with  him,  he 
made  an  expedition  against  Aristobulus:  but  as  he 
passed  by  Pella,  and  Scythopohs,  he  came  to  CorccE, 
which  is  the  first  entrance  into  Judea  when  one  passes 
over  the  midland  countries,  where  he  came  to  a  most 
beautiful  fortress  that  was  built  on  the  top  of  a 
mountain  called  AleaYiudrium,  whither  Aristobulus  had 
fled,  and  thence  Pompey  sent  his  commands  to  him, 
that  he  should  come  to  him.  Accordingly,  at  the 
persuasions  of  many,  that  he  would  not  make  war 
with  the  Romans,  he  came  down:  and  when  he  had 
disputed  with  his  brother  about  the  right  to  the 
government;  he  went  up  again  to  the  citadel,  as 
Pompey  gave  him  leave  to  do;  and  this  he  did  two 
or  three  times,  as  flattering  himself  with  the  hopes 
of  having  the  kingdom  granted  him;  so  that  lie  still 
pretended  he  would  obey  Pompey  in  whatsoever  he 
commanded,  although  at  the  same  time  he  retired  to 
his  fortress,  that  he  might  not  depress  himself  too 
low,  and  that  he  might  be  prepared  for  a  war,  in 
case  it  should  prove  as  he  feared,  that  Pompey  should 
transfer  the  government  to  Hyrcanus.  But  when 
Pompey  enjoined  Aristobulus  to  deliver  up  the  for- 
tresses he  held,  and  to  send  an  injunction  to  their  gov- 
ernors under  his  own  hand,  for  that  purpose,  for  they 
had  been  forbidden  to  deliver  them  up  upon  any  other 

390  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiv. 

commands,  he  submitted  indeed  to  do  so,  but  still  he 
retired  in  displeasure  to  Jerusalem,  and  made  prep- 
aration for  war.  A  little  after  this,  certain  persons 
came  out  of  Pontus,  and  informed  Pompey,  as  he  was 
on  the  way,  and  conducting  his  army  against  Aristobu- 
lus,  that  INIithridates  was  dead,  and  was  slain  by  his 
son  Pharnaces. 


Hoiv  Pompey,  when  the  citizens  of  Jerusalem  shut 
the  gates  against  him,  besieged  the  city,  and  took 
it  by  force;  as  also  what  other  things  he  did  in 

1.  Now  when  Pompey  had  pitched  his  camp  at 
Jericho,  (where  the  ^  palm-tree  grows,  and  that  bal- 
sam which  is  an  ointment  of  all  the  most  precious, 
which  upon  any  incision  made  in  the  wood  with  a 
sharj)  stone,  distils  out  thence  like  a  juice,)  he 
marched  in  the  morning  to  Jerusalem.  Hereupon 
Aristobulus  repented  of  what  he  was  doing,  and 
came  to  Pompey,  and  [promised  to]  give  him  money, 
and  received  him  into  Jerusalem,  and  desired  that 
he  would  leave  off  the  war,  and  do  what  he  pleased 

'  These  express  testimonies  of  Josephus'  here,  and  Aiitiq.  B.  YITT. 
ch.  vi.  sect.  6,  Vol.  I.  and  B.  XV.  cli.  iv.  sect.  2,  \o\.  II.  that  tlie  only 
balsam  gardens,  and  the  best  ])alm-trees,  were,  at  least  in  his  days,  near 
Jericho  and  Kngaddi,  about  the  north  part  of  the  dead  sea  (whereal)out 
also  Alexander  the  Great  saw  the  balsam  drop,)  show  the  mistake  of 
those  that  understand  Eusebius  and  Jerom,  as  if  one  of  those  gardens 
were  at  the  south  part  of  that  sea,  at  Zoar  or  Segor,  whereas  they  must 
either  mean  another  Zoar  or  Segor,  which  was  between  Jericho  and 
Engaddi,  agreeably  to  .Josephus,  which  yet  they  do  not  appear  to  do, 
or  else  they  directly  contradict  Jose]iluis,  and  were  therein  greatly 
mistaken;  unless  tiiat  balsam  and  the  best  ])alni-trees,  grew  nuich  more 
southward  in  Judea  in  the  days  of  Paisebius  and  Jerom  than  they  did 
in   the   days  of  ■Iose|)luis. 

Chap.  IV.  OF  THE  JEWS.  391 

peaceably.  So  Pompey,  upon  his  entreaty,  forgave 
him:  and  sent  Gabinius,  and  soldiers  with  him,  to 
receive  the  money  and  the  city:  Yet  was  no  part 
of  this  performed,  but  Gabinius  came  back  being 
both  excluded  out  of  the  city,  and  receiving  none 
of  the  money  promised,  because  Aristobulus'  soldiers 
would  not  permit  the  agreements  to  be  executed.  At 
this  Pompey  was  very  angry,  and  put  Aristobulus 
into  prison  and  came  himself  to  the  city,  which  was 
strong  on  every  side,  excepting  the  north,  which  was 
not  so  well  fortified,  for  there  was  ^  a  broad  and 
deep  ditch  that  encompassed  the  city,  and  included 
within  the  temple,  which  was  itself  encompassed  about 
with  a  very  strong  stone  wall. 

2.  Xow  there  was  a  sedition  of  the  men  that 
were  within  the  city,  who  did  not  agree  what  was  to 
be  done  in  their  present  circumstances,  while  some 
thought  it  best  to  deliver  up  the  city  to  Pompey: 
but  Aristobulus'  party  exhorted  them  to  shut  the 
gates,  because  he  was  kept  in  prison.  Now  these 
prevented  the  others  and  seized  upon  the  temple, 
and  cut  off  the  bridge  which  reached  from  it  to 
the  city,  and  j^i'epared  themselves  to  abide  a  siege; 
but  the  others  admitted  Pompey's  army  in,  and 
delivered  up  both  the  city  and  the  king's  palace  to 
him.  So  Pcmipey  sent  his  lieutenant  Piso  with  an 
army,  and  placed  garrisons  both  in  the  city  and  in 
the  palace,  to  secure  them,  and  fortified  the  houses 
that  joined  to  the  temple:  and  all  those  which  were 
more  distant,  and  without  it.  And  in  the  first  place, 
he  offered  terms  of  accommodation  to  those  within, 

'  The  particular  depth  and  breadth  of  this  ditch  whence  the  stones 
for  the  wall  about  the  temple  were  probably  taken,  are  omitted  in  our 
copies  of  Josephus,  but  set  down  by  Strabo,  B,  XVI.  p.  763,  from  whom 
we  learn,  that  this  ditch  was  60  feet  deep,  and  250  feet  broad.  However, 
its  depth  is,  in  the  first  section,  said  by  Josephus  to  be  immense,  which 
exactly  agrees  to  Strabo's  description,  and  which  numbers  in  Strabo  are 
a  strong  confirmation  of  the  truth  of  Josephus'  description  also. 

392  AXTIQUITIES  Book  xiv. 

but  when  they  would  not  comply  with  what  was 
desired,  he  encompassed  all  the  places  thereabout 
with  a  wall,  wherein  Hyrcanus  did  gladly  assist  him 
on  all  occasions,  but  Pompey  pitched  his  camp  w^ithin 
[the  wall,]  on  the  north  part  of  the  temple,  where 
it  was  most  practicable;  but  even  on  that  side  there 
were  great  towers,  and  a  ditch  had  been  dug,  and 
a  deep  valley  begirt  it  round  about,  for  on  the  parts 
towards  the  city  were  precipices,  and  the  bridge  on 
which  Pompey  had  gotten  in,  was  broken  down; 
however,  a  bank  was  raised  day  by  day,  with  a  great 
deal  of  labour,  while  the  Romans  cut  down  ma- 
terials for  it  from  the  places  round  about:  And  when 
this  bank  was  sufficiently  raised  and  the  ditch  filled 
up,  though  but  poorly,  by  reason  of  its  immense 
depth,  he  brought  his  mechanical  engines  and  bat- 
tering rams  from  Tjtc,  and  placing  them  on  the 
bank  he  battered  the  temple  with  the  stones  that 
were  thrown  against  it.  And  had  it  not  been  our 
practice,  from  the  days  of  our  forefathers,  to  rest  on 
the  seventh  day,  this  bank  could  never  have  been 
perfected,  by  reason  of  the  opposition  the  Jews 
would  have  made;  for  though  our  laws  give  us  leave 
then  to  defend  ourselves  against  those  that  began 
to  fight  with  us,  and  assault  us,  yet  it  does  not  permit 
us  to  meddle  with  our  enemies  while  they  do  any 
thing  else. 

3.  Which  thing  when  the  Romans  understood, 
on  those  days  which  we  call  Sabbaths,  they  threw 
nothing  at  the  Jew^s,  nor  came  to  any  pitched  battle 
with  them,  but  raised  up  their  earthen  banks,  and 
brought  their  engines  into  such  forwardness  that 
they  might  do  execution  the  follo^ving  days.  And 
any  one  may  hence  learn  how  very  great  piety  we 
exercise  towards  God,  and  the  observance  of  his 
laws,  since  the  priests  were  not  at  all  hindered  from 

Chap.  IV.  OF  THE  JEWS.  393 

their  sacred  ministrations,  by  their  fear  during  this 
siege,  but  did  still  twice  a-day,  in  the  morning,  and 
about  the  ninth  hour,  offer  their  sacrifices,  on  the 
altar;  nor  did  they  omit  those  sacrifices,  if  any  melan- 
choly accident  happened,  by  the  stones  that  were 
thrown  among  them;  for  although  the  city  was  taken 
on  ^  the  third  month,  on  the  day  of  the  fast,  upon 
the  hundred  seventy-ninth  olympiad,  when  Caius 
Antonius  and  INIarcus  Tullius  Cicero,  were  consuls, 
and  the  enemy  then  fell  upon  them,  and  cut  the 
throats  of  those  that  were  in  the  temple,  yet  could 
not  those  that  offered  the  sacrifice  be  compelled  to 
run  away,  neither  by  the  fear  they  were  in  of  their 
own  lives,  nor  by  the  number  that  were  already  slain, 
as  thinking  it  better  to  suffer  whatever  came  upon 
them,  at  their  very  altars,  than  to  omit  any  thing 
that  their  laws  required  of  them.  And  that  this  is 
not  a  mere  brag,  or  an  encomium  to  manifest  a  de- 
gree of  our  piety  that  was  false,  but  is  the  real  truth; 
I  appeal  to  those  that  have  written  of  the  acts  of 
Pompey:  and  among  them,  to  Strabo  and  Xicolaus 
[of  Damascus;]  and  besides  these  two,  Titus  Livius, 
the  writer  of  the  Roman  history,  who  M'ill  bear  wit- 
ness to  this  thing." 

4.  But  when  the  battering  engine  was  brought 
near,  the  greatest  of  the  towers  was  shaken  by  it, 
and  fell  do^vn,  and  brake  down  a  part  of  the  fortifi- 
cations, so  the  enemy  poured  in  apace,  and  Cornelius 
Faustus,  the  son  of  Sylla,  with  his  soldiers,  first  of 

*  That  is  on  the  23d  of  Sivan,  the  annual  fast  for  the  defection  and 
idolatry  of  Jeroboam,  irho  made  JaracJ  to  sin :  or  possibly  some  other 
fast  might  fall  into  that  month,  before  and  in  the   days  of  Josephus. 

'  It  deserves  here  to  be  noted,  that  this  Pharisaical  superstitions  no- 
tion, that  offensive  fighting  was  unlawful  to  Jews,  even  under  the  ut- 
most necessity,  on  the  Sabbath  day;  of  which  we  hear  nothing  before 
the  times  of  the  Maccabees,  %vas  the  proper  occasion  of  Jerusalem's  being 
taken  by  Pompey,  Sosius,  and  by  Titus,  as  appears  from  the  places  already 
quoted  in   the  note  on   Antiq.   B.   XIII.   ch.  viii.  sect.   1. 

394  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiv. 

all  ascended  the  wall,  and  next  to  him  Furius  the 
centurion,  with  those  that  followed  on  the  other 
part,  while  Fabiiis,  who  was  also  a  centurion,  ascended 
it  in  the  middle,  with  a  great  body  of  men  after 
him.  But  now  all  was  full  of  slaughter;  some  of 
the  Jews  being  slain  by  the  Romans,  and  some  by 
one  another;  nay,  some  there  were  who  threw  them- 
selves down  the  precipices,  or  put  fire  to  their  houses, 
and  burnt  them,  as  not  able  to  bear  the  miseries 
they  were  under.  Of  the  Jews  there  fell  twelve 
thousand,  Init  of  the  Romans  very  few.  Absalom, 
who  was  at  once  both  uncle  and  father-in-law  to  Aris- 
tobulus,  was  taken  captive.  And  no  small  enormities 
were  committed  about  the  temple  itself,  which,  in 
former  ages,  had  been  inaccessible  and  seen  by  none; 
for  Pompey  went  into  it,  and  not  a  few  of  those 
that  were  with  him  also,  and  saw  all  that  which 
it  was  unlawful  for  any  other  men  to  see  but  only 
for  the  high  priests.  There  were  in  that  temple 
the  golden  table,  the  holy  candlestick,  and  the  pour- 
ing vessels,  and  a  great  quantity  of  spices;  and  be- 
sides these  there  were  among  the  treasures  two 
thousand  talents  of  sacred  money;  Yet  ^  did  Pompey 
touch  nothing  of  all  this,  on  account  of  his  regard 
to  religion;  and  in  this  point  also  he  acted  in  a 
manner  that  was  worthy  of  his  virtue.  The  next 
day  he  gave  order  to  those  that  had  the  charge  of 
the  temple  to  cleanse  it,  and  to  bring  what  offerings 
the  law  required  to  God:  and  restored  the  high  priest- 
hood to  Hyrcanus,  both  because  he  had  been  usefid 
to  him  in  other  respects,  and  because  he  hindered 
the  Jews  in  the  country  from  giving  Aristobulus 
any  assistance  in  his  war  against  him.     He  also  cut 

*  This  is  fully  confirmed  by  the  testimony  of  Cicero,  who  says  in 
his  oration  for  Flaccus,  That  "Cneius  Pompeius,  when  he  was  conqueror, 
and  had  taken  Jerusalem,  did  not  touch  any  thing  belonging  to  that 

Chap.  IV.  OF  THE  JEWS.  395 

off  those  that  had  been  the  authors  of  that  war;  and 
bestowed  proper  rewards  on  Faustus,  and  those 
others  that  mounted  the  wall  with  such  alacrity:  and 
he  made  Jerusalem  tributary  to  the  Romans;  and 
took  away  those  cities  of  Coelesyria  which  the  in^ 
habitants  of  Judea  had  subdued,  and  put  them  under 
the  government  of  the  Roman  president,  and  con- 
fined the  whole  nation,  which  had  elevated  itself  so 
high  before,  within  its  own  bounds.  Moreover,  he 
^  rebuilt  Gadara,  which  had  been  demolished  a  little 
before,  to  gratify  Demetrius  of  Gadara,  who  was 
his  freed  man,  and  restored  the  rest  of  the  cities, 
Hippos,  and  Scythopolis,  and  Pella  and  Dios,  and 
Samaria,  as  also  JNIarissa,  and  Ashdod,  and  Jamnia, 
and  Arethusa,  to  their  own  inhabitants:  these  were 
in  the  inland  parts.  Besides  those  that  had  been 
demolished,  and  also  of  the  maritime  cities,  Gaza, 
and  Joppa,  and  Dora,  and  Strato's  Tower;  which 
last  Herod  rebuilt  after  a  glorious  manner,  and 
adorned  with  havens,  and  temples,  and  changed  its 
name  to  Cesarea,  All  these  Pompey  left  in  a  state 
of  freedom,  and  joined  them  to  the  province  of  Syria. 
5.  Now  the  occasions  of  this  misery  which  came 
upon  Jerusalem,  were  Hyrcanus  and  Aristobulus, 
by  raising  a  sedition  one  against  the  other;  for  now 
we  lost  our  liberty,  and  became  subject  to  the  Romans, 
and  were  deprived  of  that  country  which  we  had 
gained  by  our  arms  from  the  Syrians,  and  were 
compelled  to  restore  it  to  the  Syrians.  Moreover, 
the  Romans  exacted  of  us,  in  a  little  time,  above 
ten  thousand  talents.  And  the  royal  authority,  which 
was  a  dignity  formerly  bestowed  on  those  that  were 
high  priests,  by  the  right  of  their  family,  became 
the  property  of  private  men.     But  of  these  matters 

'  Of  this   clestruction  of  Gadara   here  presupposed,   and   its   restoration 
by  Pompey,  see  the  note  On  the  War,  B.  T.  eh.  vii.  sect.  7.  Vol.  Ill, 

396  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiv. 

we  shall  treat  in  their  proper  places.  Now  Pompey 
committed  Coelesyria,  as  far  as  the  river  Euphrates 
and  Egypt,  to  Scaui'us,  with  two  Roman  legions, 
and  then  w^nt  away  to  Cilicia,  and  made  haste  to 
Rome.  He  also  carried  bound  along  with  him 
Aristobulus  and  his  children;  for  he  had  two 
daughters,  and  as  many  sons;  the  one  of  which  ran 
away,  but  the  younger,  Antigonus,  was  carried  to 
Rome,  together  with  his  sisters. 


How  Scaurus  made  a  league  of  mutual  assistance 
with  Aretas.  And  what  Gahinius  did  in  Judea, 
after  he  had  conquered  Alexander  the  son  of  Aris- 

1.  Scaurus  made  now  an  expedition  against 
Petrea,  in  Arabia,  and  set  on  fire  all  the  places  round 
about  it,  because  of  the  great  difficulty  of  access  to 
it.  And  as  his  army  was  pinched  by  famine,  Antip- 
ater  furnished  him  with  corn  out  of  Judea,  and 
with  whatever  else  he  wanted,  and  this  at  the  com- 
mand of  Hyrcanus.  And  when  he  was  sent  to 
Aretas,  as  an  ambassador  by  Scaurus,  because  he 
had  lived  with  him  formerly,  he  persuaded  Aretas 
to  give  Scaurus  a  sum  of  money,  to  prevent  the 
burning  of  his  country;  and  undertook  to  be  his 
surety  for  three  hundred  talents.  So  Scaurus,  upon 
these  terms,  ceased  to  make  war  any  longer:  which 
was  done  as  much  at  Scaurus'  desire,  as  at  the  desire 
of  Aretas. 

2.  Some  time  after  this,  when  Alexander,  the  son 
of  Aristobulus,   made   an   incursion   into   Judea,    Ga- 

Chap.  T.  OF  THE  JEWS.  397 

binius  came  from  Rome  to  Syria,  as  commander 
of  the  Roman  forces.  He  did  many  considerable 
actions:  and  particularly  made  war  with  Alexander, 
since  Hyrcanus  was  not  yet  able  to  oppose  his  power, 
but  was  already  attempting  to  build  the  walls  of 
Jerusalem,  which  Pompey  had  overthrown,  although 
the  Romans,  which  were  there,  restrained  him  from 
that  his  design.  However,  Alexander  went  over  all 
the  country  round  about,  and  armed  many  of  the 
Jews,  and  suddenly  got  together  ten  thousand  armed 
footmen,  and  fifteen  hundred  horsemen,  and  fortified 
Alexandrium,  a  fortress  near  to  Cor^e  and  ]VIacherus, 
near  the  mountains  of  Arabia.  Gabinius  therefore 
came  upon  him,  having  sent  INIarcus  Antonius,  with 
other  commanders  before.  These  armed  such  Romans 
as  followed  them;  and,  together  with  them,  such 
Jews  as  were  subject  to  them,  whose  leaders  were 
Pitholaus  and  JNIahchus,  and  they  took  with  them 
also  their  friends  that  were  with  Antipater,  and  met 
Alexander,  while  Gabinius  himself  followed  with 
his  legion.  Hereupon  Alexander  retired  to  Jeru- 
salem, where  they  fell  upon  one  another,  and  it  came 
to  a  pitched  battle,  in  which  the  Romans  slew  of 
their  enemies  about  three  thousand,  and  took  a  like 
number  alive. 

3.  At  which  time  Gabinius  came  to  Alexandrium, 
and  invited  those  that  were  in  it  to  deliver  it  up  on 
certain  conditions,  and  promised  that  then  their 
former  offences  should  be  forgiven:  But  as  a  great 
number  of  the  enemy  had  pitched  their  camp  before 
the  fortress,  whom  the  Romans  attacked.  JNIarcus 
Antonius  fought  bravely,  and  slew  a  great  number, 
and  seemed  to  come  off  with  the  greatest  honour. 
So  Gabinius  left  part  of  his  army  there,  in  order 
to  take  the  place,  and  he  himself  Mxnt  into  other 
parts   of   Judea,    and   gave   order   to   rebuild    all    the 

398  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiv. 

cities  that  he  met  with  that  had  been  demohshed;  at 
which  time  were  rebuilt  Samaria,  Ashdod,  Scythopohs, 
Anthedon,  Raphia,  and  Dora;  Marissa  also,  and 
Gaza,  and  not  a  few  others  besides.  And  as  the 
men  acted  according  to  Gabinius'  command,  it  came 
to  pass,  that  at  this  time  these  cities  were  securely 
inhabited,  which  had  been  desolate  for  a  long  time. 
4.  When  Gabinius  had  done  thus  in  the  country, 
he  returned  to  Alexandrium;  and  when  he  urged 
on  the  siege  of  the  place,  Alexander  sent  an  em- 
bassage to  him,  desiring  that  he  would  pardon  his 
former  offences;  he  also  delivered  up  the  fortresses, 
Hyrcania  and  JNIacherus;  and  at  last  Alexandrium 
itself,  which  fortresses  Gabinius  demolished.  But 
when  Alexander's  mother,  who  was  of  the  side  of 
the  Romans,  as  having  her  hus])and  and  other  children 
at  Rome,  came  to  him,  he  granted  her  whatsoever 
she  asked;  and  when  he  had  settled  matters  with  her 
he  brought  Hyrganus  to  Jerusalem,  and  committed 
the  care  of  the  temple  to  him:  And  when  he  had 
ordained  five  councils,  he  distributed  the  same  nation 
into  the  same  number  of  parts:  So  these  councils 
governed  the  people;  the  first  was  at  Jerusalem,  the 
second  at  Gadara,  the  third  at  Amathus,  the  fourth 
at  Jericho,  and  the  fifth  in  Sepphoris  in  Galilee. 
So  the  Jews  were  now  freed  from  monarchic  au- 
thority,  and  were  governed   by  an   ^  aristocracy. 

*  Prideaux  well  observes,  "That  notwithstanding  tlie  clamour  against 
Gabinius  at  Rome,  Josephus  gives  him  a  laudable  character,  as  if  he 
had  acquitted  himself  with  honour  in  the  charge  committed  to  him," 
[in   Judea.]     See   at   the   year   55, 

Chap.  VI.  OF  THE  JEWS.  399 


How  Gabinius  caught  Aristohulus  after  he  had  fled 
from  Rome,  and  sent  him  hack  to  Rome  again;  and 
how  the  same  Gabinius,  as  he  returned  out  of  Egijpt, 
overcame  Alejcander  and  the  Nabateans  in  battle. 

1.  Now  Aristobuliis  ran  away  from  Rome  to 
Judea,  and  set  about  the  rebuilding  of  Alexandrium, 
which  had  been  newly  demolished :  Hereupon  Gabinius 
sent  soldiers  against  him,  and  for  their  commanders 
Sisenna,  and  Antonius,  and  Servilius,  in  order  to 
hinder  him  from  getting  possession  of  the  country, 
and  to  take  him  again.  And  indeed  many  of  the 
Jews  ran  to  Aristohulus,  on  account  of  his  former 
glory,  as  also  because  they  should  be  glad  of  an 
innovation.  Xow,  there  was  one  Pitholaus,  a  lieu- 
tenant at  Jerusalem,  who  deserted  to  him  with  a 
thousand  men,  although  a  great  number  of  those 
that  came  to  him  were  unarmed;  and  when  Aris- 
tohulus had  resolved  to  go  to  ^lacherus,  he  dismissed 
those  people,  because  they  were  unarmed,  for  they 
could  not  be  useful  to  him  in  what  actions  they  were 
going  about,  but  he  took  with  him  eight  thousand 
that  were  armed,  and  marched  on:  and  as  the  Romans 
fell  upon  them  severely,  the  Jews  fought  valiantly, 
but  were  beaten  in  the  battle  and  when  they  had 
fought  with  alacrity,  but  were  overborne  by  the 
enemy,  they  were  put  to  flight;  of  whom  were  slain 
about  five  thousand,  and  the  rest  being  dispersed, 
tried  as  well  as  they  were  able,  to  save  themselves. 
However,  Aristohulus  had  with  him  still  above  a 
thousand,  and  with  them  he  fled  to  Macherus  and 
fortified  the  place,  and  though  he  had  had  ill  success, 

400  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiv. 

he  still  had  good  hope  of  his  affairs:  but  when  he 
had  struggled  against  the  siege  for  two  days'  time, 
and  had  received  many  wounds,  he  was  brought  as 
a  captive  to  Gabinius,  with  his  son  Antigonus,  who 
also  fled  with  him  from  Rome.  And  this  was  the 
fortune  of  Aristobulus,  who  was  sent  back  again 
to  Rome,  and  was  there  retained  in  bonds,  having 
been  both  king  and  high  priest  for  three  years  and 
six  months;  and  was  indeed  an  eminent  person  and 
one  of  a  great  soul.  However,  the  senate  let  his 
children  go,  upon  Gabinius'  writing  to  them,  that 
he  had  promised  their  mother  so  much  when  she  de- 
livered up  the  fortresses  to  him;  and  accordingly 
they  then  returned  into  Judea. 

2.  Now  when  Gabinius  was  making  an  expedi- 
tion against  the  Parthians,  and  had  already  passed 
over  Euphrates,  he  changed  his  mind  and  resolved 
to  return  into  Egypt,  in  order  to  ^  restore  Ptolemy 
to  his  kingdom.  This  hath  also  been  related  else- 
where. However,  Antipater  supplied  his  army,  which 
he  sent  against  Archelaus,  with  corn  and  weapons, 
and  money.  He  also  made  those  Jews  who  were 
above  Pelusium,  his  friends  and  confederates,  and 
had  been  the  guardians  of  the  passes  that  led  into 
Egypt.  But  when  he  came  back  out  of  Egypt,  he 
found  Syria  in  disorder,  with  seditions  and  troubles; 
for  Alexander,  the  son  of  Aristobulus,  having  seized 
on  the  government  a  second  time  by  force,  made 
many  of  the  Jews  revolt  to  him,  and  so  he  marched 
over  the  country  with  a  great  army,  and  slew  all 
the  Romans  he  could  light  upon,  and  proceeded  to 
besiege  the  mountain  called  Gerizzim,  whither  they 
had  retreated. 

'  This  history  is  hest  ilhistrated  hy  Dr.  Hudson  out  of  Livy,  who 
says,  "Tliat  A.  (iabinius  the  proconsul,  restored  Ptolemy  to  his  kingdom 
of  Egypt,  and  ejected  Archelaus,  whom  they  had  set  up  for  king,"  etc. 
See  Prid.  at-  the  years  6i  and  65. 

Chap.  Yi.  OF  THE  JEWS.  401 

3.  But  when  Ga})iniu,s  found  Syria  in  such  a 
state,  he  sent  Antipater  who  was  a  prudent  man,  to 
those  that  were  seditious,  to  try  whether  he  could 
cure  them  of  their  madness,  and  persuade  them  to 
return  to  a  better  mind,  and  when  he  came  to  them, 
he  brought  many  of  them  to  a  sound  mind,  and 
induced  them  to  do  what  they  ought  to  do,  but  he 
could  not  restrain  Alexander,  for  he  had  an  army 
of  thirty  thousand  Jews,  and  met  Gabinius,  and 
joining  battle  with  him,  was  beaten,  and  lost  ten 
thousand  of  his  men  about  mount  Tabor. 

4.  So  Gabinius  settled  the  affairs  which  belonged 
to  the  city  Jerusalem,  as  was  agreeable  to  Antipater's 
inclination,  and  went  against  the  Nabateans,  and 
overcame  them  in  battle.  He  also  sent  away  in  a 
friendly  manner  JNIithridates  and  Orsanes,  who  were 
Parthian  deserters,  and  came  to  him,  though  the 
report  went  abroad  that  they  had  run  away  from 
him.  And  when  Gabinius  had  performed  great 
and  glorious  actions,  in  his  management  of  the  affairs 
of  war,  he  returned  to  Rome,  and  delivered  the  gov- 
ernment to  Crassus.  Now,  Xicolaus  of  Damascus, 
and  Strabo  of  Cappadocia,  both  describe  the  ex- 
peditions of  Pompey  and  Gabinius  against  the  Jews, 
while  neither  of  them  say  any  thing  new  which  is 
not  in  the  other. 

402  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiv. 


How  Crassus  came  into  Jiidea,  and  pillaged  the 
temple;  and  then  marched  against  the  Parthians, 
and  perished,  with  his  army.  Also  how  Cassius 
obtained  Syria;  and  put  a  stop  to  the  Parthians, 
and  then  went  up  to  Judea. 

1.  Now  Crassus,  as  he  was  going  upon  his  ex- 
pedition against  the  Parthians,  came  into  Judea, 
and  carried  off  the  money  that  was  in  the  temple, 
which  Pompey  had  left:  being  two  thousand  talents, 
and  was  disposed  to  spoil  it  of  all  the  gold  belonging 
to  it,  which  was  eight  thousand  talents.  He  also 
took  a  beam,  which  was  made  of  solid  beaten  gold, 
of  the  weight  of.  three  hundred  minfe;  each  of  which 
weighed  two  pounds  and  an  half.  It  was  the  priest 
who  was  guardian  of  the  sacred  treasures,  and  whose 
name  was  Eleazar,  that  gave  him  this  beam,  not 
out  of  a  wicked  design,  for  he  was  a  good  and  a 
righteous  man,  but  being  intrusted  with  the  custody 
of  the  veils  belonging  to  the  temple,  which  were  of 
admirable  beauty,  and  of  very  costly  workmanship, 
and  hung  down  from  this  beam,  when  he  saw  that 
Crassus  was  busy  in  gathering  money,  and  was  in  fear 
for  the  entire  ornaments  of  the  temple,  he  gave  him 
this  beam  of  gold  as  a  ransom  for  the  whole,  but 
this  not  till  he  had  given  his  oath  that  he  would 
remove  nothing  else  out  of  the  temple,  but  be  satis- 
fied with  this  only,  which  he  should  give  him,  being 
worth  many  ten  thousand  [shekels.]  Now,  this  beam 
was  contained  in  a  wooden  beam  that  was  hollow; 
but  was  known  to  no  others,  but  Eleazar  alone  knew 
it;  yet  did  Crassus  take  away  this  beam,  upon  the 

Chap.  VII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  403 

condition  of  touching  nothing  else  that  belonged  to 
the  temple,  and  then  brake  his  oath,  and  carried  away 
all  the  gold  that  was  in  the  temple. 

2.  And  let  no  one  wonder  that  there  was  so  much 
wealth  in  our  temple,  since  all  the  Jews  throughout 
the  habitable  earth,  and  those  that  worshipped  God, 
nay,  even  those  of  Asia  and  Europe,  sent  their  con- 
tributions to  it,  and  this  from  very  ancient  times. 
Nor  is  the  largeness  of  these  sums  without  its  attesta- 
tion; nor  is  that  greatness  owing  to  our  vanity,  as 
raising  it  without  ground  to  so  great  a  height:  But 
there  are  many  ^vitnesses  to  it,  and  particularly  Strabo 
of  Cappadocia,  who  says  thus:  "]Mithridates  sent  to 
Cos,  and  took  the  money  which  queen  Cleoj^atra  had 
deposited  there,  as  also  eight  hundred  talents  belong- 
ing to  the  Jews."  Now,  we  have  no  public  money 
but  only  what  appertains  to  God;  and  it  is  evident 
that  the  Asian  Jews  removed  this  money  out  of 
fear  of  JNIithridates,  for  it  is  not  probable  that  those 
of  Judea.  who  had  a  strong  city  and  temple,  should 
send  their  money  to  Cos,  nor  is  it  likely  that  the 
Jews,  who  are  inhabitants  of  Alexandria,  should  do 
so  neither,  since  they  were  in  no  fear  of  iNIithridates. 
And  Strabo  himself  bears  witness  to  the  same  thing 
in  another  place,  that  at  the  same  time  that  Sylla 
passed  over  into  Greece,  in  order  to  fight  against 
Mithridates,  he  sent  Lucullus  to  put  an  end  to  a 
sedition  that  our  nation,  of  whom  the  habitable  earth 
is  full,  had  raised  in  Cyrene;  where  he  speaks  thus: 
"There  were  four  classes  of  men  among  those  of 
Cyrene,  that  of  citizens,  that  of  husbandmen,  the 
third  of  strangers,  and  the  fourth  of  Jews.  Now 
these  Jews  are  already  gotten  into  all  cities,  and  it 
is  hard  to  find  a  place  in  the  habitable  earth  that 
hath  not  admitted  this  tribe  of  men,  and  is  not 
possessed  by  it:  And  it  hath  come  to  pass  that  Egypt 

404  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiv. 

and  Cyrene,  as  having  the  same  governors,  and  a 
great  number  of  other  nations,  imitate  their  way 
of  hving,  and  maintain  great  bodies  of  these  Jews 
in  a  pecuhar  manner,  and  grow  up  to  greater  pros- 
perity with  them,  and  make  use  of  the  same  laws 
with  that  nation  also.  Accordingly  the  Jews  have 
places  assigned  them  in  Egypt,  wherein  they  in- 
habit, besides  what  is  peculiarly  allotted  to  this  nation 
at  Alexandria,  which  is  a  large  part  of  that  city. 
There  is  also  an  ethnarch  allowed  them,  who  governs 
the  nation;  and  distributes  justice  to  them,  and 
takes  care  of  their  contracts,  and  of  the  laws  to  them 
belonging,  as  if  he  were  the  ruler  of  a  free  republic. 
In  Egypt,  therefore,  this  nation  is  powerful,  because 
the  Jews  were  originally  Egyptians,  and  because  the 
land  wherein  they  inhabit,  since  they  went  thence, 
is  near  to  Egypt.  They  also  removed  into  Cyrene, 
because  that  this  land  adjoined  to  the  government 
of  Egypt,  as  well  as  does  Judea,  or  rather  was 
formerly  under  the  same  government."  And  this 
is  what  Strabo  says. 

3.  So  when  Crassus  had  settled  all  things  as  he 
himself  pleased,  he  marched  into  Parthia,  where  both 
he  himself  and  all  his  army  perished,  as  hath  been 
related  elsewhere.  But  Cassius  as  he  fled  from  Rome 
to  Syria,  took  possession  of  it,  and  was  an  impedi- 
ment to  the  Parthians,  who  by  reason  of  their  victory 
over  Crassus,  made  incursions  upon  it:  And  as  lie 
came  back  to  Tyre,  he  went  up  into  Judea  also,  and 
fell  upon  Tarichfe,  and  presently  took  it,  and  carried 
about  thirty  thousand  Jews  captives;  and  slew  Pitho- 
laus,  who  succeeded  Aristobulus  in  his  seditious 
practices,  and  that  by  the  persuasion  of  Antipater, 
who  proved  to  have  great  interest  in  him,  and  was 
at  that  time  in  great  repute  with  the  Idumeans  also: 
Out   of   which   nation   he   married    a    wife,    who    was 

Chap.  VII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  405 

the  daughter  of  one  of  their 'eminent  men,  and  her 
name  was  ^  Cypros,  by  whom  he  had  four  sons, 
Phasael,  and  Herod,  who  was  afterwards  made  king, 
and  Joseph,  and  Pheroras;  and  a  daughter  named 
Salome.  This  Antipater  cultivated  also  a  friendship 
and  mutual  kindness  with  other  potentates  but  es- 
pecially with  the  king  of  Arabia,  to  whom  he  com- 
mitted his  children,  while  he  fought  against  Aris- 
tobulus.  So  Cassius  removed  his  camp,  and  marched 
to  Euphrates,  to  meet  those  that  were  coming  to 
attack  him,  as  hath  been  related  by  others. 

4.  But  some  time  afterward,  Citsar,  when  he  had 
taken  Rome,  and  after  Pompey  and  the  senate  were 
fled  beyond  the  Ionian  sea,  freed  Aristobulus  from 
his  bonds,  and  resolved  to  send  him  into  Syria,  and 
delivered  two  legions  to  him,  that  he  might  see 
matters  right,  as  being  a  potent  man  in  that  country: 
But  Aristobulus  had  no  enjoyment  of  what  he  hoped 
for  from  the  power  that  was  given  him  by  Casar, 
for  those  of  Pompey's  party  prevented  it,  and  de- 
stroyed him  by  j)oison,  and  those  of  Caesar's  party 
buried  him.  His  dead  body  also  lay,  for  a  good 
while,  embalmed  in  honey,  till  Antony  afterward 
sent  it  to  Judea,  and  caused  him  to  be  buried  in 
the  royal  sepulchre.  But  Scipio,  upon  Pompey's 
sending  to  him  to  slay  Alexander,  the  son  of  Aris- 
tobulus, because  the  young  man  was  accused  of 
what  offences  he  had  been  guilty  of  at  first  against 
the  Romans,  cut  off  his  head;  and  thus  did  he  die 
at  Antioch.  But  Ptolemy,  the  son  of  ^lenneus,  who 
was  the  ruler  of  Chalcis,  under  mount  Libanus,  took 
his  brethren  to  him,  and  sent  his  son  Philippion  to 
Askelon    to    Aristobulus'    wife,    and    desired    her    to 

^  Dr.  Hudson  observes,  that  the  name  of  this  wife  of  Antipater's  in 
Josephus  was  Cypras,  as  an  Hebrew  termination,  Ijut  not  Ci/pris,  the 
Greek  name   for   Venus,   as   some  critics   were   ready   to   correct  it. 

406  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiv. 

send  back  witli  liim  her  son  Antigonus,  and  her 
daughters:  The  one  of  which,  whose  name  was  Alecc- 
andra,  Phihppion  fell  in  love  with  and  married  her, 
though  afterward  his  father  Ptolemy  slew  him,  and 
married  Alexandra,  and  continued  to  take  care  of 
her  brethren. 


The  Jews  become  confederates  with  Cccsar  when  he 
fought  against  Egypt.  The  glorious  actions  of 
Antipater,  and  his  friendship  with  Ccesar.  The 
honours  which  the  Jews  received  from  the  Romans 
and  Athenians. 

1.  Xow  after  Pompey  was  dead,  and  after  that 
victory  Caesar  had  gained  over  him,  Antipater,  who 
managed  the  Jewish  affairs,  became  very  useful  to 
Ca?sar  when  he  made  war  against  Egypt,  and  that 
by  the  order  of  Hyrcanus:  For  when  Mithridates 
of  Pergamus  was  bringing  his  auxiliaries,  and  was 
not  able  to  continue  his  march  through  Pelusium, 
but  obliged  to  stay  at  Askelon,  Antipater  came  to 
him,  conducting  three  thousand  of  the  Jews,  armed 
men:  He  had  also  taken  care  the  principal  men  of 
the  Arabians  should  come  to  his  assistance;  and  on 
his  account  it  was  that  all  the  Syrians  assisted  him 
also,  as  not  willing  to  appear  ])ehindhand  in  their 
alacrity  for  Caesar,  viz.  Jamblicus  the  ruler,  and 
Ptolemy  his  son,  and  Tholomy  the  son  of  Sohemus, 
who  dwelt  at  mount  Libanus,  and  almost  all  the 
cities.  So  ]\Iithridates  marched  out  of  Syria,  and 
came  to  I'elusiimi;  and  when  its  inhabitants  would 
not   admit    liim,    he   besieged    the   city.     Xow   Antip- 

Chap.  VIII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  407 

ater  signalized  himself  here,  and  was  the  first  who 
plucked  down  a  part  of  the  wall,  and  so  opened  a 
way  to  the  rest,  whereby  they  might  enter  the  city, 
and  by  this  means  Pelusium  was  taken:  but  it  hap- 
pened that  the  Egyptian  Jews,  who  dwelt  in  the 
country  called  Onion,  would  not  let  Antipater  and 
Mithridates,  with  their  soldiers,  pass  to  C^sar,  but 
Antipater  jDcrsuaded  them  to  come  over .  to  their 
party,  because  he  was  of  the  same  people  with  them, 
and  that  chiefly  by  showing  them  the  epistles  of 
Hyrcanus  the  high  priest,  wherein  he  exhorted  them 
to  cultivate  friendship  with  Cjusar,  and  to  supply 
his  army  with  money,  and  all  sorts  of  provisions 
which  they  wanted:  and  accordingly,  when  they  saw 
Antipater  and  the  high  priest  of  the  same  senti- 
ments, they  did  as  they  were  desired.  And  when 
the  Jews  about  JNlemphis  heard  that  these  Jews 
were  come  over  to  Cccsar,  they  also  invited  Mith- 
ridates to  come  to  them;  so  he  came  and  received 
them  also  into  his  army. 

2.  And  when  jNIithridates  had  gone  over  all 
Delta,  as  the  place  is  called,  he  came  to  a  pitched 
battle  with  the  enemy,  near  the  place  called  the 
Jewish  camp.  Now  Mithridates  had  the  right  wing, 
and  Antipater  the  left;  and  when  it  came  to  a  fight 
that  wing  where  JNIithridates  was  gave  way,  and 
was  likely  to  suffer  extremely,  unless  Antipater  had 
come  running  to  him  with  his  own  soldiers  along 
the  shore,  when  he  had  already  beaten  the  enemy 
that  opposed  him:  so  he  delivered  Mithridates,  and 
put  those  Egyptians,  who  had  been  too  hard  for 
him,  to  flight.  He  also  took  their  camp,  and  con- 
tinued in  the  pursuit  of  them.  He  also  recalled 
Mithridates,  who  had  been  worsted,  and- was  retired 
a  great  way  off;  of  whose  soldiers  eight  hundred 
fell,    but   of   Antipater 's    fifty.     So   Mithridates    sent 

408  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiv. 

an  account  of  this  battle  to  Caesar,  and  openly  de- 
clared, that  Antipater  was  the  author  of  his  victory, 
and  of  his  own  preservation,  insomuch  that  Ctesar 
commended  Antipater  then,  and  made  use  of  him 
all  the  rest  of  that  war  in  the  most  hazardous  under- 
takings; he  happened  also  to  be  wounded  in  one 
of  those  engagements. 

3.  However,  when  Ca?sar,  after  some  time,  had 
finished  that  war,  and  was  sailed  away  for  Syria,  he 
honoured  Antipater  greatly,  and  confirmed  Hyrcanus 
in  the  high  priesthood;  and  bestowed  on  Antipater 
the  privilege  of  a  citizen  of  Rome,  and  a  freedom 
from  taxes  every  where:  and  it  is  reported  by  many, 
that  Hyrcanus  went  along  with  Antipater  in  this 
expedition,  and  came  himself  into  Egypt.  And 
Strabo  of  Cappadocia  bears  witness  to  this,  when  he 
says  thus,  in  the  name  of  Asinius:  "After  Mithridates 
had  invaded  Egypt,  and  with  him  Hyrcanus  the  high 
priest  of  the  Jews."  Nay,  the  same  Strabo  says 
thus  again,  in  another  place,  in  the  name  of  Hyp- 
sicrates,  that  "Mithridates  at  first  went  out  alone, 
but  that  Antipater,  who  had  the  care  of  the  Jewish 
affairs,  was  called  by  him  to  Askelon,  and  that  he 
had  gotten  ready  three  thousand  soldiers  to  go  along 
with  him,  and  encouraged  other  governors  of  the 
country  to  go  along  with  him  also ;  and  that  Hyrcanus 
the  high  priest  was  also  present  in  this  expedition." 
This   is  what   Strabo   says. 

4.  But  Antigonus,  the  son  of  Aristobulus,  came 
at  this  time  to  Csesar,  and  "lamented  his  father's 
fate:  and  complained  that  it  was  by  Antipater's 
means  that  Aristobulus  was  taken  oif  by  poison, 
and  his  brother  was  beheaded  by  Scipio,  and  desired 
that  he  woidd  take  pity  of  him  who  had  been  ejected 
out  of  that  ])rincipa]ity  which  was  due  to  him."  He 
also   accused   Hyrcanus   and   Antipater   as   governing 

Chap.  VIII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  409 

the  nation  by  violence,  and  offering  injuries  to  him. 
Antipater  was  present,  and  made  his  defence  as  to 
the  accusations  that  were  laid  against  him.  He 
demonstrated,  that  "Antigonus  and  his  party  were 
given  to  innovation,  and  were  seditious  persons.  He 
also  put  Cffisar  in  mind  what  difficult  services  he  had 
undergone,  when  he  assisted  him  in  his  wars,  and 
discoursed  about  what  he  was  a  witness  of  himself. 
He  added,  that  Aristobulus  was  justly  carried  away 
to  Rome,  as  one  that  was  an  enemy  to  the  Romans, 
and  could  never  be  brought  to  be  a  friend  to  them, 
and  that  his  brother  had  no  more  than  he  deserved 
from  Scipio,  as  being  seized  in  committing  robberies; 
and  that  this  punishment  was  not  inflicted  on  him 
in  a  way  of  violence  or  injustice  by  him  that  did  it." 
5.  When  Antipater  had  made  this  speech,  Cfesar 
appointed  Hyrcanus  to  be  high  priest;  and  gave 
Antipater  what  principality  he  himself  should  choose, 
leaving  the  determination  to  himself:  So  he  made 
him  procurator  of  Judea.  He  also  gave  Hyrcanus 
leave  to  raise  up  the  walls  of  his  own  city,  upon  his 
asking  that  favour  of  him,  for  they  had  been  demol- 
ished by  Pompey.  And  this  grant  he  sent  to  the 
consuls  to  Rome,  to  be  engraven  in  the  capitol.  The 
^  decree  of  the  senate  was  this  that  follows:  "Lucius 
Valerius,  the  son  of  Lucius  the  pretor,  referred  this 
to   the   senate,   upon   the   ides   of   December,    in   the 

*  Take  Dr.  Hudson's  note  upon  this  place,  which  T  suppose  to  be 
the  truth:  "Here  Is  some  mistake  in  Josephus:  for  when  he  had  promised 
us  a  decree  for  the  restoration  of  Jerusalem,  he  brings  in  a  decree  of 
far  greater  antiquity,  and  that  a  league  of  friendship  and  union  only. 
One  may  easily  believe  that  Josephus  gave  order  for  one  thing,  and 
his  amanuensis  performed  another,  by  transposing  decrees  that  con- 
cerned the  Hyrcani,  and  as  deluded  by  the  sameness  of  their  names, 
for  that  belongs  to  the  first  high  priest  of  this  name,  (John  Hyrcanus,) 
which  Josephus  here  ascribes  to  one  that  lived  later,  (Hyrcanus  the 
son  of  Alexander  Janneus.)  However,  the  decree  which  he  proposes 
to  set  down  follows  a  little  lower,  in  the  collection  of  Roman  decrees, 
that  concerned  the  Jews,  and  is  that  dated  when  Caesar  was  consul  the 
fifth  time."     See  ch.  x.  sect.  5. 

410  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiv. 

temple  of  Concord.  There  were  present  at  the  writ- 
ing of  this  decree  Lucius  Coponius,  the  son  of  Lu- 
cius of  the  CoUine  tribe,  and  Pepirius  of  the  Quirine 
tribe,  concerning  the  affairs  v/hich  Alexander  the 
son  of  Jason,  and  Xumenius  the  son  of  Antiochus, 
and  Alexander  the  son  of  Dositheus,  ambassadors  of 
the  Jews,  good  and  worth\^  men,  proposed,  who  came 
to  renew  that  league  of  good-will  and  friendship 
with  the  Romans  which  was  in  being  before.  They 
also  brought  a  shield  of  gold,  as  a  mark  of  con- 
federacy, valued  at  fifty  thousand  pieces  of  gold; 
and  desired  that  letters  might  be  given  them,  directed 
both  to  the  free  cities  and  to  the  kings,  that  their 
country  and  their  haAxns  might  be  at  peace,  and 
that  no  one  among  them  might  receive  any  injury. 
It  therefore  pleased  [the  senate]  to  make  a  league 
of  friendship  and  good-will  with  them,  and  to  bestow 
on  them  whatsoever  they  stood  in  need  of,  and  to 
accept  of  the  shield  which  was  brought  by  them. 
This  was  done  in  the  ninth  year  of  Hyrcanus  the 
high  priest  and  ethnarch,  in  the  month  Panemus." 
Hyrcanus  also  received  honours  from  the  people 
of  Athens,  as  having  been  useful  to  them  on  many 
occasions.  And  when  they  wrote  to  him  they  sent 
him  this  decree,  as  it  here  follows:  "Under  the  Pru- 
taneia  and  priesthood  of  Dionysius,  the  son  of  Escu- 
lapius,  on  the  fifth  day  of  the  latter  part  of  the 
month  Panemus,  this  decree  of  the  Athenians  was 
given  to  their  commanders,  when  Agathocles  was 
archon,  and  Eucles,  the  son  of  Menander  of  Alimusia, 
was  the  scribe.  In  the  month  JMunychion,  on  the 
eleventh  day  of  the  Prutaneia,  a  council  of  the 
presidents  was  held  in  the  theatre.  Dorotheus  the 
high  priest,  and  the  fellow  presidents  with  him,  2)iit 
it  to  the  vote  of  the  people.  Dionysius,  the  son  of 
Dionysius,  gave  the  sentence;   Since   Hyrcanus,   the 

Chap.  VIII.  OF  THE  JEWS.  411 

son  of  Alexander,  the  high  priest  and  ethnarch  of 
the  Jews,  continues  to  bear  good- will  to  our  people 
in  general,  and  to  every  one  of  our  citizens  in  par- 
ticular, and  treats  them  with  all  sorts  of  kindness; 
and  when  any  of  the  Athenians  come  to  him,  either 
as .  ambassadors,  or  on  any  occasion  of  their  own, 
he  receives  them  in  an  ^obliging  manner,  and  sees 
that  they  are  conducted  back  in  safety,  of  which  we 
have  had  several  former  testimonies,  it  is  now  also 
decreed,  at  the  report  of  Theodosius,  the  son  of 
Theodorus,  and  upon  his  putting  the  people  in  mind 
of  the  virtue  of  this  man,  and  that  his  purpose  is 
to  do  us  all  the  good  that  is  in  his  j)o^ver,  to  honour 
him  with  a  crown  of  gold,  the  usual  reward  accord- 
ing to  the  law,  and  to  erect  his  statue  in  brass  in 
the  temple  of  Demus,  and  of  the  graces;  and  that 
this  present  of  a  crown  shall  be  proclaimed  publicly 
in  the  theatre,  in  the  Dionysian  shows,  while  the  new 
tragedies  are  acting;  and  in  the  Panathenean,  and 
Eleusinian,  and  Gymnical  shows  also;  and  that  the 
commanders  shall  take  care,  while  he  continues  in 
his  friendship,  and  preserves  his  good-will  to  us,  to 
return  all  possible  honour  and  favour  to  the  man 
for  his  affection  and  generosity;  that  by  this  treat- 
ment it  may  appear  how  our  people  receive  the  good 
kindly;  and  repay  them  a  suitable  reward;  and  he 
may  be  induced  to  proceed  in  his  affection  towards 
us,  by  the  honours  we  have  already  paid  him.  That 
ambassadors  be  also  chosen  out  of  all  the  Athenians, 
who  shall  carry  this  decree  to  him,  and  desire  him 
to  accept  of  the  honours  we  do  him,  and  to  endeavour 
always  to  be  doing  some  good  to  our  city."  And 
this  shall  suffice  us  to  have  spoken  as  to  the  honours 
that  were  paid  by  the  Romans  and  the  people  of 
A-thens  to  H^Tcanus. 

412  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiv. 


How  Antipater  committed  the  care  of  Galilee  to 
Herod,  and  that  of  Jerusalem  to  Phasaelus;  as  also, 
how  Herod,  upon  the  Jews'  envy  at  Antipater, 
was  accused  before  Hyrcanus. 

1.  Now  when  C^sar  had  settled  the  affairs  of 
Syria,  he  sailed  away;  And  as  soon  as  Antipater 
had  conducted  Caesar  out  of  Syria,  he  returned  to 
Judea.  He  then  immediately  raised  up  the  wall 
which  had  been  thrown  down  by  Pompey  and,  by 
coming  thither,  he  pacified  that  tumult  which  had 
been  in  the  country;  and  this  by  both  threatening 
and  advising  them  to  be  quiet:  For  that  "If  they 
would  be  of  Hyrcanus'  side,  they  would  live  happily, 
and  lead  their  lives  without  disturbance,  in  the  en- 
joyment of  their  own  possessions;  but  if  they  were 
addicted  to  the  hopes  of  what  might  come  by  inno- 
vation, and  aimed  to  get  wealth  thereby,  they  should 
have  him  a  severe  master,  instead  of  a  gentle  gov- 
ernor, and  Hyrcanus  a  tyrant,  instead  of  a  king, 
and  the  Romans,  together  with  Ca?sar,  their  bit- 
ter enemies,  instead  of  rulers,  for  that  they  would 
never  bear  him  to  be  set  aside  whom  they  had  ap- 
pointed to  govern."  And  when  Antipater  had  said 
this  to  them,  he  himself  settled  the  affairs  of  this 

2.  And  seeing  that  Hyrcanus  was  of  a  slow  and 
slothful  temper,  he  made  Phasaelus,  his  eldest  son, 
governor  of  Jerusalem,  and  of  the  places  that  were 
about  it,  but  committed  Galilee  to  Herod,  his  next 
son,   wlio   was   then   a   very   young   man,   for   he   was 

Chap.  IX.  OF  THE  JEWS.  413 

but  ^  fifteen  years  of  age:  But  that  youth  of  his 
was  no  mipediment  to  him;  but  as  he  was  a  youth 
of  great  mind,  he  presently  met  with  an  opportunity 
of  signahzing  his  courage;  for  finding  that  there 
was  one  Hezekias,  a  captain  of  a  band  of  robbers, 
who  overran  the  neighbouring  parts  of  Syria,  witli  a 
great  troop  of  them,  he  seized  him,  and  slew  him, 
as  well  as  a  great  number  of  the  other  robbers  that 
were  with  him;  for  which  action  he  was  greatly 
beloved  by  the  Syrians;  for  when  they  were  very 
desirous  to  have  their  country  freed  from  this  nest 
of  robbers,  he  purged  it  of '  them :  So  they  sung 
songs  in  his  commendation,  in  their  villages  and 
cities,  as  having  procured  them  peace,  and  the  secure 
enjoyment  of  their  possessions,  and  on  this  account 
it  was  that  he  became  known  to  Sextus  Caesar,  who 
was  a  relation  of  the  great  Caesar's,  and  was  now 
president  of  Syria.  Now  Phasaelus,  Herod's  brother, 
was  moved  with  emulation  at  his  actions,  and  envied 
the  fame  he  had  thereby  gotten,  and  became  am- 
bitious not  to  be  behindhand  with  him  in  deserving 
it:  So  he  made  the  inhabitants  of  Jerusalem  bear 
him  the  greatest  good-will,  while  he  held  the  city 
himself,  but  did  neither  manage  its  affairs  im- 
properly, nor  abuse  his  authority  therein.  This  con- 
duct procured  from  the  nation  to  Antipater  such 
respect  as  is  due  to  kings,  and  such  honours  as  he 
might  partake  of  if  he  were  an  absolute  lord  of 
the  country.  Yet  did  not  this  sj)lendour  of  his, 
as   frequently  happens,   in  the  least  diminish   in  him 

^  Those  who  will  carefully  observe  the  several  occasional  numbers  and 
chronological  characters  in  the  life  and  death  of  this  Herod,  and  of  his 
children,  hereafter  noted,  will  see,  that  tirenty-five  years,  and  not  fifteen, 
must  for  certain  have  been  here  Josephus'  own  number  for  the  age  of 
Herod,  when  he  was  made  governor  of  Galilee.  See  ch.  xxiii.  sect.  5, 
and  ch.  xxiv.  sect.  7,  and  particularly  Antiq.  B.  XVII.  ch.  viii.  sect.  1. 
Vol.  HI.  where  about  44  years  afterwards  Herod  dies  an  old  man  at 
about    70. 

414  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiv. 

that  kindness  and  fidelity  whicli  he  owed  to  Hyrcanus. 
3.  But  now  the  principal  men  among  the  Jews, 
when  they  saw  Antipater  and  his  sons  to  grow  so 
much  in  the  good-will  the  nation  bare  to  them,  and 
in  the  revenues  which  they  received  out  of  Judea, 
and  out  of  Hyrcanus'  own  wealth,  they  became  ill 
disposed  to  him:  for  indeed  Antipater  had  contracted 
a  friendship  with  the  Roman  emperors:  and  when 
he  had  prevailed  with  Hyrcanus  to  send  them  money, 
he  took  it  to  himself,  and  purloined  the  present  in- 
tended, and  sent  it  as  if  it  were  his  own,  and  not 
Hyrcanus'  gift  to  them.  Hyrcanus  heard  of  this 
his  management,  but  took  no  care  about  it:  nay, 
he  rather  was  very  glad  of  it:  But  the  chief  men 
of  the  Jews  were  therefore  in  fear,  because  they  saw 
that  Herod  was  a  violent  and  bold  man,  and  very 
desirous  of  acting  tyrannically;  so  they  came  to 
Hyrcanus,  and  now  accused  Antipater  openly,  and 
said  to  him,  "How  long  wilt  thou  be  quiet  under 
such  actions  as  are  now  done^  Or  doest  thou  not 
see  that  Antipater  and  his  sons  have  already  seized 
upon  the  government?  And  that  it  is  only  the  name 
of  a  king  which  is  given  thee^  But  do  not  thou 
suffer  these  things  to  be  hidden  from  thee;  nor  do 
thou  think  to  escape  danger,  by  being  so  careless 
of  thyself  and  of  thy  kingdom,  for  Antipater  and 
his  sons  are  not  now  stewards  of  thine  affairs:  do 
not  thou  deceive  thyself  with  such  a  notion,  they 
are  evidently  absolute  lords,  for  Herod,  Antipater's 
son,  hath  slain  Hezekiah  and  those  that  were  with 
him,  and  liath  thereby  transgressed  our  law,  which 
hath  forbidden  to  slay  any  man,  even  though  he 
were   a  wicked  man,  unless  he   had   been   first   ^  con- 

*  It  is  here  worth  our  while  to  remark,  that  none  could  he  put  to 
death  in  Judea,  hut  hy  the  ap)irol)ati«n  of  the  Jewish  sanhedrim,  there 
beinj^   an    excellent   ])rovi.sion    in    the   law   of   Moses,   that   even    in    criminal 

Chap.  IX.  OF  THE  JEWS.  415 

demned  to  suffer  death  by  the  sanhedrim;  yet  liath 
he  been  so  insolent  as  to  do  this,  and  that  without 
any  authority  from  thee." 

4.  Upon  Hyrcanus'  hearing  this,  he  comphed 
with  them.  The  mothers  also  of  those  that  had 
been  slain  by  Herod  raised  this  indignation;  for 
those  women  continued  every  day  in  the  temple, 
persuading  the  king  and  the  people,  that  Herod 
might  undergo  a  trial  before  the  sanhedrim  for  what 
he  had  done.  Hp'canus  was  so  moved  by  these 
complaints,  that  he  summoned  Herod  to  come  to 
his  trial,  for  what  was  charged  upon  him.  Accord- 
ingly he  came:  but  his  father  had  persuaded  him 
to  come  not  like  a  private  man,  but  with  a  guard, 
for  the  security  of  his  person;  and  that  when  he 
had  settled  the  affairs  of  Galilee  in  the  best  manner 
he  could  for  his  own  advantage,  he  should  come  to 
his  trial,  but  still  with  a  body  of  men  sufficient  for 
his  security  on  his  journey,  yet  so  that  he  should 
not  come  w^ith  so  great  a  force  as  might  look  like 
terrifying  Hyrcanus,  but  still  such  a  one  as  might 
not  expose  him  naked  and  imguarded  [to  his  en- 
emies.] However,  Sextus  Cfesar,  president  of  Syria, 
wrote  to  Hyrcanus,  and  desired  him  to  clear  Herod, 
and  dismiss  him  at  his  trial,  and  threatened  him 
beforehand,  if  he  did  not  do  it.  Which  epistle  of 
his  was  the  occasion  of  Hp'canus'  delivering  Herod 
from  suffering  any  harm  from  the  sanhedrim,  fol* 
he  loved  him  as  his  own  son.  But  when  Herod  stood 
before  the  sanhedrim  with  his  body  of  men  about 
him,  he  affrighted  them  all,  and  no  one  of  his  former 
accusers  durst  after  that  bring  any  charge  against 
him,  but  there  was  a  deep  silence,  and  nobody  knew 

causes,  and  particularly  where  life  was  concerned,  an  appeal  should 
lie  from  the  lesser  councils  of  seven  in  the  other  cities,  to  the  supreme 
council  of  seventv-one  at  Jerusalem. 

416  ANTIQUITIES  Book  xiv. 

what  was  to  be  done.  When  affairs  stood  thus,  one 
whose  name  was  ^  Semeas,  a  righteous  man  he  was, 
and  for  that  reason  above  all  fear,  who  rose  up,  and 
said,  "O  you  that  are  assessors  with  me,  and  O  thou 
that  art  our  king,  I  neither  have  ever  myself  known 
such  a  case,  nor  do  I  suppose  that  any  of  you  can 
name  its  parallel,  that  one  who  is  called  to  take  his 
trial  by  us  ever  stood  in  such  a  manner  before  us; 
but  every  one  whosoever  he  be,  that  comes  to  be 
tried  by  this  sanhedrim,  presents  himself  in  a  sub- 
missive manner,  and  like  one  that  is  in  fear  of  him- 
self, and  that  endeavours  to  move  us  to  compassion, 
with  his  hair  dishevelled,  and  in  a  black  mourning 
garment:  but  this  admirable  man  Herod,  who  is 
accused  of  murder,  and  called  to  answer  so  heavy  an 
accusation,  stands  here  clothed  in  purple,  and  with 
the  hair  of  his  head  finely  trimmed,  and  with  his 
armed  men  about  him,  that  if  we  shall  condemn  him 
by  our  law,  he  may  slay  us,  and  by  overbearing 
justice,  may  himself  escape  death.  Yet  do  not  I 
make  this  complaint  against  Herod  himself:  he  is 
to  be  sure  more  concerned  for  himself  than  for  the 
laws;  but  my  complaint  is  against  yourselves,  and 
your  king,  who  gave  him  a  license  so  to  do.  How- 
ever, take  you  notice,  that  God  is  great,  and  that 
this  very  man,  whom  you  are  going  to  absolve  and 
dismiss,  for  the  sake  of  Hyrcanus,  will  one  day 
punish  both  you  and  your  king  himself  also."  Nor 
did  Semeas  mistake  in  any  part  of  this  prediction; 
for  when  Herod  had  received  the  kingdom,  he  slew 
all  the  members  of  this  sanhedrim,  and  Hyrcanus 
himself  also,  excepting  Semeas,  for  he  had  a  grea